Albert Berry became the first person to make a parachute jump from an airplane in flight, leaping from above the Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis, Missouri, after being taken aloft by pilot Tony Jannus. Berry, 33, who said that he had been making parachute jumps from balloons since he was 16, said that he would only attempt such a leap one more time. In his second jump, on March 10, he was seriously injured after his chute became tangled and went beneath him, righting himself before hitting the ground.
The British coal miners' strike, that had started earlier in the week at one company in Derbyshire, continued to spread across the United Kingdom, with one million workers walking off the job until a fair minimum wage could be guaranteed them.
Hungarian composer Béla Bartók first heard Bulgarian folk music during a visit to the Austro-Hungarian principality of Transylvania, now part of Romania, where he had been collecting Romanian folk music.
As rioting broke out in response to the fall of the Manchu Dynasty in China, Beijing was placed under martial law. Foreign troops arrived the next day to protect the citizens of their respective nations.
U.S. President Taft issued a proclamation, warning American citizens to avoid visiting Mexico, and advising those who were living there to be prepared to leave.
Died:Edward Blake, 78, Canadian politician who led the Liberal Party from 1880 to 1887, but never served as Prime Minister
Mexican General Pascual Orozco, who had helped Francisco I. Madero win the revolution of 1911 and become President of Mexico, declared a revolt against the Madero government after having been denied a major role. Orozco and his followers, the "Orozquistas", then assisted Victoriano Huerta in overthrowing Madero.
Germany's Reichstag approved a bill to make the Imperial German Navy the greatest in the world by 1920, with construction of 60 larges ships and 40 cruisers. One historian noted that the new law proved to be "the death knell to any potential understanding between Britain and Germany". The expansion of the German Navy would be halted, and then reversed, by Germany's 1918 defeat in World War One.
The German Antarctic mapping expedition, led by Wilhelm Filchner, was brought to a halt when its ship, Deutschland, became entrapped in the polar ice pack at the Weddell Sea. The ship would be trapped for eight months within the moving pack, finally breaking free on November 25, and nearly 750 miles further away from Antarctica.
Yuan Shih-kai was sworn in as the provisional President of the Republic of China. Described by one historian as "a traitor to the republic just as he had betrayed the Qing" Empire, Yuan would move the capital of the republic from Nanjing back to Beijing, then re-establish the monarchy in 1915 with himself as the new Emperor. Yuan would die in 1916.
The University of Hong Kong held its first classes, starting with 70 students and a medical school. It now has more than 22,000 students.
The provisional constitution of the Republic of China, with 56 articles, was promulgated, giving most executive power to a prime minister and cabinet. It would be replaced in 1914 with a new constitution giving more power to President Yuan.
The Miners' Federation of Great Britain offered to meet with the Prime Minister.
Coal miners in the German mining regions of Westphalia went on strike, with 200,000 walking off the job at Essen, Hamborn, Duisburg, Oberhausen, Bochum and Recklinghausen. The miners returned to work on March 16.
The British submarine A-3 was raised from Portsmouth harbour, along with the remains of the 14 men who had gone down with it when it sank on February 2.
In Hillsville, Virginia, storekeeper Floyd Allen was found guilty of interfering with the arrest of his two nephews. As the jury foreman was announcing the recommended sentence of a year in jail and a fine, a gun battle in the courtroom. Dead were Carroll County Judge Thornton Massie, County Sheriff Lew Webb, County Prosecutor W. M. Foster, a juror, a witness, and a spectator, while eight others were wounded, including Allen, who would be executed the following year, along with his son Claud.
Anarchist Antonio Dalba attempted to assassinate King Victor Emmanuel III and Queen Helena at Alba; had been partaking of 12th anniversary of assassination of King Humbert.
Frederick Seddon was convicted of the 1911 poisoning murder of Eliza Barrow in a British court. He would be hanged on April 18.
President Taft prohibited shipment of weapons to Mexico. The embargo took effect on March 20.
1912 Lawrence Textile Strike: Striking textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, returned to work, after approving the wage agreement with the city's mills.
The P&O Line ocean liner Oceana, bound from London to Bombay, sank after colliding with the German barge Pisagua at Beachy Head. All of the 241 passengers and crew were evacuated from the ship, but nine people died when their lifeboat, first to be launched, was swamped and capsized, and another lifeboat took on so much water that it was on the verge of turning over before its occupants were saved. One author would note later that the event "surely contributed to the initial reluctance of Titanic passengers to board their lifeboats" Richard Davenport-Hines, Titanic Lives: Migrants and Millionaires, Conmen and Crew (HarperCollins UK, 2012) the following month.
After removal of the bodies of the sailors who died in its 1898 explosion, the U.S.S. Maine was towed to sea by the USS Osceola into international waters, three miles from Havana Harbor, and sunk again to a depth of 620 fathoms (roughly 3,700 feet or 1,100 meters).
The U.S. Senate passed a bill giving "local citizenship" to residents of the Philippines who had been subjects of Spain in 1899. President Taft signed the bill into law on March 23.
Lawrence Oates, one of the five remaining members of Robert Falcon Scott's South Pole expedition, left the tent saying, "I am just going outside and may be some time." Captain Scott, who was already seriously ill after he and his group marched back from the South Pole, reported the event in his diary, but was not sure whether it happened on the 17th or 18th. Oates's body would never be found.
Despite a general amnesty proclaimed on March 11 by President Yuan, 200 rebels in China were executed at Guangzhou.
In San Antonio, Texas, 26 people were killed, and another 32 injured, by the explosion of a boiler on a locomotive owned by the Southern Pacific Railroad. Most were repairmen working for the railroad, but some were local residents.
U.S. Senator Albert B. Cummins of Iowa introduced a bill for a nationwide primary election to select presidential and vice-presidential party nominees, as well as electors, to be held on the second Monday of July prior to every presidential election, beginning with July 8, 1912, and prohibiting American political parties from holding nomination conventions.
Revolutionaries seized control of the Paraguayan capital of Asuncion after two days of fighting. General Emiliano González Navero, who had been President from 1908 to 1910, took control the next day as the President of the provisional government after President Pena took refuge at the Uruguayan embassy. (March 23)
Guy Bowman, publisher of the London newspaper Syndicalist, was sentenced to 9 1/2 years of hard labor on charges of inciting a mutiny.
The French Chamber of Deputies passed a vote of confidence approving the nation's policies in Morocco.
Women suffragettes in China occupied the National Assembly building in Nanjing.
Born:Karl Malden, American actor (The Streets of San Francisco), as Mladen Sekulovich in Chicago (d. 2009)
Died:Henry H. Bingham, 70, U.S. Congressman from Pennsylvania since 1879, American Civil War veteran, and Medal of Honor recipient. Nicknamed "The Father of the House", he was honored in 1885 by having Bingham County, Idaho, named in his honor.
The recently recovered bones of the remaining 67 officers and men of the U.S.S. Maine, whose deaths led to the Spanish–American War, were buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Interred after fourteen years underwater, the remains, none identifiable, were placed in thirty-four coffins. In 1899, ninety-six of the crew had been buried at Arlington. "Maine Dead Receive Nation's Homage" New York Times, March 24, 1912
Two weeks after the failure of his North American Wireless company, Lee De Forest, who had made radio broadcasting practical with the invention of the Audion tube, was served with an arrest warrant in Palo Alto, California, and charged in federal court with using the mail to defraud investors. De Forest was kept out of jail by friends who posted his bond, and was acquitted of the charges in 1913.
In London, the House of Commons passed the Minimum Wage Bill, 213-48. The measure passed the House of Lords on the third reading, without dissent, two days later and royal assent was given the same day.
By a vote of 40-34 in the United States Senate, U.S. Senator Isaac Stephenson of Wisconsin was exonerated of charges of corruption in securing his 1907 election, and allowed to return to his seat.
The New Mexico state legislature elected Albert B. Fall and Thomas B. Catron as the new state's first U.S. Senators, after 8 ballots. Four legislators were arrested during the balloting on charges of soliciting bribes.
March 29, 1912: All five of Scott's South Pole group dead
The three remaining members of Robert Falcon Scott's South Pole expedition — Henry R. Bowers, 28; Dr. Edward A. Wilson, 39; and Captain Scott himself, 43 — died while waiting out a blizzard in their tent, still nearly 150 miles from their base camp. Their bodies would be discovered by a search party in November.
Mexico permitted the United States to ship 1,000 rifles and one million rounds of ammunition to American citizens living in Mexico.
New York's State Assembly voted 76-67 in favor of granting women the right to vote. Before the bill could go to the state Senate, Assemblyman, Cuvillier, moved to reconsider the vote and to table further action. His motion passed 69-67.
France established a protectorate over Morocco after Sultan Abdelhafid signed a treaty at 1:30 pm with a representative of the foreign ministry. The "protection" included French power to introduce administrative, judicial, educational, economic, financial and military reforms" as deemed useful, and for the French Army to occupy Morocco as necessary to maintain order, and would last until 1956.
The Chamber of Deputies of France voted to approve a measure limiting a coal miner's work day.
Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, threatened to abdicate from the Austro-Hungarian throne if the governments of the two nations could not resolve their disagreement.
U.S. Senator Thomas Gore of Oklahoma was attacked with a club by Charles Schomulla while speaking at Waukesha, Wisconsin. One of the hosts, Judge P.C. Hamlin, pushed the would be assassin off the stage. Senator Gore, who was blind, was unaware of the incident.
Died:Karl May, 70, German author of adventure stories (b. 1842)
The ship Terra Nova, which had carried Captain Scott's expedition party to Antarctica, arrived at New Zealand. Spokesmen reported that Scott's party had come within at least 150 miles of the South Pole and that he and the group would remain in the Antarctic for another winter, unaware that the five explorers had died on their way back from the South Pole.
^"Aviator Near Death", New York Times, March 11, 1912
^"1,000,000 British Miners Strike", New York Times, March 2, 1912
^"Suffragists Smash London Shop Fronts", New York Times, March 2, 1912, p1
^"Two Months in Jail for Suffragettes", New York Times, March 3, 1912
^Benjamin Suchoff, Béla Bartók: A Celebration (Scarecrow Press, 2004) p140
^"Martial Law Calms Riot Ridden Peking", Milwaukee Sentinel, March 3, 1912, p1
^"Taft Orders Citizens to Quit Mexico", Milwaukee Sentinel, March 3, 1912, p1
^Don M. Coerver, et al., Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History (ABC-CLIO, 2004) p361
^Bob McGee, The Greatest Ballpark Ever: Ebbets Field and the Story of the Brooklyn Dodgers (Rutgers University Press, 2005) p50
^Mark Jarzombek, Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech (UPNE, Oct 28, 2004) p38
^David K. Wyatt, Thailand: A Short History (Yale University Press, 2003) p212-213
^ abcdefghijklmnopqThe Britannica Year-Book 1913: A Survey of the World's Progress Since the Completion in 1910 of the Encyclopaedia Britannica] (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1913) pp xxiii-xxv
^Richard Sax, Classic Home Desserts: A Treasury of Heirloom and Contemporary Recipes from Around the World (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999) p283; "Food Timeline: Cookies, Crackers and Biscuits; John F. Mariani, Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink (Lebhar-Friedman Books, 1999) p225
^ abMax Jones, The Last Great Quest: Captain Scott's Antarctic Sacrifice (Oxford University Press, 2003) p87
^John Whiteclay Chambers II, The Eagle and the Dove: The American Peace Movement and United States Foreign Policy, 1900-1922 (Syracuse University Press, 1991) p21; "World Peace Code Ratified by Senate", Milwaukee Sentinel, March 8, 1912, p1
^Richard C. Hall, The Balkan Wars, 1912-1913: Prelude to the First World War (Taylor & Francis, 2000) p11
^"Hungarian Cabinet Out", New York Times, March 8, 1912
^"New Oil Capital $30,000,000", New York Times, March 8, 1912
^Hermann Knell, To Destroy a City: Strategic Bombing and Its Human Consequences in World War II (Da Capo Press, 2003) p97
^D. W. H. Walton and C. S. M. Doake, Antarctic Science (Cambridge University Press, 1987) p146