Marcelino dos Santos

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Marcelino dos Santos (born 20 May 1929, Lumbo) is a Mozambican poet, revolutionary, and statesman. As a young man he travelled to Portugal, and Paris, France for an education. He was a founding member of the Frente de Libertacao de Mocambique (FRELIMO—Mozambican Liberation Front), in 1962; and served as the party's deputy president from 1969 to 1977. He was Minister of Economic Development in the late 1970s, Frelimo Political Bureau member in charge of the economy in the early 1980s, Chairman of the country's parliament, the Assembly of the Republic, from 1987 to 1994, and, as of 1999, remains a member of the Frelimo Central Committee. He represents the left wing of the party, remaining an avowed Marxist-Leninist, despite the party's embracement of capitalism in recent decades—an embracement which dos Santos declares is temporary.[1] He says that the "retreat" to capitalism was necessary in order to receive Western help in dealing with the RENAMO incursion and Civil War.

Under the pseudonyms Kalungano and Lilinho Micaia, he published poems in O Brado Africano, and his work appeared in two anthologies produced by the Casa dos Estudantes do Imperio in Lisbon. Under his real name, he had a book published by the Associacao dos Escritores Mocambicanos (Mozambican Writers' Association) in 1987, entitled Canto do Amor Natural.

Marcelino dos Santos is the son of Firmindo dos Santos and Teresa Sabino dos Santos. He was raised in Lourenço Marques, Portuguese Mozambique (now Maputo, Mozambique). His father was politically active: a member of the African Association of Mozambique. Marcelino left Mozambique in 1947 to continue his education at the Industrial Institute in Lisbon - the Instituto Industrial de Lisboa. At the Casa dos Estudantes do Imperio (House for Students of the Empire) he rubbed shoulders with others destined to become leaders of the independence movement in the Portuguese colonies—such as Amílcar Cabral (Guinea-Bissau), Agostinho Neto (Angola), and Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique). By 1950, with Neto arrested and Mondlane departed for the United States, dos Santos had relocated along with several others to Paris. There he lived with writers and artists associated with the literary magazine Présence Africaine. Under the pen-name Lilinho Micaia, a collection of his poetry was published in the Soviet Union.

He was instrumental in the formation of the Anti-Colonial Movement (MAC) in Paris in 1957. He joined the Paris branch of the Uniao Democratica Nacional de Mocambique (UDENAMO), one of the nationalist groups that would later merge to form FRELIMO. He was involved in the founding of the Conference of Nationalist Organizations of the Portuguese Colonies (CONCP) at Casablanca in April 1961, elected permanent secretary in charge of coordinating nationalist activity. He was skilled at communicating the aims of the CONCP to an international audience. After the founding of FRELIMO in 1962, in which dos Santos was also involved, he increasingly devoted his energies to that organisation. By 1964 he was FRELIMO's secretary for external affairs, invaluable to the party for his communication skills which he employed, for example, in his addresses before the Organization of African Unity, the Afro-Asian Solidarity Conference, and the United Nations. After Mondlane's assassination, dos Santos was elected to the three-person Presidency council, with Uria Simango and Samora Machel, which guided the party through the subsequent difficult period. In 1970, when Machel assumed the sole presidency, dos Santos became vice-president.


Marcelino dos Santos, Samora Machel, next to the captives Paulo Gumane and Uria Simango in Nachingwea on May 11, 1975, prior to hearing Simango's forced confession on the next day. Simango and Gumane were both subsequently liquidated. Mozambique's lost opposition[edit]


Marcelino dos Santos, Samora Machel, next to the captives Paulo Gumane and Uria Simango in Nachingwea on May 11, 1975, prior to hearing Simango's forced confession on the next day. Simango and Gumane were both subsequently liquidated. Mozambique's lost opposition[edit]

The exact circumstances and motivation for the wholesale liquidation of the PCN in the late 1970s and early 1980s has never been officially investigated by the post-1994 Mozambican authorities. The Rev. Simango had no connection with RENAMO having been imprisoned before its formation. It is also doubtful, given his pacifist leanings that he would have supported the abuses of civilians during that very brutal insurrection. He may nevertheless have been perceived by FRELIMO as a dangerous rallying point. This view is espoused by Rothwell in 2004 [7] "Dos Santos, a man loathed by Mondlane became vice-president. Simango was later captured, interned and then secretly executed in October 1979, an execution ordered by FRELIMO to prevent him being used as a figurehead by the then emergent rebel movement RENAMO. For many years the Frelimo government did not acknowledge the extrajudicial killing of its former members and even led his relatives to believe that he was still alive". Brief comments on the executions, in the context of human rights violation in this period in Mozambique, appear also in Maier 1992 .[8] President Samora Machel died in 1986. Few members of the 1975-1986 regime have commented publicly on the death of Simango; one notable exception is the hardliner vice-President Marcelino dos Santos who has spoken quite forthrightly; in a TV interview in 2005 he The exact circumstances and motivation for the wholesale liquidation of the PCN in the late 1970s and early 1980s has never been officially investigated by the post-1994 Mozambican authorities. The Rev. Simango had no connection with RENAMO having been imprisoned before its formation. It is also doubtful, given his pacifist leanings that he would have supported the abuses of civilians during that very brutal insurrection. He may nevertheless have been perceived by FRELIMO as a dangerous rallying point. This view is espoused by Rothwell in 2004 [7] "Dos Santos, a man loathed by Mondlane became vice-president. Simango was later captured, interned and then secretly executed in October 1979, an execution ordered by FRELIMO to prevent him being used as a figurehead by the then emergent rebel movement RENAMO. For many years the Frelimo government did not acknowledge the extrajudicial killing of its former members and even led his relatives to believe that he was still alive".

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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mozambique News Agency, 24 May 1999.