Marcello Ferrada de Noli

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Marcello Vittorio Ferrada de Noli
Professor Marcello Ferrada de Noli.jpg
Professor Marcello Ferrada de Noli 2010
Born (1943-07-25) July 25, 1943 (age 70)
Residence  Italy
Citizenship  Sweden

Marcello Vittorio Ferrada de Noli, is a Swedish - Chilean medicine doktor and Professor Emeritus of Public Health Sciences / Epidemiology. He was formerly Professor of Epidemiology, and of International Health at the University of Gävle; and formerly Chair of the International and Cross-cultural Injury Epidemiology Research Group at the Karolinska Institutet.[1] He earned his PhD in Psychiatry at the Karolinska Institutet and was thereafter Research Fellow and Lecturer in Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. During his stay at Harvard he published most of the innovative research below, judged as being a "pioneer contribution to epidemiological research" (Academic awards).

Biography[edit]

Marcello Ferrada de Noli, also referred to as Ferrada-Noli,[2] was born in Chile 25 July 1943, in family of Italian ancestry rooted in Genoa (Liguria), descendants of the nobleman and explorer António de Noli. His father was a company owner and former officer in the Carabineers and an elite equestrian, and his mother was a university professor and artist. His first degree was in Philosophy, and he became a Full Professor of Psychology at the age of 27 (University of Chile, Arica, 1970); he was a Full Professor at the University of Concepción at the time of Augusto Pinochet's 1973 Chilean coup d'état.

Marcello Ferrada de Noli had a classical liberal ideological background - influenced by his eldest brother, a lawyer with previous membership in the right-wing Liberal Party -, however he later evolved towards left-liberal and social-libertarian positions. At age 22, Marcello Ferrada de Noli was one of the founders of MIR, the Movement of the Revolutionary Left. MIR was a Chilean political party and former left-wing guerrilla organization (founded on October 12, 1965) prominent in the resistance on the Pinochet Dictatorship. Together with his old-time school friend Miguel Enríquez (died in combat 1975) and Marco A. Enríquez, Ferrada de Noli was an author of the Political-military Theses of MIR - known also as La Tesis Insurreccional - the first document of MIR approved in its foundation congress of 1965.[3][4][5] He represented there left-libertarian standpoints.

During the government of the Christian Democratic Party, President Eduardo Frei declared MIR to be illegal and Marcello Ferrada de Noli was posted in the nation-wide published wanted-list of thirteen fugitive MIR leaders,[6] together with his friends Miguel Enríquez, Bautista van Schouwen, and others. Later captured in August 1969 [7] Ferrada de Noli was acquitted without trial after having been kept in isolation [8] at Concepción prison (La Cárcel). Altogether he had been captured or imprisoned on seven occasions for his political activities in Chile during his time in the MIR. He was never condemned by a Chilean court.

In the aftermath of the resistance to the military coup of 1973 Marcello Ferrada de Noli was captured in Concepción and taken first to the Stadium and later was imprisoned in Quiriquina Island Prisoners Camp. After his liberation he went to Italy, where he was one of the witnesses on the Russell Tribunal which investigated human rights violations in Chile and Latin America. He then became a member of the Russell Tribunal Scientific Secretariat in Rome.[9] Afterwards, assigned by MIR to Sweden, he was granted Geneva Convention political refugee status after the intervention of one of the founders of the Swedish section of Amnesty International, the lawyer Hans Göran Franck. During his exile in Sweden Ferrada de Noli remained in operative activities of MIR's Comité Exterior until 1977; latest assigned as head of counter-intelligence operations of MIR in Northern Europe at the times of Pinochet Operación Cóndor. He left MIR definitely in 1977 - two years after the killing by Pinochet’s security forces of his two closest friends Miguel Enriquez and Bautista Van Schouwen - and after unsolved ideological confrontations with the new MIR-leadership which advocated a broad political coalition comprising the Communist Party and the Christian Democratic Party (PDC), which Ferrada de Noli opposed.

In 1998, while Professor at the University of Tromso in Norway, Ferrada de Noli publicly demanded the extradition of Pinochet, who was at the time in London, to stand trial in Scandinavia for the forced disappearance under captivity of his friends Bautista van Schouwen and Edgardo Enríquez.[10]

Research[edit]

Ferrada de Noli found several indicators (psychiatric and epidemiological markers) of heightened suicidal behaviour in cross-cultural settings.[11] One was the high correlation discovered 1998 between PTSD the diagnosis and history of injury-related severe trauma, such us torture under captivity, in the mechanism of suicide methods.[12][13] Other findings referred to heightened prevalence of suicidal behaviour associated to PTSD psychiatric co-morbidity,[14][15] particularly late-onset PTSD (2004).[16] He had previously reported (1996) PTSD clinical symptoms being more determinant of suicidal behaviour than cultural differences among traumatised refugees.[17]

Another discovery was the over-representation of immigrants in the epidemiology of suicide in Sweden. The phenomenon was first reported by Ferrada de Noli in 1990 as a statistical trend,[18] and later, in 1994, by establishing high significant statistical over-representations which demonstrated that immigrant status is a risk factor for suicidal deaths in Sweden.[19][20] In a nation-wide study of 1996 he reported the Relative risk estimate for immigrant suicides in Sweden as a whole (1.5 more times than for a native Swede).[21][22] Being foreign-born immigrants fourteen percent of the Swedish population, the finding also had political relevance and called for reforms to be introduced. This was heightened when in a later investigation (1997) Ferrada-Noli et al. demonstrated that, compared with native Swedes, less immigrants who have died of suicide had sought help for their suicidal crisis; and that among those immigrants that did seek help at psychiatric emergency services, significantly less were admitted for further treatment, compared with native Swedes.[23]

Further, he is credited for several pioneering findings on the negative impact of poverty and unfavourable socioeconomic indicators in the incidence of suicide. This research publications series included the empirically based rebuttal in 1997 of the socioeconomic hypothesis of suicide incidence (Émile Durkheim, 1897) and which had prevailed for a period of a hundred years.[24][25][26][27][28][29]

Ferrada de Noli's conclusions on the negative correlation poverty-suicide in Sweden were at first debated by David Lester, the eminent suicide researcher and a follower in this regard of the Durkheim School.[30] However, a Swedish study conducted over a decade after at Stockholm University by Sara Magnusson and Ilkka Mäkinen [31] and which used nation-wide epidemiological data, confirmed the early findings of Ferrada-Noli.

He is also credited with the identification of a new diagnostic category among suicidal behaviours (Metasuicide, referring to violent deaths in which self-inflicted lethal intent is deliberately concealed).[20]

One of Prof. Marcello Ferrada de Noli's last input to international and cross-cultural psychiatric epidemiology was as contributor author in the Oxford Textbook of Suicidology.,[32] however he continued lecturing until 2012. In 2014 published in the Swedish medical journal Läkartidningen a late research finding on the increasing of suicide rate among immigrant males.[33]

Academic awards[edit]

On June 30, 2005, Marcello Ferrada de Noli was awarded the academic distinction Profesor Invitado of the Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana by the Cuban authorities cited "for his dedication and commitment to the betterment of human life" [34] and “for his pioneering contributions to epidemiological research, and particularly his international studies on the phenomenon of suicide among immigrants and refugees".[35] In the Elogio académico accompanying the diploma were also listed his principal research findings. March 14, 2006, by the Medical Faculty of the University of Chile, ad-honorem appointment Profesor Agregado at the School of Public Health "in merit to the collaboration that you given to educational programs at the medical school". He received the academic award Mención al Mérito from the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León for among other things his book Teoría y Método de la Concientización published in Mexico 1972. Finally, upon retirement, he was awarded by University of Gävle(Sweden) the "title of distinction" Professor Emeritus of Public Health Sciences "in value of meritorious academic services" (1 July 2007).

Professor Emeritus[edit]

Marcello Ferrada de Noli retired from full academic activities 2008. As Professor Emeritus, he proceeded with academic assignments as Senior Advisor at the Dept. of Immunology, WGC, Stockholm University, until 2012; He was appointed by the Swedish Government (Ministry of Education and Research) as alternative scientific member of the Research Ethic Review Committee, Uppsala Region,[36] in 2005; the appointment was extended under the new government 2009. He resigned to the assignment in 2012. At present he is a permanent resident of Italy, where the Liguria-based Antonio de Noli Academic Society voted him Lifetime Honorary President in 2012. He co-authored in 2013 the book "Da Noli a Capo Verde - Antonio de Noli e l'inizio delle scoperte del Nuovo Mondo" [37] and he was also editor of the English version "From Noli To Cape Verde: Antonio de Noli and the beginning of the New World Discoveries".[38] In 2014 Ferrada de Noli founded the editing company Libertarian Books - Sweden,[39] where he published several titles, among other his book "Sweden VS. Assange. Human Righs Issues".[40]

Burnout-epidemic Controversy[edit]

Marcello Ferrada de Noli’s findings on the overrepresentation of suicide among immigrants and refugees in Sweden were not challenged, in spite of the sensitiveness of the issue and that the discoveries had wide media coverage.[41][42][43][44][45][46][47] On the contrary, his public opposition to the Swedish psychiatric diagnosis “utbrändhet” (referring to psychic exhaustion and/or depression caused by job stress) produced much controversy, as seen in the Swedish media,[48][49][50][51][52][53] TV[54][55] and Swedish medical publications.[56][57][58][59][60] In his article "The Emperor's burnt out clothes" ("Kejsarens utbrända kläder") published 2004 in Sociological Research[61] he objected the diagnosis for "lacking scientific and epidemiological grounds” and for referring to a "non medically verifiable” condition — ultimately suggesting that profit-interests of the researchers and psychotherapists[62] involved, as well as the anti-depressant drugs manufacturers',[63] were behind what he labelled “a pseudo-epidemics”.[64] Ferrada de Noli first made his thesis known to the public in the debate-article “Job-stress burnout: merely a passing fad” (Utbrändheten - mest en modetrend), published by Sweden’s leading newspaper DN in October 2000,[65] where he argued a multiple-causality explanation of the phenomenon, not only a job-stress related one. The publication initiated a storm of protest among the professionals and politicians involved in the launching of the new diagnosis.

The Swedish Industry Minister Mona Sahlin, of the social democratic government, declared in the tabloid Expressen that the Ferrada de Noli's theses were "insulting, to put it mildly"; that the diagnosis “utbrändhet” was not related to familiar issues such as gender inequality; and that it is instead "related to bad organization in the working environment.[66] Ferrada de Noli called for a broader explanation of the burnout-phenomenon diathesis, such as the political changes exerted on the Swedish model during the 90’s initiated during the social democratic government of Göran Persson. These systemic changes, said the author, resulting in privatization of important sectors of the economy and rapid demobilization of welfare services and community organizations, also led to increasing individualism, ego-attention, and a "resurrection of Freudianism".[67] “It is the focus on our stressful lives that has increased, rather than the stress itself” he said, and claimed that a politically-caused real society problem has been reduced in the mind of individuals to the idea of a health related problem of their own - a classical alienation. They feel ill without having a disease, he said.[68] Ferrada de Noli's main epidemiological contention was that the Swedish authorities misconstrue statistics of the increasing number of sick leaves granted (which were mainly based on self-reports, and not on clinical findings)[69] with the real incidence and prevalence measurements of a disease. Another argument was that the levels of stress reported by individuals in a given society only partially have anything to do with “increased stress at work", and that the perceived stress by an individual is “a total sum” of a variety of stress inducing personal parameters such as finances, relationships, issues of gender equality, etc.[70]

Finally, the Swedish authorities, following the recommendations of a panel of experts appointed by the National Board of Health and Welfare, approved the inclusion of the new burnout-diagnosis and coined the term "exhaustion syndrome" (utmattningssyndrom). However, as DN pointed out,[71] the very researchers and/or protagonists of "utbrändhet" clinicians that proposed the new diagnosis, was part of the panel of experts selected by the health authorities. Neither Prof. Ferrada de Noli nor any other academic known to question the diagnosis “utbrändhet” was called on to participate on the panel.

By 2004, after a reform in the economic terms of health insurance, the number of sick-leaves reported as "utbrändhet" or "utmattningssyndrom" started to diminish notably and successively in Sweden; further, by 2010 they were less than the half of the 2006 figure.[72]—although reports in the media about the increasing stress in society and at work continued unabated. In a late exclusive interview with the newspaper DN in 2008,[73] Marcello Ferrada de Noli claimed that his opposition against the official thesis on “utbrändhet” had resulted in his having been denied research grants by the authorities.

References and Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention: Research, Education and Policy Development. Department of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 2009
  2. ^ The official name is Ferrada de Noli, according to the Swedish Civil Registration, Skatteverket (The Swedish Tax Authority)
  3. ^ Pedro Alfonso Valdés Navarro (2008) "Elementos teóricos en la formación y desarrollo del MIR durante el periodo 1965-1970". Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile. Tesis de grado. Pages 1-121 [1]
  4. ^ Jose Leonel Calderon Lopez. “La politica del Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) durante os dos primeros años de la Dictadura Militar. Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Historia. Tesis de Grado. Pagina 21 [2] [3]
  5. ^ Christopher Minster (2009) Chile's MIR: The Revolutionary Left Movement. Urban Guerrillas Declare War on the Pinochet Dictatorship. About.com: Latin American History [4]
  6. ^ "A Través de la Historia Terrorista del Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR)". Article in Diario "El Mercurio", Santiago, 25-98-1973. Excerpt: "Agosto 4 (1969). Cerca de Concepción fue detenido el profesor de Filosofía y Miembro del Consejo Superior de la Universidad penquista Marcello Ferrada de Noli. Se trata de uno de los 13 miristas prófugos de la justicia contra los que existía orden de detención en el proceso por actividades subversivas del MIR"
  7. ^ "Ferrada Noli, uno de los más destacados cerebros del MIR universitario, tenía orden de detención cursada por el ministro Broghamer desde Julio pasado, pero se las había ingeniado para eludir la acción de la policía"". Excerpt, artículo en Diario "La Patria", Concepción 3-08-1969
  8. ^ "Ferrada Incomunicado". Article in Diario "Noticias de la Tarde", Concepción 5-08-1969
  9. ^ The Scientific Secretariat of the Russell Tribunal II in Rome was presided over by Lelio Basso and Linda Bimbi, and had among its members Gabriel García Márquez and Vladimir Dedijer.
  10. ^ a) Associated Press, November 1, 1998. "Chilean in Norway files against Pinochet". OSLO, Norway, Nov. 1 (AP). b), NTB/Dagblad, "Pinochet politianmeldt i Norge", Oslo, 1 Nov 1998 [5]
  11. ^ The findings enabled improvements to diagnostic instruments in clinical assessments of suicide risk, and help in identifying populations at risk of death from suicide. The research findings of Ferrada de Noli have been reported in leading Swedish newspapers and TV networks, and are referred to in encyclopaedic or health-policy documents of the Swedish National Institute of Public Health [6][7] and the Swedish Parliament [8]
  12. ^ Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M, Ormstad K (January 1998). "Suicidal behavior after severe trauma. Part 2: The association between methods of torture and of suicidal ideation in posttraumatic stress disorder". Journal of Traumatic Stress 11 (1): 113–24. doi:10.1023/A:1024413301064. PMID 9479680. 
  13. ^ Physicians for Human Rights, an international organization that promotes health by protecting human rights , with its headquarters in Cambridge, Mass., reproduced one of the above findings in the publication Leave no marks. It refers to the high statistical correlation between the specific torture methods inflicted on prisoners under interrogation and the specific suicide methods the torture survivors had later chose, e.g. blunt force to the head and body was related to jumping from heights or in front of trains; torture involving water (submarino), with drowning; sharp force torture, with self-inflicted stabbing or cutting; etc. [9]
  14. ^ Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M, Ormstad K, Lundin T, Sundbom E (January 1998). "Suicidal behavior after severe trauma. Part 1: PTSD diagnoses, psychiatric comorbidity, and assessments of suicidal behavior". Journal of Traumatic Stress 11 (1): 103–12. doi:10.1023/A:1024461216994. PMID 9479679. 
  15. ^ Clinical Psychology Review published in 2009 a major independent review of the research on PTSD and suicidal behaviour [Panagioti M, Gooding P, Tarrier N (August 2009). "Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal behavior: A narrative review". Clinical Psychology Review 29 (6): 471–82. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.05.001. PMID 19539412. ], among other the discoveries above by Ferrada de Noli and his co-workers. The review stated that the authors "demonstrated that among refugees with PTSD, major depression was not substantially associated with heightened levels of suicidal behavior", meaning that the path to severe suicide attempts in PTSD victims would not be mediated by depression - as widely concluded elsewhere - but linked directly to PTSD
  16. ^ Ferrada-Noli M (October 2001). "[Traumatic stress and suicidal behavior of refugees--epidemiological findings]". Lakartidningen 98 (44): 4888–90. PMID 11729803. 
  17. ^ Ferrada-Noli, Marcello; Sundbom, Elisabet (1996). "Cultural bias in suicidal behaviour among refugees with post-traumatic stress disorder". Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 50 (3): 185. doi:10.3109/08039489609081407. 
  18. ^ Ferrada-Noli M (1990) The study of risk factors in psychological autopsies. Paper presented at the 3rd European Symposium on Suicidal Behaviour and Risk Factors, Bologna, Italy
  19. ^ Ferrada-Noli M (1994). Psychiatric and Forensic Findings in Definite and Undetermined Suicides. An epidemiological and cross-cultural study. Thesis, Lic. Medical Sciences in Psychiatry. Dept Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet
  20. ^ a b Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M, Ormstad K, Nordström P (February 1995). "Definite and undetermined forensic diagnoses of suicide among immigrants in Sweden". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91 (2): 130–5. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1995.tb09753.x. PMID 7778471. 
  21. ^ Marcello Ferrada-Noli, Dept Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet (1996). Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal behaviour in immigrants to Sweden. PhD dissertation. Abstract [10]
  22. ^ Ferrada-Noli M (August 1997). "A cross-cultural breakdown of Swedish suicide". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 96 (2): 108–16. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1997.tb09914.x. PMID 9272194. 
  23. ^ Ferrada-Noli, Marcello; Åsberg, Marie; Ormstad, Kari (1996). "Psychiatric care and transcultural factors in suicide incidence". Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 50: 21. doi:10.3109/08039489609081384. 
  24. ^ Émile Durkheim (1897). Suicide, Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press. 1951. Durkheim postulated that poverty is a "shield" against suicide. He based his assumption mainly on comparisons of the suicide incidence between poor and rich countries. Ferrada de Noli rebutted with several studies comparing socio-economic indicators and the suicide incidence between poor and rich regions (at county and municipality level within the country), and also with comparisons of the individual income of suicide victims living in poor, and rich regions respectively. He concluded instead that poverty is a negative factor in the incidence of suicide.
  25. ^ Ferrada-Noli M (December 1996). "Social psychological vs socioeconomic hypotheses on the epidemiology of suicide: an empirical study". Psychological Reports 79 (3 Pt 1): 707–10. doi:10.2466/pr0.1996.79.3.707. PMID 8969074. 
  26. ^ Ferrada-Noli M (February 1997). "Social psychological indicators associated with the suicide rate: replying to the socioeconomic hypothesis". Psychological Reports 80 (1): 315–22. doi:10.2466/PR0.80.1.315-322. PMID 9122344. 
  27. ^ Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M (August 1997). "Psychiatric health, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors among suicides in Stockholm". Psychological Reports 81 (1): 323–32. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.5.323-332. PMID 9293223. Fulltext pdf [11]
  28. ^ Ferrada-Noli M (October 1997). "Health and socioeconomic indicators in psychiatric catchment areas with divergent suicide rates". Psychological Reports 81 (2): 611–9. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.6.611-619. PMID 9354114. 
  29. ^ Ferrada-Noli M (August 1997). "Social psychological variables in populations contrasted by income and suicide rate: Durkheim revisited". Psychological Reports 81 (1): 307–16. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.5.307-316. PMID 9293220.  Fulltext pdf [12]
  30. ^ Lester D, Savlid AC S, Mäkinen IH (1997). "Suicide and wealth in Sweden: comment on Ferrada-Noli". Psychological Reports 80 (1 Pt 1): 34. doi:10.2466/PR0.80.1.34-34. 
  31. ^ Magnusson S, Mäkinen IH (2010). "Sweden: Income and Suicide". Psychological Reports 107 (1 Pt 1): 157–162. doi:10.2466/02.12.13.17.PR0.107.4.157-162. 
  32. ^ Oxford Textbook of Suicidology and Suicide Prevention. Editors Wasserman D. & Wasserman C. Oxford University Press (2009). Pages 1-912. [13]
  33. ^ Ferrada de Noli M. "Självmod bland invandrare ökar", Läkartidningen 2014-01-09 (2014;111:CMWI) [14] [15]
  34. ^ [16]
  35. ^ [17]
  36. ^ [18]
  37. ^ Astengo C, Balla M., Brigati I., Ferrada de Noli M., Gomes L., Hall T., Pires V., Rosetti C. Da Noli a Capo Verde. Antonio de Noli e l'inizio delle scoperte del Nuovo Mondo. Editor Prof. Alberto Peluffo. Marco Sabatelli Editore. Savona, 2013. ISBN 9788888449821 [19]
  38. ^ Astengo C, Balla M., Ferrada de Noli M., Gomes L., Hall T., Pires V.: From Noli To Cape Verde. Antonio de Noli and the beginning of the New World Discoveries. Editor Prof. Marcello Ferrada de Noli. Published by the Antonio de Noli Academic Society, Noli (Savona)
  39. ^ Libertarian Books - Sweden, [libertarianbooks.se/] Registered at the Swedish Tax Authority 2014-02-27
  40. ^ Ferrada de Noli M. Sweden VS. Assange. Human Rights issues. Libertarian Books, Sweden, 2014. [20]
  41. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. [Large increase in suicide among young immigrants] "Självmorden ökar starkt bland unga invandrare". Dagens Nyheter, DN Debatt, 21 Oct 2007 [21]
  42. ^ Swedish National Television, SvT. Rapport. Reportage and interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli, by Ann Lindgren, 1992
  43. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. [Suicide among refugees hidden] "DN Debatt. Flyktingars självmord mörkläggs". Dagen Nyheter, 22 Nov 1996 [22] and [23]
  44. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. [(Swedish) State does not care about refugees' suicides] "Staten nonchalerar flyktingars självmord". Aftonbladet debatt, 5 Oct 2001 [24]
  45. ^ Swedish National Television, SvT. Rapport 22 Nov 1996. Reportage and interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli
  46. ^ Channel 3, Sweden, Reportage and interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli. 22 Nov 1996
  47. ^ Swedish National Television, SvT. Mosaik Mångkulturellt magasin. Reportage and interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli, 16 Feb 1999 (SvT2), 18 Feb 1999 (SvT2) and 20 February 1999 (SvT1)
  48. ^ Lindehag L. [He does not believe in work-related burnout] "Han tror inte på utbrändhet". Interview with Marcello Ferrada Noli [Swedish]. Expressen, 21 Oct 2000
  49. ^ [No grounds for Stress-induced sudden death] "Inga belägg för ökad stressdöd". Interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli [Swe] Geffle Dagblad, 14 Dec 2000
  50. ^ Kjöller H. [Suffering not the same as illness] "Lidande är inte lika med sjukdom". Editorial article and interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli [Swedish]. Dagens Nyheter, DN, 21 Jun 2006 [25]
  51. ^ Askling Lena. [Burnout: the word is a passing fad -What a relief!] "Utbrändhet ett modeord - vilken lättnad". Aftonbladet. editorial article. 29 Oct 2000 [26]
  52. ^ Danielsson A. [Professor dismisses grounds for sick-leave] "Professor dömer ut sjukskrivningar". Interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli [Swe]. Svenska dagbladet, SvD, 19 Sept 2002 [27]
  53. ^ Östman K. [Stress-induced burnout is an invention] "Utbrändhet är en påhitt". Interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli [Swedish]. Aftonbladet, 14 Apr 2005 [28]
  54. ^ National Swedish Television, SvT, Rapport. Interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli at Karolinska Institutet. 20 Oct 2000
  55. ^ TV4 Channel. Programme "Svart eller vit". Interview with Marcello Ferrada-Noli followed by debate. TV4 Studio, Stockholm, Nov 2000
  56. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. [Occupational stress, suicide and fatigue depression]. Lakartidningen. 2001 Jun 27;98(26-27):3158-60. Swedish. PMID: 11478215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  57. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. [On the epidemiologic evidence of burnout]. Lakartidningen. 2001 Feb 14;98(7):710-2, 715. Swedish. Erratum in: Lakartidningen 2002 Nov 14;99(46):4703.PMID 11475260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].
  58. ^ Ferrada-Noli M., [Is work-related stress the primary cause of sudden death?]. Lakartidningen. 2000 Dec 20;97(51-52):6108, 6110. Swedish. PMID: 11195452 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  59. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. [Work-related stress and sudden death epidemiology]. Lakartidningen. 2000 Dec 13;97(50):5946-7. Swedish. [29] PMID: 11188539 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  60. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. [On burnout among immigrants--epidemiologic objections]. Lakartidningen. 2002 Sep 5;99(36):3534, 3537-8. Swedish. PMID: 12362754 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  61. ^ [Ferrada-Noli M. [The Emperor's burnout clothes] "Kejsarens utbrända kläder". Sociologisk Forskning 2004, No. 1 [30]
  62. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. [Clarifications on Stress-induced burnout] "Förtydligande om utbrändhet" [Swedish]. Aftonbladet, 19 Apr 2004 [31]
  63. ^ Ferrada-Noli M., ". . .Om skandalen kring antidepressiva". Second-Opinion, 25 January 2010 [32]
  64. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. [Diagnoses of work-related stress burnout on the retreat] "Utbrändhetsdiagnoser på reträtt". Svenska dagbladet, SvD, 29 Sept 202 [33]
  65. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. "Utbrändheten mest en modetrend". Dagens Nyheter, DN-debatt, 20 Oct 2000 [34]
  66. ^ Lindehag L. "Det är forelämpande". Interview with Mona Sahlin. Expressen 21 October 2000 [35]
  67. ^ Ferrada de Noli M. Pseudo-Science in Swedish Rape Trials. With an Introduction on the Origins of State-Feminism in Sweden. Analysis. Professorsblogg, 29 Jul 2011 [36]
  68. ^ In [Diagnoses of work-induced stress burnout on the retreat] "Utbrändhetsdiagnoser på reträtt" (SvD, 29 Sept 202), Ferrada de Noli ascribes this "reduction" to what he call the "Upplevelsehypotes" (The experience-hypothesis) supporters, which partly reproduces the paradigm illness/disease enunciated by Arthur Kleinman
  69. ^ Ferrada-Noli M. Utmattningssyndrom är en kulturellt betingad diagnos unik för Sverige. Dagens Medicin, 3 October 2007 [37]
  70. ^ DN Debatt. "Hälsoprofessor om sjukskrivningar: Utbrändheten mest en modetrend", Stockhom, 20 Oct 2000
  71. ^ Kjöller H. [Sick Pray] "Sjuk lovsång". Dagens Nyheter, 15 Aug 2007 [38]
  72. ^ Billner a. [Stress sick-leaves diminishes] "Allt färre sjukskrivs för stress". Dagens Nyheter, DN, 20 Jan 2001 [39]
  73. ^ Mortensen P. [The professor has been sailing in dangerous waters]. "Professorn har seglat i farliga farvatten". Dagens Nyheter, DN, 23 July 20008 [40]

External links[edit]