March 2012 Gaza–Israel clashes

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Operation Returning Echo
Part of the Gaza–Israel conflict
Map of Gaza Strip and Israel
Map of Gaza Strip and Israel border
Date March 9–14, 2012 (5 days)
Location Gaza Strip and Southern Israel
Belligerents
Flag of Israel.svg Israel Flag of Palestine.svg Popular Resistance Committees
Flag of Palestine.svg Palestinian Islamic Jihad
Casualties and losses
23 civilians wounded[1] 18 militants and 5 civilians killed;[2]
74 wounded (mostly civilians)[2]

Operation Returning Echo[3] (מבצע הד חוזר) was an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) military operation in the Gaza Strip from March 9 until March 14, 2012. It was the worst outbreak of violence covered by the media in the region since the 2008–2009 Gaza War (Operation Cast Lead).[4]

On March 9, Israel carried out a targeted air strike in the Gaza Strip killing Zohair al-Qaisi, the secretary general of the Popular Resistance Committees (PRC). Another militant was also killed in the strike which also seriously injuring a man nearby.[5] According to the IDF, though the PRC denies this, Al-Qaisi had overseen the 2011 southern Israel cross-border attacks, which killed eight Israelis including six civilians.[6] Israeli officials said that he was preparing the final stages of a new mega-attack that could have claimed multiple lives.[7] Palestinian militant groups retaliated[8][9] by launching rocket attacks on Israel, with over 300 Grad missiles, Qassam rockets and mortar shells launched, of which 177 hit Israeli territory[10] striking the major urban centers of Ashdod, Ashkelon and Beersheba, as well as smaller communities.[citation needed] Twenty-three Israelis were injured, all of them civilians, and schools throughout southern Israel were kept closed for most of the week to protect students from rocket fire. Israel's Iron Dome missile defense system intercepted many of the Palestinian-launched projectiles aimed at large cities, shooting down 56 rockets in 71 attempts.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

Israel attacked with 37 air strikes on Gazan weapons storage facilities, rocket launching sites, weapon manufacturing facilities, training bases, posts, tunnels and militants, killing 22, mostly from Palestinian Islamic Jihad and the others from the Popular Resistance Committees. Four civilians were killed as well.[14][20][21][22][23][24] Another 74 Palestinians were reportedly injured during the conflict, mostly civilians.[2] Some deaths and injuries among Palestinian civilians during the escalation, which were reported as casualties of the clashes, were later shown to be unrelated to Israeli actions.,.[25][26][27]

The United States, France, and an official from the United Nations condemned the Palestinian attacks, and the US stressed that Israel has the right to defend itself.[28][29] The Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Arab League, Syria, Egypt and Iran condemned Israel's responsive air strikes on militants.[30][31][32][33][34][35] On March 13, Egypt brokered a ceasefire between Israel and Palestinian militant groups. Hamas did not participate in the fighting directly, and insisted that all-out war would "be devastating to the Palestinian people."[36]

Background[edit]

On August 18, 2011, a series of cross-border parallel attacks and mutual cover was carried out in southern Israel on Highway 12 near the Egyptian border by a squad of presumably 12 militants in four groups.[37] The militants first opened fire at an Egged No. 392 bus as it was traveling on Highway 12 in the Negev near Eilat.[38][39] Several minutes later, a bomb was detonated next to an Israeli army patrol along Israel's border with Egypt. In a third attack, an anti-tank missile hit a private vehicle, killing four civilians.[40] Eight Israelis – six civilians, one Yamam special Unit police officer and one Golani Brigade soldier—were killed in the multiple-stage attack.[41][42] The Israeli security forces reported eight attackers killed, and Egyptian security forces reported killing another two.[37]

Chronology of events[edit]

March 9[edit]

In the afternoon, a strike on a car in Gaza City killed Zohair al-Qaisi, the secretary-general of the Popular Resistance Committees, and his collaborator, Mahmoud Hanani. According to Israel, al-Qaisi was killed because he was in the process of organizing a large terrorist attack to be carried out on Israel's border with Gaza. Al-Qaisi was one of the masterminds of the 2011 southern Israel cross-border attacks, which killed eight Israelis. Hanani was one of the Palestinians freed from Israel as part of the deal to free Gilad Shalit in 2011.[43]

The "Iron Dome" anti-missile system. As of March 11, over a hundred rockets were fired on Israel in three days. More than thirty rockets were intercepted as of March 11, only those that were heading towards population centres.

On the same day, Palestinians increased the daily rocket barrage on Israel injuring three persons and causing a traffic accident in which two were wounded. The Israeli Air Force killed 15 more militants and a civilian in retaliatory attacks.[44] The Iron Dome successfully intercepted 90% of the rockets targeted.[45] On March 10, attacks on Israel continued, without causing damage.[46] Several Palestinians were killed while preparing to fire rockets. Militants fired guns in the air and crowds chanted "Revenge, revenge!" during funeral processions in Gaza City.[47] Particulars of individual Palestinian rocket attacks on March 9:

March 10[edit]

Particulars of Palestinian rocket attacks:

March 11[edit]

As of March 11, over a hundred rockets were fired on Israel in three days. More than thirty rockets were intercepted as of March 11, only those that were heading towards population centres. Overnight, IAF struck new targets in Gaza, killing two Palestinians.[69]

Palestinians fired at least 39 rockets into Israel on March 11.[70] Particulars of individual attacks:

  • In the morning, two rockets were fired into Israel, one into the Eshkol Regional Council and one at Ashkelon.[71]
  • Later in the morning, several rockets were fired at Ashdod, at least one of which was intercepted by Iron Dome.[72]
  • Shrapnel from a rocket fired at Beersheba and intercepted by Iron Dome fell on the city. A vehicle and a sewer pipe were damaged and several residents suffered from shock.[73]
  • A rocket hit a school in Beersheba,[74] exploding in its courtyard and damaging its outer walls and disconnecting parts of the neighborhood from landlines.[75] A second rocket landed in the middle of a residential neighborhood in the city; fifteen homes were damaged and several residents suffered from shock.[76]
  • Two rockets were launched at Ofakim.[77]
  • Three Qassam rockets exploded in the Eshkol Regional Council.[78]
  • Two rockets fired at Ashkelon were intercepted by Iron Dome.[79]
  • Two Qassam rockets landed in the Eshkol Regional Council.[80]
  • Late at night, four Grad rockets were fired at Ashkelon. Some were intercepted by Iron Dome.[81][82]

March 12[edit]

On March 12, Israel carried out nine raids against military targets.[83]

Islamic Jihad confirmed two of its members were killed. In another attack, five civilians were struck. A 16-year-old school boy was killed on March 12, though his death was later shown to be unrelated to Israeli actions.[25] 24 people, including children, were wounded in a pre-dawn strike on Gaza city.[83]

Schools in southern Israel remained closed.[83]

Palestinians fired 42 rockets into Israel.[84] Particulars of individual attacks:

  • During the night, seven Qassam rockets were fired into the Eshkol Regional Council. One landed in a village and damaged several homes and vehicles.[85][86][87]
  • In the morning, three rockets were fired at Beersheba. One was intercepted by Iron Dome and the two others landed outside the city. A warning siren sounded in the city.[88]
  • In the morning, five rockets fired at Ashdod were intercepted by Iron Dome. At least one additional rocket landed near the city. The Color Red alarm sounded in the city and surrounding areas.[89][90]
  • Two trucks that were transporting goods from Israel into the Gaza Strip were damaged by mortar shells on the Gazan side of the Kerem Shalom border crossing.[91]
  • A Qassam rocket landed in the Eshkol Regional Council.[92]
  • Two Qassam rockets landed in the Shaar Hanegev Regional Council.[93]
  • Around 1 pm, two Grad rockets exploded near Beersheba. Air raid sirens sounded in the city.[94]
  • Around 1:30 pm, a Qassam rocket fired from the northern Gaza Strip exploded in the Eshkol Regional Council.[95]
  • Around 1:30 pm, one or two rockets landed near Gedera. Two vehicles were damaged, and several people suffered from shock.[96][97] It is the most northern target to be hit by the Palestinians, located 28 kilometres (17 mi) south-east of Tel Aviv and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) east of Ashdod.[98]
  • Around 2:30 pm, three rockets exploded in the Eshkol Regional Council.[99]
  • Around 2:30 pm, a rocket exploded in Ashdod. Two people were injured by shrapnel, and several other people suffered from shock. Damage was to caused to stores and a vehicle.[100][101] Two other rockets fired at the city were intercepted by Iron Dome.[102]
  • Around 4:30 pm, a rocket exploded near Ofakim.[103]
  • Around 5 pm, a rocket fired at Ashdod was intercepted by Iron Dome.[104]
  • Around 6:30 pm, two rockets exploded in the Eshkol Regional Council.[105]
  • Around 8 pm, two rockets fired at Ashkelon were intercepted by Iron Dome. A third rocket landed in an open area.[106] Air raid sirens sounded in the city.[107]
  • Around 9 pm, two mortar shells were fired into Israel.[108]
  • Around 10 pm, a Qassam rocket exploded in the Eshkol Regional Council.[109]

March 13[edit]

A rocket fired from Gaza hit the city of Netivot

An informal ceasefire was reached early on March 13. Despite this, Palestinians fired at least 7 rockets and 10 mortars at Israel throughout the day.[11] Particulars of individual attacks:

March 14[edit]

Despite the ceasefire, Palestinians continued to launch missiles into Israel. Around 7 pm, a Grad rocket fired at Beersheba was intercepted by Iron Dome. A second rocket landed in an empty field. Neither projectile caused injuries or damage.[121] Following the attack, local authorities announced that schools in Ashdod, Ashkelon, Beersheba, Kiryat Gat, Kiryat Malachi, Gan Yavne and the Bnei Shimon Regional Council would be closed for March 15. Some schools had been open on March 14 after the recent escalation was perceived as having ended.[122] Israel responded to the attack with air strikes on an infiltration tunnel and a rocket launching site.[123]

March 15[edit]

Despite the ceasefire, Palestinians fired a barrage of rockets into Israel. The attacks were praised by Hezbollah Secretary General Hassan Nasrallah, who, in a Hezbollah graduation ceremony, lauded that fact that "the resistance was able to force a million and half a million of Israelis to stay in shelters".[124] Details of individual attacks:

March 16[edit]

Despite the ceasefire, Palestinians fired a rocket into the Eshkol Regional Council.[130]

March 19[edit]

Despite the ceasefire, Palestinians fired a rocket into the Eshkol Regional Council, causing no injuries or damage.[131]

March 20[edit]

Despite the ceasefire, Palestinians fired a rocket into the Eshkol Regional Council, causing no injuries or damage.[132]

March 21[edit]

Despite the ceasefire, Palestinians fired a rocket into the Eshkol Regional Council. Later, a mortar shell was fired into the Sha'ar Hanegev Regional Council. This was followed moments later by a second mortar shell fired at Israel Defense Forces soldiers near the border fence. No injuries or damage were reported in any of the attacks.[133][134][135]

March 29[edit]

Despite the ceasefire, Palestinians fired three mortar shells into the Eshkol Regional Council, causing no injuries or damage.[136]

Disputed incidents[edit]

On 12 March, 16-year-old Nayef Qarmut was killed and six other teenagers were injured in an apparent explosion near Beit Lahiya in the Gaza Strip. Adham Abu Selmiya, a spokesman for medical services in the Hamas-ruled territory, said that Qarmut was killed by an Israeli air strike. The Israel Defense Forces, however, denied that any air strikes had taken place in that time and location. An Agence France-Presse correspondent at the scene said there were no signs of any impact consistent with an air strike, and that the most likely cause of the teen's death was an explosive device he was carrying.[25]

On 14 March, Adham Abu Selmiya said that 8-year-old Barka al-Mugrahbi died of wounds sustained in the same purported air strike which he had said killed Nayef Qarmut. However, on the same day, witnesses and relatives said that the boy was killed by being struck in the head by an errant bullet when gunmen were firing in the air during a Gazan funeral procession for a militant.[26] Abu Selmiya corrected his account, blaming his original account on "wrong information" from the hospital.[27]

Iron Dome[edit]

About 300 rockets being fired by militants from Gaza.[19] On 10 March 2012, The Jerusalem Post reported an Iron Dome success rate of shooting down 90% of rockets launched from Gaza the system engaged (rockets which will land in unpopulated areas are ignored)[137] and there were no Israeli casualties, whether civilian or military. The success of the Iron Dome system was widely acclaimed on the Israeli side.

Reactions[edit]

The United Nations, the United States and France condemned the Palestinian attacks, and the US stressed that Israel has the right to defend itself.[28][138] The Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Arab League and Egypt condemned Israel's air strikes on militants.[30][32][139][140]

The result, according to Leor Sapir, brought five strategic benefits to Israel: (1) it enabled a new weapon system to be tested in an authentic operational setting: (2) it provided crucial data to check if Iron Dome’s technology met its original expectations. (3) It inspired both confidence in the system’s capabilities and set realistic expectations: (4) It enabled, in a controlled conflict to get the Gaza terrorist infrastructure to waste a significant number of rockets: (5) Above all, activating Iron Dome has a deterrent effect by sending with its 76% hit-rate a powerful message to Iran and Hezbollah.[141]

Twitter incidents[edit]

Some images of children in the conflict were outdated and caused controversy. During the March 2012 Gaza-Israel clashes, Ofir Gendelman, a spokesman for Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, tweeted a photo of an Israeli woman and her two children ducking a Gaza rocket describing it as "when a rocket fired by terrorists from Gaza is about to hit their home." When it was proved the photo was from 2009 he said "I never stated that the photo was current."[142] During that period Khulood Badawi, an Information and Media Coordinator for the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, tweeted a picture of a Palestinian child covered in blood. She was criticized because the child was killed in 2006, allegedly in an accident.[143] She later tweeted that she mistakenly had tweeted an old photo.[144] Ma'an News Agency reported a week later that the hospital medical report on the dead girl read that she died “due to falling from a high area during the Israeli strike on Gaza”. There are differing accounts of how the Israeli air strike, reported to be as little as 100 meters away, may have caused the accident. Israel has denied having any involvement in the girl's death.[145]

List of Palestinian militants killed[edit]

  1. Zohair al-Qaisi, commander of the Popular Resistance Committees (PRC), killed in initial air strike on 9 March.[146]
  2. Ahmad Hanini, senior PRC member, killed in same air strike.[146]
  3. Hussein Barham Al-Breim (51), of the PRC, killed while on his motorcycle east of Khan Yunis on 10 March.[49][147]
  4. Mansour Kamal Abu Nuseira (20), of the PRC, killed in same air strike.[49][147]
  5. Mahdi Abu Shawish (24), of the PRC, killed in Rafah later on 10 March.[49][147]
  6. Ahmad Hajjaj, of Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), killed in his car in Gaza City on 10 March.[148]
  7. Fayiq Saad, of PIJ, killed in same air strike.[148]
  8. Muatasim Hajjaj, of PIJ, killed in same air strike.[148]
  9. Shadi Sayqali, of PIJ .[149]
  10. Hazim Qureiqi, of PIJ.[149]
  11. Ubeid Gharably, of PIJ.[149]
  12. Muhammad Hararah, of PIJ.[149]
  13. Muhammad Maghari, of PIJ, killed in Beit Lahiya on 10 March, according to PIJ.[148][150]
  14. Mahmoud Najim, of PIJ, killed in same air strike, according to PIJ.[148][150]
  15. Muhammad al-Ghamry (26), of PIJ, killed on 10 March.[148][150]
  16. Ahmed Deeb Salem (24), of the PRC, killed in Gaza City on 11 March, according to the PRC.[151]
  17. Raafat Abu Eid (24), of PIJ, killed in his vehicle in Khan Yunis on 12 March.[152]
  18. Hamadah Salman Abu Mutlaq (24), killed east of Khan Yunis on 12 March.[152]
  19. Bassam al-Ajla, of PIJ, killed east of Gaza City later on 12 March, while preparing to fire a rocket at Israel.[153]
  20. Muhammad Thaher, of PIJ, killed in same air strike.[153]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "IDF – Israel Defense Forces: Over 300 rockets fired at Israel, IAF thwarts rock". Idf. Retrieved March 13, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "23 killed in Israel-Gaza violence". Reuters. March 12, 2012. 
  3. ^ Ewave ltd. (2012-03-13). "המהדורה המרכזית - רגיעה: מבצע "הד חוזר" הסתיים". Reshet.tv. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  4. ^ Mitnick, Joshua; Bradley, Matt (March 13, 2012). "Israel-Gaza Clash Calms After Egypt Mediates a Truce". The Wall Street Journal. 
  5. ^ "Israel launches deadly air strikes on Gaza". BBC News. March 10, 2012. 
  6. ^ South bombarded by rockets after air force kills Gaza terror head, Times of Israel March 9, 2012
  7. ^ IDF: Killed terror chief planned mega-attack, Ynet News. March 9, 2012
  8. ^ At least 15 killed in Israeli air strikes on Gaza at The Guardian,10 March 2012:The strikes began on Friday, when Israeli air raids killed the senior militant leader Zohair al-Qaisi, the secretary general of the Popular Resistance Committees (PRC). Israel claimed he was targeted because he was planning an attack. Militants retaliated with a fierce rocket attack on Israel's southern border communities, which seriously wounded one civilian.
  9. ^ 'Israel launches deadly air strikes on Gaza,' BBC, 10 March 2012:'The Israeli military said dozens of rockets had been fired into Israel.... Some of the rockets had been intercepted by Israel's "Iron Dome" anti-missile system, she added... The rockets were apparently fired in retaliation for the killing of PRC leaders.'
  10. ^ Rockets and Mortar Shells Fired at Israel, at Jewish Virtual Library, 9–15 March 2012.
  11. ^ a b Following rocket attacks, many Netivot students stay at home, Times of Israel 14-03-2012
  12. ^ Violence Continues for Israel and Militants, IHT March 10, 2012
  13. ^ Some 100 rockets hit Israel since Friday, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  14. ^ a b Israeli airstrikes kill 15 in Gaza; militants fire barrage of rockets, Washington Post March 10, 2012
  15. ^ MDA: Total of 8 people injured by rocket, mortar shell fire, Jerusalem Post March 9, 2012
  16. ^ Over 130 rockets fired at Israel from Gaza, IAF targets terror sites, IDF Spokesperson March 10, 2012
  17. ^ Defense Minister praises Iron Dome operators, IDF Spokesperson March 10, 2012
  18. ^ South under fire: 35 people required medical treatment since Friday, Ynet News. March 12, 2012
  19. ^ a b "Top official: Israel gave no guarantees in exchange for Gaza truce". Haaretz. 14 March 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  20. ^ Gaza militants fire rocket at Israeli town, despite truce, Haaretz 13-03-12
  21. ^ Israeli airstrike kills commander, 15 militants in Gaza, USA Today March 10, 2012
  22. ^ IAF strike on rocket squad brings Gaza death toll to 16, Jerusalem Post March 11, 2012
  23. ^ 3 Palestinians killed in Israeli airstrikes, WGME March 11, 2012
  24. ^ "BBC News – Gaza: New Israeli air strikes leave several dead". BBC. March 4, 2012. Retrieved March 13, 2012. 
  25. ^ a b c Israel denies boy killed on way to school was drone victim, AFP (published in the Sydney Morning Herald) 13-03-2012
  26. ^ a b Palestinians: Gaza boy dies of wounds, AP 14-03-2012
  27. ^ a b Israeli raids Gaza after rockets fired, AFP (published in the Australian) 15-03-2012
  28. ^ a b Israel kills five more Gaza militants; rockets hit Israel, Reuters March 10, 2012
  29. ^ Clinton condemns rocket fire on Israel, Jerusalem Post March 10, 2012
  30. ^ a b OIC Blasts Israeli Aggression on Gaza, KUNA March 11, 2012
  31. ^ Egypt condemns Israeli strikes on Gaza, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  32. ^ a b Barak warns Gaza flare-up may last several more days, Times of Israel March 10, 2012
  33. ^ Arab League, Egypt FM condemn IDF operations in Gaza, Jerusalem Post March 11, 2012
  34. ^ Syria condemns Israel over Gaza airstrikes, Ynet News 13-03-2012
  35. ^ Iran condemns Israel’s new attacks against Gaza Strip, Press TV 13-03-2012
  36. ^ Brulliard, Karin (March 14, 2012). "Egypt-mediated truce calms Israel-Gaza border". Washington Post. 
  37. ^ a b Issacharoff, Avi. "Report: Three Egyptians took part in terrorist attacks on southern Israel". Haaretz. 
  38. ^ "Israeli airstrikes target Gaza after multiple attacks –". CNN. August 19, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Israel launches strikes on Gaza after attacks". Al Jazeera English. August 19, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Additional shooting attack north of Eilat, one injured". The Jerusalem Post. August 18, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  41. ^ Katz, Yaakov (August 18, 2011). "Israel kills PRC leadership in Gaza airstrike". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  42. ^ "Counter-terror officer killed by terrorist fire near Eilat". The Jerusalem Post. August 19, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2011. 
  43. ^ Issacharoff, Avi (2012-03-09). "IDF strike in Gaza kills leader of Popular Resistance Committees - Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  44. ^ "Death toll climbs after Israeli raids on Gaza – Middle East". Al Jazeera English. October 4, 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2012. 
  45. ^ Katz, Yaakov. "Iron Dome ups its interception rate to over 90... JPost – Defense". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved March 13, 2012. 
  46. ^ Yagna, Yanir (December 2, 2011). "Renewed Gaza rocket fire strikes Israel, as escalation in south continues". Haaretz. Israel. Retrieved March 13, 2012. 
  47. ^ "At Least 15 Killed In Israeli Airstrikes On Gaza". National Public Radio. Associated Press. March 10, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  48. ^ Two mortar shells explode in Eshkol region; no casualties, Jerusalem Post March 9, 2012
  49. ^ a b c d e South under fire; IDF kills 12 terrorists, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  50. ^ Palestinians fire 6 rockets into Israel after airstrike, Jerusalem Post March 9, 2012
  51. ^ Rocket fired from Gaza lands in Beersheba; building damaged, Jerusalem Post March 10, 2012
  52. ^ Iron Dome intercepts 2 rockets fired at Ashdod, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  53. ^ Rocket fired at Beersheba; none injured, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  54. ^ Another rocket explodes in Eshkol Regional Council; no injuries, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  55. ^ Rocket explodes in Eshkol Regional Council; no injuries, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  56. ^ Color Red alert sounds in Sderot, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  57. ^ Qassam explodes in Sha'ar Hanegev Regional Council; no injuries, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  58. ^ Iron Dome intercepts 2 more rockets fired towards Ashkelon, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  59. ^ 2 rockets hit northwestern Negev, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  60. ^ Rockets hit near Sderot, Netivot, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  61. ^ Qassam explodes in Eshkol Regional Council; no injuries, Jerusalem Post March 10, 2012
  62. ^ Second rocket in 1 hour explodes in Sha'ar Hanegev, Jerusalem Post. March 10, 2012
  63. ^ Two rockets slam into Eshkol Region Council, none injured, Jerusalem Post 10-0302012
  64. ^ Iron Dome intercepts 2 more rockets fired at Ashdod, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  65. ^ Shrapnel from intercepted rocket falls on Ashkelon home, Jerusalem Post March 10, 2012
  66. ^ a b Rocket hits Be'er Tuvia Regional Council, Ynet News. March 10, 2012
  67. ^ Kassam rocket lands in stable, kills horse, Jerusalem Post. March 10, 2012
  68. ^ Five rockets exploded in fields in Eshkol; no injuries, Jerusalem Post. March 10, 2012
  69. ^ Cohen, Gili (December 2, 2011). "Iron Dome intercepts Gaza rockets over Ashdod, as escalation continues for third day – Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News". Haaretz. Israel. Retrieved March 13, 2012. 
  70. ^ Police: At least 39 rockets fired at Israel on Sunday, Ynet News. March 11, 2012
  71. ^ Two rockets explode in South; no casualties, damage, Jerusalem Post. March 11, 2012
  72. ^ Iron Dome intercepts rocket fired at Ashdod; none injured, Jerusalem Post. March 11, 2012
  73. ^ Iron Dome hits rocket, shrapnel causes damage in Beersheba, Jerusalem Post. March 11, 2012
  74. ^ "video footage of the blast". Israelnationalnews.com. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  75. ^ Bezeq 166 call center
  76. ^ Rocket fired from Gaza hits Beersheba school; damage caused, Jerusalem Post. March 11, 2012
  77. ^ Report: Two rockets explode near Ofakim; no casualties, Jerusalem Post. March 11, 2012
  78. ^ Three rockets explode in Eshkol region; no casualties, Jerusalem Post. March 11, 2012
  79. ^ Rocket fired from Gaza intercepted near Ashkelon, Jerusalem Post. March 11, 2012
  80. ^ Two Kassam rockets land in Eshkol region; no casualties, Jerusalem Post. March 11, 2012
  81. ^ Report: Two Grad rockets fired over Ashkelon, no injuries, Jerusalem Post March 12, 2012
  82. ^ IDF intercepts additional rocket over Ashkelon, Ynet News. March 11, 2012
  83. ^ a b c "New Israeli airstrikes kill 3 in Gaza". Toronto. March 12, 2012. [dead link]
  84. ^ Police: Total of 42 rockets hit Israel Monday, Ynet News. March 13, 2012
  85. ^ 7 rockets fired from Gaza into Eshkol regional council, Jerusalem Post. March 12, 2012
  86. ^ "Grad salvo hits western Negev - Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  87. ^ Eshkol: Rocket damages structures near kindergarten, Ynet News. March 12, 2012
  88. ^ 3 Rockets fired at Beersheba from Gaza; none hurt, Jerusalem Post. 12 March 2012
  89. ^ Iron Dome intercepts 5 rockets fired at Ashdod; none hurt, Jerusalem Post12 March 2012
  90. ^ Rocket falls in open area near Ashdod; no injuries, Jerusalem Post. March 12, 2012
  91. ^ 2 trucks damaged by mortar shells on Gaza side of border, Jerusalem Post March 12, 2012
  92. ^ Kassam from Gaza lands in Eshkol Council area; none hurt, Jerusalem Post. March 12, 2012
  93. ^ 2 Kassams from Gaza land in Sha'ar Hanegev region, no hurt, Jerusalem Post March 12, 2012
  94. ^ 2 rockets explode near Beersheba, Ynet News. March 12, 2012
  95. ^ Qassam hits western Negev none injured, Ynet News. March 12, 2012
  96. ^ 2 rockets from Gaza land in Gedera area; none hurt, Jerusalem Post. March 12, 2012
  97. ^ Rocket explodes in Gadera; Car damaged, Ynet News. March 12, 2012
  98. ^ "Grad rockets slam into Ashdod, Gedera – JPost – Defense". JPost. Retrieved March 13, 2012. 
  99. ^ 3 rockets hit northwestern Negev, Ynet News. March 12, 2012
  100. ^ Ashdod: Rocket hits car, Ynet News. March 12, 2012
  101. ^ Ashdod: Woman injured by rocket shrapnel, Ynet News. March 12, 2012
  102. ^ Iron Dome intercepts rocket fired at Ashdod, Ynet News 12 March 2012
  103. ^ Rocket explodes in Ofakim area, Ynet News 12 March 2012
  104. ^ Iron Dome intercepts rocket fired at Ashdod, Ynet News. 12 March 2012
  105. ^ 2 rockets explode in Eshkol Regional Council, Ynet News 12 March 2012
  106. ^ Iron dome intercepts 2 rockets over Ashkelon, Ynet News12 March 2012
  107. ^ Air raid siren activated in Ashkelon, Ynet News. 12 March 2012
  108. ^ 2 mortar shells explode in south, Ynet News. 12 March 2012
  109. ^ Another Qassam rocket explodes in south, Ynet News. 12 March 2012
  110. ^ Rocket hits western Negev; non injured, Ynet News. 13 March 2012
  111. ^ Mortar shell fired at Ashkelon area; none injured, Jerusalem Post. March 13, 2012
  112. ^ Kassam rocket fired at Eshkol Regional Council from Gaza, Jerusalem Post 13 March 2012
  113. ^ Color Red Alert in Hof Ashkelon; mortar falls in Palestinian territory, Ynet News 11:00 13-03-2012
  114. ^ 4 mortars explode in Eshkol Regional Council; no injuries, Ynet News 12:09 13-02-2012
  115. ^ 2 additional Gaza mortars hit Negev, Ynet News 12:19 13-03-2012
  116. ^ Gaza rocket hits Negev; no injuries, Ynet News 19:04 13-03-2012
  117. ^ Mortar shell hits Eshkol Council; no injuries, Ynet News 20:54 13-03-2012
  118. ^ "ynet עלה ל-20 מספר נפגעי החרדה מפיצוץ הגראד בנתיבות - חדשות". Ynet.co.il. 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  119. ^ man injured from rocket explodes in Netivot, Ynet News 23:11 13-03-2012
  120. ^ "Rocket hits Netivot parking lot; IDF strikes in Gaza - Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  121. ^ Iron Dome intercepts rocket fired from Gaza at Beersheba, Jerusalem Post 19:04 13-03-2012
  122. ^ Rocket attacks continue after IAF strike, Jerusalem Post 15-03-2012
  123. ^ Gaza fire continues as rocket hits Netivot, Ynet News 15-03-2012
  124. ^ Nasrallah praises barrage of Gazan rockets fired at Israel, Jerusalem Post 15-03-2012
  125. ^ Kassam explodes in Sdot Negev region; no casualties, Jerusalem Post 15-03-2012
  126. ^ Iron Dome intercepts Grad; rocket hits Netivot, Ynet News 15-12-2012
  127. ^ Grad fired at Ashdod intercepted by Iron Dome, Ynet News 15-03-2012
  128. ^ Rocket hits western Negev, Ynet News 21:21 15-03-2012
  129. ^ Rocket hits Hof Ashkelon Regional Council, Ynet News 21:56 15-03-2012
  130. ^ Rocket hits Negev overnight; no injuries, Ynet News 16-03-2012
  131. ^ Kassam lands in Eshkol Council area; none injured, Jerusalem Post 19-03-2012
  132. ^ Rocket strikes Eshkol Regional Council; none injured, Jerusalem Post 20-0302-12
  133. ^ Rocket explodes in Eshkol Regional Council; no injuries, 22:06 21-03-2012
  134. ^ Mortar shell fired at IDF troops near Gaza border, Ynet News 23:22 21-03-2012
  135. ^ 3 rockets fired at western Negev, Ynet News 00:43 22-03-2012
  136. ^ Three mortar shells explode in Eshkol area, none injured, Jerusalem Post 18:09 29-03-2012
  137. ^ Katz, Yaakov (10 March 2012). "Iron Dome ups its interception rate to over 90%". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 10 March 2012. 
  138. ^ Clinton condemns rocket fire on Israel, Jerusalem Post March 10, 2012
  139. ^ Egypt condemns Israeli strikes on Gaza, Ynet News March 10, 2012
  140. ^ Arab League, Egypt FM condemn IDF operations in Gaza, Jerusalem Post March 11, 2012
  141. ^ Leor Sapir, Iron Dome’s Crucial Gaza Test, at Commentary, 27 March 2012.
  142. ^ Diaa Hadid, Old photos tweeted in Israel-Palestinian conflict, Associated Press Worldstream, via Highbeam, March 15, 2012.
  143. ^ Sheera Frenkel, Tweets of misleading photos feed Israeli-Palestinian feud, The McClatchy Company, March 14, 2012.
  144. ^ Herb Keinon, No sign UN will fire worker over incendiary tweet, Jerusalem Post, March 20, 2012.
  145. ^ Charlotte Alfred, Twitter flap obscures details of Gaza girl's death, Ma'an News Agency, 27/03/2012 (updated) 01/04/2012 09:31
  146. ^ a b IDF foils major attack; kills 2 terrorists in Gaza strike, Jerusalem Post 09-03-2012
  147. ^ a b c Airstrikes kill 3 in south Gaza, Ma'an News Agency 10-03-2012
  148. ^ a b c d e f Israel bombards Gaza for second day, Ma'an News Agency 10-03-2012
  149. ^ a b c d Gaza buries 12 men, Ma'an News Agency 10-03-2011
  150. ^ a b c حتى فجر اليوم.."سرايا القدس" تودع 10 مجاهدين وتدك المحتل بأكثر من 70 صاروخ وقذيفة, paltoday.ps 10-03-2012
  151. ^ كتائب الناصر تزف للجنان شهيدها المجاهد أحمد سالم ديب, moqawmh.ps 11-03-2012
  152. ^ a b 5 killed, 46 injured in fourth day of Gaza airstrikes, Ma'an News Agency 12-03-2012
  153. ^ a b Medics: 2 killed in Israeli airstrike east of Gaza City, Ma'an News Agency 12-03-2012