Marcelo H. del Pilar

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Marcelo H. del Pilar
Pilar, Marcelo H. del.jpg
Marcelo H. del Pilar c. 1889
Born Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán
August 30, 1850
Bulacán, Bulacan, Philippines
Died July 4, 1896(1896-07-04) (aged 45)
Barcelona, Spain
Cause of death
Tuberculosis
Nationality Filipino
Alma mater Colegio de San José
Universidad de Santo Tomás
Occupation Writer, lawyer, journalist
Organization La Solidaridad
Religion Roman Catholicism
Spouse(s) Marciana H. del Pilar
(1878–1896; his death)
Children Sofía H. del Pilar
Anita H. del Pilar de Marasigan
Parents Julián H. del Pilar (father)
Blasa Gatmaitán (mother)

Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán (August 30, 1850 – July 4, 1896), better known by his pen name Plaridel,[1] was a Filipino writer, lawyer, and journalist. He was the second and last editor of the La Solidaridad (Solidarity), the newspaper of the Reform Movement in Spain.[2]

Biography[edit]

Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán was born on August 30, 1850 in Cupang (now Barangay San Nicolás), Bulacán, Bulacan.[3] He was baptized "Marcelo Hilario" on September 4, 1850.[4] The surname of his grandmother, "del Pilar", was added to comply with the decree issued by Governor-General Narciso Clavería in 1849.[5]

Del Pilar’s parents owned several farms, some fish ponds, and an animal-power mill.[6] His father, Julián Hilario del Pilar, was a Tagalog grammarian, poet, and speaker.[7] He was a "three time" gobernadorcillo (municipal mayor) of his pueblo (town). Julián later held the position of oficial de mesa (government clerk) of the alcalde mayor (provincial governor).[8] Blasa Gatmaitán, del Pilar’s mother, was a descendant of the noble Gatmaitáns. She was known as "Doña Blasica".[4]

The ninth of ten children, del Pilar's siblings were: Toribio (priest, deported to the Mariana Islands in 1872),[9] Fernando (father of General Gregorio del Pilar),[10] Andrea, Dorotea, Estanislao, Juan, Hilaria (married to Deodato Arellano),[11] Valentín, and María. The share of each was very small and del Pilar renounced his in favor of his siblings.[1]

Del Pilar played the piano, violin, and flute at an early age.[12] In the early 1860s, he worked with his paternal uncle Alejo del Pilar, the clerk of the court of Quiapo.[13] He began his studies in the school of Hermenigildo Flores.[14] He later transferred at the Colegio de San José in Manila.[3] After obtaining his Bachiller en Artes, he pursued law at the Universidad de Santo Tomás. In 1869, del Pilar acted as a padrino or godfather at a baptism in San Miguel, Manila.[9] Since he was not a resident of the area, he questioned the excessive baptismal fee charged by the parish priest. The priest was outraged by this statement. As a result the judge, Félix García Gavieres, sent del Pilar to Old Bilibid Prison (then known as Carcel y Presidio Correccional). He was released after thirty days.[15]

During the time of the Cavite Mutiny in 1872, del Pilar was living with a Filipino priest named Mariano Sevilla.[9] Sevilla was deported to the Mariana Islands along with del Pilar's eldest brother, Fr. Toribio Hilario del Pilar, due to allegations of being one of the organizers of the uprising.[16] The deportation of Fr. Toribio resulted into the early death of del Pilar's mother.

Out of the university, del Pilar worked as oficial de mesa in Pampanga (1874-1875) and Quiapo (1878-1879).[17] In the month of February 1878, he married his second cousin Marciana (the "Chanay/Tsanay" in his letters) in Tondo.[18] The couple had seven children, six girls and one boy: Sofía, José, María, Rosario, María Consolación, María Concepción, and Ana (Anita). Only two girls, Sofía and Anita, grew to adulthood (five children died before becoming adults).[19]

In 1878, del Pilar resumed his law studies at the UST.[18] He earned his licenciado en jurisprudencia (equivalent to a Bachelor of Laws) in 1880.[20] After finishing law, he worked for the Real Audiencia de Manila (Royal Audience of Manila). Although practicing law in Manila, del Pilar spent more time in Bulacan, spreading nationalist and anti-friar ideas in cockpits, tiendas, and town plazas.[21]

Pedro Payo y Piñeiro, O.P. (1814 – 1889) was the 24th Archbishop of Manila who took charge in 1876 until his death in 1889.

Del Pilar, together with Basilio Teodoro Moran, founded the short-lived Diariong Tagalog (Tagalog Newspaper) in 1882.[9] Diariong Tagalog was the first bilingual newspaper in the Philippines and was financed by the wealthy Spanish liberal Francisco Calvo y Muñoz. Del Pilar became the editor of the Tagalog section.[22] José Rizal's essay El Amor Patrio was featured in the newspaper. Del Pilar translated it into Tagalog language, Ang Pagibig sa Tinubúang Lupà (Love of Country).[23]

Del Pilar's first political efforts took place in Malolos in 1885. There was an election for the gobernadorcillo position and majority of the principales (noble class) of Malolos voted Manuel Crisóstomo over the candidate backed by the friar parish priest. Shortly after this victorious event, the cabezas de barangay (chiefs of the barangays) confronted the friar parish priest regarding the new government order about the tax lists. They insisted that the tax lists should be done by themselves and not by the friars.[24]

On September 30, 1887, del Pilar sided with the natives of Binondo against Fr. José Hevia Campomanes who assigned high positions in the Binondo Church to the Chinese mestizos.[25]

On October 18, 1887, Benigno Quiroga y López Ballesteros, the Director General of Civil Administration in Manila, issued an executive order prohibiting the exposition of corpses in the churches.[26] Crisóstomo, the gobernadorcillo of Malolos at that time, proclaimed Quiroga's decree by means of a parade led by a brass band. Friar Felipe García, the friar-curate of Malolos, aggravated the authorities by parading the body of the servant of Eugenio Delgado. Upon the advice of del Pilar, Crisóstomo addressed the problem to the Spanish governor of Bulacan, Manuel Gómez Florio. Gómez Florio reprimanded the fighting friar parish priest.[27]

On January 21, 1888, del Pilar worked for the establishment of a school of "Arts, Trades, and Agriculture" by drafting of a memorial to the gobernador civil (civil governor) of Bulacan.[28] This was signed by the gobernadorcillos, ex-gobernadorcillos, leading citizens, proprietors, industrialists, professors, and lawyers of the province.

A copy of La Solidaridad

On the morning of March 1, 1888, the principales of the districts of Manila and the nearby provinces (led by Doroteo Cortés and José A. Ramos) marched to the office of the civil governor of Manila, José Centeno García.[12] They presented a manifesto addressed to the Queen Regent. This manifesto, entitled "Viva España! Viva el Rey! Viva el Ejército! Fuera los Frailes!" (Long live Spain! Long live the King! Long live the Army! Throw the friars out!), was written by del Pilar.[24] The manifesto enumerated the abuses/crimes of the friars and demanded their expulsion from the Philippines including Manila Archbishop Pedro P. Payo himself.

Fr. José Rodríguez, an Augustinian priest, authored a pamphlet entitled ¡Caiñgat Cayo!: Sa mañga masasamang libro,t, casulatan (Beware!: of bad books and writings, 1888). The friar warned the Filipinos that in reading Rizal's Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not) they commit "mortal sin". On August 3 of the same year, del Pilar wrote Caiigat Cayó (Be as Slippery as an Eel). It was a reply to Fr. Rodríguez's ¡Caiñgat Cayó!.[29]

The Spanish liberal officials (Terrero, Quiroga, Centeno, etc.) were relieved and succeeded by the conservatives.[30] In Bulacan, Gómez Florio was removed as civil governor. The new governor was persuaded by Fr. Felipe García to issue an order of banishment against del Pilar for his anti-clerical and subversive activities. The order was processed for two days, but before it was released, del Pilar had fled to Spain on October 28, 1888.[31] This was made possible through the assistance of his brother-in-law, Deodato Arellano, and his fellow friends, Gregorio Santillán and Mariano Crisóstomo.

Marcelo H. Del Pilar
The National Shrine of Marcelo H. del Pilar in San Nicolás, Bulacán, Bulacan

Before he left the country, del Pilar stayed at the house of his fellow Bulaqueño, Pedro Serrano y Lactao. Together with Rafael Enriquez, they wrote the Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayers and Mockeries), a mock-prayer book satirizing the Spanish friars.[32] They also wrote the Pasióng Dapat Ipag-alab nang Puso nang Tauong Babasa (Passion That Should Inflame the Heart of the Reader).[33]

Del Pilar was also able to organize the Caja de Jesús, María y José, the purpose of which was to carry on propaganda and provide scholarships to indigent children.[34] He headed it with the assistance of Mariano Ponce, Santillán, Crisóstomo, Lactao, and José Gatmaitán. Caja de Jesús, María y José was later dissolved and replaced by Comité de Propaganda (Committee of Propaganda) in Manila.

Del Pilar arrived in Barcelona on January 1, 1889.[35] He headed the political section of the Asociación Hispano-Filipina de Madrid (Hispanic Filipino Association of Madrid).[36] On December 15, 1889, he succeeded Graciano López Jaena as editor of the La Solidaridad.[2] Under his editorship, the aims of the newspaper expanded. Using propaganda, it pursued the desires for: assimilation of the Philippines as a province of Spain; removal of the friars and the secularization of the parishes; freedom of assembly and speech; equality before the law; and Philippine representation in the Cortes, the legislature of Spain.[37][38]

Marcelo H. del Pilar's monument (Bulacan's provincial heroes' park, Bulacan State University).

Del Pilar's struggle increased when the funds to support the La Solidaridad were ignored and there were no sign of immediate answer from the Spanish colonial government. Before his death, he opposed the theory of assimilation and began planning an armed revolution. Del Pilar bravely stated:

Insurrection is the last remedy, especially when the people have acquired the belief that peaceful means to secure the remedies for evils prove futile.[39]

This statement inspired the Katipunan, a revolutionary organization founded by Andrés Bonifacio.[40]

Del Pilar lived in extreme poverty in Spain. He often missed his meals and during winter, he kept himself warm by smoking discarded cigarette butts he picked up in the streets. Suffering from tuberculosis, del Pilar decided to return to the Philippines. His illness worsened that he had to cancel his journey.[41] He was taken to the Hospital de la Santa Cruz (Hospital Civil) in Barcelona. Del Pilar died there on July 4, 1896, a few days before the Cry of Pugad Lawin (Cry of Balintawak).[42] He was buried the following day in a borrowed grave at the Cementerio del Sub-Oeste (Southwest Cemetery). His remains were returned to the Philippines on December 3, 1920 and was buried initially at the Manila North Cemetery.[43] It was later transferred to his birthplace in Bulacán, Bulacan on August 30, 1984, under a monument.[44]

Freemasonry[edit]

Del Pilar was initiated into Freemasonry in 1889.[45] He served as venerable master of the famous Solidaridad lodge of Madrid. He became a close friend of Miguél Moráyta Sagrario, a professor at the Universidad Central de Madrid and Grand Master of Masons of the Grande Oriente Español.[46]

Popular culture[edit]

Del Pilar was portrayed by actor Dennis Marasigan in the award-winning 1998 film, José Rizal.[47]

Notable works[edit]

  • Ang Pagibig sa Tinubúang Lupà (Love of Country, 1882)[9]
  • Caiigat Cayó (Be as Slippery as an Eel, 1888)[29]
  • Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayers and Mockeries, 1888) [32]
  • Ang Cadaquilaan nang Dios (The Greatness of God, 1888)[48]
  • La Soberanía Monacal en Filipinas (Monastic Supremacy in the Philippines, 1888)[49]
  • Pasióng Dapat Ipag-alab nang Puso nang Tauong Babasa (Passion That Should Inflame the Heart of the Reader, 1888)[33]
  • La Frailocracía Filipina (Friarocracy in the Philippines, 1889)[50]
  • Sagót ng España sa Hibíc ng Filipinas (Spain's Reply to the Cry of the Philippines, 1889)[51]
  • Dupluhan... Dalits... Bugtongs (A Poetical Contest in Narrative Sequence, Psalms, Riddles, 1907)[52]
  • Sa Bumabasang Kababayan (unpublished)[52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kahayon 1989, p. 52.
  2. ^ a b Keat 2004, p. 756
  3. ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 105.
  4. ^ a b Villarroel 1997, p. 9.
  5. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (August 28, 2012), "Looking Back: Did M.H. del Pilar dream in color?", Philippine Daily Inquirer 
  6. ^ Reyes 2008, p. 261.
  7. ^ Mojares 1983, p. 131.
  8. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 58.
  9. ^ a b c d e Schumacher 1997, p. 106.
  10. ^ Kalaw 1974, p. 3.
  11. ^ Kalaw 1974, p. 5.
  12. ^ a b Reyes 2008, p. 130.
  13. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 63.
  14. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 59.
  15. ^ Reyes 2008, p. 118.
  16. ^ Villarroel 1997, p. 10.
  17. ^ Batungbacal 1956, p. 27.
  18. ^ a b Villarroel 1997, p. 11.
  19. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 64.
  20. ^ Nepomuceno-Van Heugten, Maria Lina. "Edukasyon ng Bayani: Mga Impluwensya ng Edukasyong Natamo sa Kaisipang Rebolusyonaryo" (PDF). University of the Philippines Diliman Journals Online. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
  21. ^ "Marcelo H. del Pilar". oocities.org. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  22. ^ Villarroel 1997, p. 42.
  23. ^ Reyes 2008, p. 150.
  24. ^ a b Guerrero, Leon Ma. (December 13, 1952). "Del Pilar". The Philippines Free Press Online. Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  25. ^ Batungbacal 1956, p. 29.
  26. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 86.
  27. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 87.
  28. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 62.
  29. ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 121.
  30. ^ "Masonry and the Philippine Revolution". mastermason.com. Retrieved June 16, 2013. 
  31. ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 122.
  32. ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 125.
  33. ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 126.
  34. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 83.
  35. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 94.
  36. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 95.
  37. ^ del Pilar, Marcelo H. (April 25, 1889). "The aspirations of the Filipinos". Barcelona, Spain: La Solidaridad. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  38. ^ "Liberalism in the Philippines - The Revolution of 1898 : The Main Facts". sspxasia.com. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  39. ^ Constantino 1975, p. 162.
  40. ^ Guererro, Milagros; Encarnacion, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramon (1996), "Andrés Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution", Sulyap Kultura (National Commission for Culture and the Arts) 1 (2): 3–12. 
  41. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 174.
  42. ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 293.
  43. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (July 30, 2008), "Looking Back: The search for Plaridel’s remains", Philippine Daily Inquirer 
  44. ^ Lopez, Ron B. (June 11, 2013). "An afternoon at Plaridel's house". mb.com.ph. Retrieved June 15, 2013. 
  45. ^ "Famous Filipino Mason - Marcelo H. del Pilar". Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  46. ^ http://philippines-islands-lemuria.blogspot.com/2011/01/12-january.html
  47. ^ List of the José Rizal Film Cast
  48. ^ Ramos 1984, p. 86.
  49. ^ Steinberg 2000, p. 245.
  50. ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 119.
  51. ^ Abdula, Allan Yasser (May 4, 2008). "Expat in the City: Isang Pagkukuro sa "Sagot Ng Espanya sa Hibik Ng Pilipinas"". aabdula.blogspot.com. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  52. ^ a b Mojares 1983, p. 132.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]