Marcha Real

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"Royal March" redirects here. For the former Italian anthem, see Marcia Reale.
"Viva España" redirects here. For the song also known as Y Viva España or Que Viva España, see Eviva España.
Marcha Real
English: Royal March
Escudo de España (mazonado).svg

National anthem of  Spain
Lyrics None
Music Manuel de Espinosa de los Monteros, Bartolomé Pérez Casas (orchestration), Francisco Grau (harmonization)
Adopted 1770
Music sample

The Marcha Real (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmartʃa reˈal], "Royal March") is the national anthem of Spain. It is one of only four national anthems (along with those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and San Marino) in the world to have no official lyrics.[1]

One of the oldest in the world, the anthem was first printed in a document dated 1761 and entitled Libro de la Ordenanza de los Toques de Pífanos y Tambores que se tocan nuevamente en la Ynfantª Española (Book of the Ordenance of Newly Played Military Drum and Fife Calls by The Spanish Infantry), by Manuel de Espinosa. Here it is entitled La Marcha Granadera ("March of the Grenadiers"). According to this document, Manuel de Espinosa de los Monteros is the composer.

There is a false belief that Marcha Real's author was Frederick II of Prussia, a great lover of music. This belief started in 1861 when it appears for the first time published in La España militar (The Military Spain). In 1864, the colonel Antonio Vallecillo publishes the history in the diary El Espíritu Público (The Public Spirit), making the supposed Prussian origin of Marcha Real popular. According to Vallecillo, the anthem was a gift from Frederick II to the soldier Juan Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor, who was serving in the Prussian Court to learn the military tactics developed by Frederick II's army, under orders of King Charles III. In 1868 the history is published in Los Sucesos, changing the destinatary of the gift with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda. The myth was picked up like this in different publications of 1884 and 1903, until being included in 1908 in the Enciclopedia Espasa.

According to the tradition in 1770, Charles III declared the Marcha de Granaderos as the official Honor March, and with that formalized the habit of playing it in public and solemn acts. It became the official anthem during Isabel II's reign.

After the 1868 Revolution, General Prim convoked a national contest to create an official anthem, but it was declared deserted, advising the jury that Marcha de Granaderos was considered as such. By Alfonso XIII's time, it was established by a Royal Circular Order (27 August 1908) that interpreted the harmonization of the march done by Bartolomé Pérez Casas, Major Music of the Royal Corps of Halberdier Guards. During the Second Republic, Himno de Riego was adopted as official anthem, although after the Spanish Civil War, Marcha Real returned to be used as anthem, sometimes sung with the verses written by the poet José María Pemán in 1928.

The actual symphonic version of the Marcha Real that replaces the Pérez Casas one, belongs to maestro Francisco Grau and is the official one after the Royal Decree of 10 October 1997, when the Kingdom of Spain bought the author rights of the Marcha Real, then belonging to Pérez Casas' Heirs. According to the Royal Decree 1560/1997, the anthem should have a tone of B major and a tempo of 76 bpm (♩=76), with a form of AABB and a duration of 52 seconds.

Under the Trienio Liberal (1820–1823), the First Spanish Republic (1873–74) (when it enjoyed of a co-officiality) and the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), El Himno de Riego replaced La Marcha Real as the national anthem of Spain. At the conclusion of the Civil War, however, Francisco Franco restored La Marcha Real as the country's national anthem, under its old title of La Marcha Granadera.

Current version[edit]

The current official version, as described in Royal Decree 1560/1997,[2] is a sixteen-bar long phrase, divided in two sections, each one is made up of four repeated bars (AABB form). Tempo is set to ♩= 76 and key to B flat.

The long, complete version is the honors music for the King, while a shorter version without the repetitions is performed for the President of the Government of Spain, the Prince of Asturias, or during sporting events.

There are also three official arrangements: one for orchestra, another for military band, and a third for organ, written by Francisco Grau Vegara and requested by the Government of Spain. All in all, there are six different official adaptations, for each arrangement and length. They all were recorded by the Spanish National Orchestra and the Spanish Royal Guard Band as an official recording and released on compact disc for a limited period of time.[3]

Copyright issues[edit]

As the harmonization of the Marcha Real was written by Bartolomé Pérez Casas in the early 1900s, the copyright has not yet expired. The government bought it from Pérez Casas' estate in 1997 for 130,000,000 pesetas (~ 781,316) to avoid future legal problems.[4] Until it expires, the copyright belongs to the Ministry of Culture and collecting societies charge copyright fees, which has led to criticism.[5]

As a result, many different harmonisations have been devised by performers to avoid paying. Nonetheless, the rights to the 1997 Francisco Grau revision were transferred to the government at no charge, although they were not placed in the public domain.[6]

Lyrics[edit]

Though the Marcha Real has no lyrics, words have been written and used for it in the past. One version was used during Alfonso XIII's reign and another during General Franco's dictatorship; however, none of them were ever made official. The national anthem has been played without words since 1978, when the lyrics that had been approved by General Francisco Franco were abandoned.[7]

Lyric competition[edit]

After witnessing a rendition of "You'll Never Walk Alone" at Anfield in 2007, the President of the Spanish Olympic Committee, Alejandro Blanco, said he felt inspired to seek lyrics to La Marcha Real ahead of Madrid's bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games.[8][9] Politicians, including the PM José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, steered clear of the issue in order not to alienate some Basques, Catalans, or Galicians who tend to identify with their own regions rather than with the Spanish state.[10] A number of the autonomous communities of Spain have their own anthems. An open competition for the lyrics resulted in 7,000 entries.[11]

Proposed lyrics[edit]

Spanish lyrics

¡Viva España!
Cantemos todos juntos
con distinta voz
y un solo corazón.
¡Viva España!
Desde los verdes valles
al inmenso mar,
un himno de hermandad.
Ama a la Patria
pues sabe abrazar,
bajo su cielo azul,
pueblos en libertad.
Gloria a los hijos
que a la Historia dan
justicia y grandeza
democracia y paz.[12]

English lyrics

Long live Spain!
Let's sing together,
with different voices,
and only one heart.
Long live Spain!
From the green valleys,
to the immense sea,
a hymn of brotherhood.
Love the Fatherland,
which knows how to embrace,
below the blue sky,
people in freedom.
Glory to the sons,
who have given to history,
justice and greatness,
democracy and peace.[13]

Basque Translation

Gora Espainia! Dezagun guztiak elkarrekin abesten, ahots desberdinak, eta bakarra bihotza.

Gora Espainia! Ibar berdeak, aurrera la erraldoi itsasoa, a senidetasun ereserki.

Maitasuna la Patria, horrek badaki nola besarkatu, zeru urdina, beheko askatasunean herriak.

Aintza semeak, Nor ari da historia ematen, Justizia eta handitasuna, demokrazia eta bakea.

Catalan translation

Visca Espanya! Anem tots a cantar junts, amb veus diferents, i un sol cor.

Visca Espanya! Des dels verds valls, l'immens mar, un himne de germanor.

L'amor a la Pàtria, que sap abraçar, sota el cel blau, pobles en llibertat.

Glòria als fills, que donen a la història, la justícia i grandesa, la democràcia i la pau.

Galician translation

Viva España! Imos todos cantar xuntos, con voces diferentes, e un só corazón.

Viva España! Dos vales verdes, ao inmenso mar, un himno da fraternidade.

Amor da Patria, que sabe abrazar, baixo do ceo azul, pobos en liberdade.

Gloria aos fillos, que a historia dá, xustiza e grandeza, democracia e da paz.

On January 16, 2008, just five days after presenting the competition winner to the public, the Spanish Olympic Committee withdrew the proposal after widespread public criticism due to the lyrics' supposed nationalist tone.[14]

Former lyrics[edit]

Alfonso XIII lyrics[edit]

Lyrics by Eduardo Marquina (1879–1946)

Gloria, gloria, corona de la Patria, soberana luz que es oro en tu color.

Vida, vida, futuro de la Patria, que en tus ojos es abierto corazón.

Púrpura y oro: bandera inmortal; en tus colores, juntas, carne y alma están.

Púrpura y oro: querer y lograr; Tú eres, bandera, el signo del humano afán.

Gloria, gloria, corona de la Patria, soberana luz que es oro en tu color.

Púrpura y oro: bandera inmortal; en tus colores, juntas, carne y alma están.

English language version

Glory, glory, crown of the Fatherland sovereign light which in your standard is gold.

Life, life, future of the Fatherland, in your eyes it is an open heart

Purple and gold: immortal flag; in your colors, together, flesh and soul are.

Purple and gold: to want and to achieve; You are, flag, the sign of human effort.

Glory, glory, crown of the Fatherland sovereign light which in your standard is gold.

Purple and gold: immortal flag; in your colors, together, flesh and soul are.

Basque language version

Gora Espainia! Denok batera abes dezagun ahots ezberdinez bihotz bakarrez

Gora Espainia! Haran berdeetatik itsaso zabaleraino anaitasun ereserkia

Maita ezazu aberria besarkada ematen dielako zeru urdinaren pean herri askeei

Justizia eta handitasuna demokrazia eta bakea Historiari ekartzen dioten seme-alabei loria

Catalan Translation

Glòria, glòria, corona de la Pàtria sobirana llum que en el seu estàndard és d'or.

la vida la vida, el futur de la Pàtria, en els teus ulls és un cor obert

Bandera d'Espanya Porpra i or: bandera immortal; Ministeri d'Educació en els teus colors, juntes, carn i ànima hi són.

Porpra i or: voler i aconseguir; Tu ets, bandera, el signe de l'humà afany.

Glòria, glòria, corona de la Pàtria sobirana llum que en el seu estàndard és d'or.

Porpra i or: bandera immortal; en els teus colors, juntes, carn i ànima hi són.

Galician Translation

Gloria, gloria, coroa da Patria soberano luz que no seu defecto é ouro.

Vida, vida, futuro da Patria, nos seus ollos é un corazón aberto

Bandeira de España Púrpura e ouro: bandeira inmortal; en túas cores, xuntas, carne e alma están.

Púrpura e ouro: a querer e conseguir; Está, a bandeira, o sinal do esforzo humano.

Gloria, gloria, coroa da Patria soberano luz que no seu defecto é ouro.

Púrpura e ouro: bandeira inmortal; en túas cores, xuntas, carne e alma están.

Franco lyrics[edit]

Lyrics by José María Pemán (1897–1981)

Viva España, alzad los brazos, hijos del pueblo español, que vuelve a resurgir.

Gloria a la Patria que supo seguir, sobre el azul del mar el caminar del sol.

Gloria a la Patria que supo seguir, sobre el azul del mar el caminar del sol.

¡Triunfa España! Los yunques y las ruedas cantan al compás del himno de la fe.

¡Triunfa España! Los yunques y las ruedas cantan al compás del himno de la fe.

Juntos con ellos cantemos de pie la vida nueva y fuerte del trabajo y paz.

Juntos con ellos cantemos de pie la vida nueva y fuerte del trabajo y paz.

Viva España, alzad los brazos, hijos del pueblo español, que vuelve a resurgir.

Gloria a la Patria que supo seguir, sobre el azul del mar el caminar del sol.

English language version

Long live Spain, raise your arms, sons of the Spanish people, who are rising again.

Glory to the Fatherland that knew how to follow, over the blue of the sea the path of the sun.

Glory to the Fatherland that knew how to follow, over the blue of the sea the path of the sun.

Spain triumphs! The anvils and wheels sing to the rhythm of the hymn of the faith.

Spain triumphs! The anvils and wheels sing to the rhythm of the hymn of the faith.

Together with them let's stand and sing the new powerful life of labour and peace.

Together with them let's stand and sing the new powerful life of labour and peace.

Long Live Spain, raise your arms, sons of the Spanish people, who are rising again.

Long Live Spain, raise your arms, sons of the Spanish people, who are rising again.

Glory to the Fatherland that knew how to follow, over the blue of the sea the path of the sun.

Glory to the Fatherland that knew how to follow, over the blue of the sea the path of the sun.

Basque Translation

Gora Espainia, besoak goratzen, seme jende Espainiako Nor dira berriro igotzen.

Nahi Patria du Aintza duten zekien jarraitu, itsas eguzkiaren bidea urdina gainean.

Nahi Patria du Aintza duten zekien jarraitu, itsas eguzkiaren bidea urdina gainean.

Espainiako garaipenak! Ingudea eta gurpilak nahi erritmoak diru fede ereserkia da.

Espainiako garaipenak! Ingudea eta gurpilak nahi erritmoak diru fede ereserkia da.

Haiekin batera dezagun jarrera eta diru lan eta bakearen berri eta indartsuak bizitza.

Haiekin batera dezagun jarrera eta diru lan eta bakearen berri eta indartsuak bizitza.

Gora Espainia, igo zure besoak, seme jende Espainiako Nor dira berriro igotzen.

Gora Espainia, igo zure besoak, seme jende Espainiako Nor dira berriro igotzen.

Nahi Patria du Aintza duten zekien jarraitu, itsas eguzkiaren bidea urdina gainean.

Nahi Patria du Aintza duten zekien jarraitu, itsas eguzkiaren bidea urdina gainean.

Catalan Translation

Visca Espanya, alceu els braços, fills del poble espanyol, que torna a ressorgir.

Glòria a la Pàtria que va saber seguir, sobre el blau del mar el caminar del sol.

Glòria a la Pàtria que va saber seguir, sobre el blau del mar el caminar del sol.

¡Triomfa Espanya! Les encluses i les rodes cantar al ritme l'himne de la fe.

¡Triomfa Espanya! Les encluses i les rodes cantar al ritme l'himne de la fe.

Al costat d'ells anem a posar-se dret i cantar la vida nova i forta del treball i la pau.

Al costat d'ells anem a posar-se dret i cantar la vida nova i forta del treball i la pau.

Visca Espanya, alceu els braços, fills del poble espanyol, que torna a ressorgir.

Visca Espanya, alceu els braços, fills del poble espanyol, que torna a ressorgir.

Glòria a la Pàtria que va saber seguir, sobre el blau del mar el caminar del sol.

Glòria a la Pàtria que va saber seguir, sobre el blau del mar el caminar del sol.

Galician Translation

Viva a España, a erguer os brazos, fillos do pobo español, que están crecendo de novo.

Gloria á Patria que soubo seguir, sobre o azul do mar, o camiño do sol.

Gloria á Patria que soubo seguir, sobre o azul do mar, o camiño do sol.

España vence! Os batentes e as rodas cantar ao ritmo do himno da fe.

España vence! Os batentes e as rodas cantar ao ritmo do himno da fe.

Xunto con eles imos ir e cantar a vida nova e poderosa do traballo e da paz.

Xunto con eles imos ir e cantar a vida nova e poderosa do traballo e da paz.

Viva a España, a erguer os brazos, fillos do pobo español, que están crecendo de novo.

Viva a España, a erguer os brazos, fillos do pobo español, que están crecendo de novo.

Gloria á Patria que soubo seguir, sobre o azul do mar, o camiño do sol.

Gloria á Patria que soubo seguir, sobre o azul do mar, o camiño do sol.

Carlist lyrics[edit]

Viva España, gloria de tradiciones, con la sola ley que puede prosperar.

Viva España, que es madre de Naciones, con Dios, Patria, Rey con que supo imperar.

Guerra al perjuro traidor y masón, que con su aliento impuro hunde la nación.

Es su bandera la historia de su gloria; por ella dará su vida el español

Fe verdadera que en rojo de amor aprisiona briosa un rayo de sol.

English language version

Long live Spain, glory of traditions, with the single law can thrive.

Long live Spain, the mother of Nations, God, Fatherland, King with which he prevail.

War on perjured traitor and Mason, with his breath impure plunges the nation.

Is your flag the story of his glory; for it will his life in Spanish

True faith love that red imprisons spirited a ray of sunshine.

Basque Translation

Gora Espainia, tradizioak, aintza lege bakar daiteke aurrera.

Gora Espainia, Nazio, ama Dios, Patria, Rey dituen. gailenduko zuen

Perjurer gerra traidorea eta Hargin, bere arnasa ezpuruetan nazioaren lotzen zaio.

Zure bandera da bere aintza istorioa; izango begiratu Espainiako bere bizitza

benetako fede gorria maite duten imprisons Chihiroren a Eguzki-izpien.

Catalan Translation

Visca Espanya, glòria de tradicions, amb la sola llei que pot prosperar.

Visca Espanya, que és mare de Nacions, amb Déu, Pàtria, Rei amb que va saber imperar.

Guerra al perjur traïdor i maçó, que amb el seu alè impur enfonsa la nació.

És la seva bandera la història de la seva glòria; per ella donarà la seva vida l'espanyol

Fe veritable que en vermell d'amor empresona coratjosa un raig de sol.

Galician Translation

Viva España, gloria de tradicións, coa única lei pode prosperar.

Viva España, a nai das Nacións, Deus, Patria, Rei que el prevalece.

Guerra en que cometeu perxurioer traidor e Albanel, co seu impuro hálito mergulla a nación.

é a súa bandeira a historia da súa gloria; polo que vai manter súa vida no Español

verdadeira fe o amor que vermello aprisiona espirituoso un raio de sol.

Interpretation and etiquette[edit]

Military bands of the Spanish Armed Forces and the National Police Corps of Spain and civilian Marching bands and Concert bands play the B flat-major version of the anthem adapted for wind bands (as arranged by Francisco Grau), and playing the A Major version is optional.

The bugle call "To the Colors" in Spain is the version played by Bugle bands in Spanish churches in religious occasions and processions organized by civil groups and the parishes. Various versions adapted for the drum and the bugle are used, even though brass instruments play the anthem as well. But in some bugle bands, the A flat version of the anthem (the old official one, adapted for the bugle) is played. Only a bugle call is sounded when the B flat version is played.

Being the National Anthem, and in honor of the King and Queen of Spain, it's a common practice for all to stand once it is played. Even though it is also played in church events, respect for the King and Queen (and the Royal Family as well) is required by everyone in attendance. As it happens civilians stand at attention while those in uniform salute when not in formation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Spain – Marcha Real". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-11-23. 
  2. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado Royal Decree 1560/1997.
  3. ^ Official anthem release album cover.
  4. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado Royal Decree 1543/1997.
  5. ^ "El himno da aún mucho dinero". Crónica. #604. May 27, 2007.
    "Cuando el himno es de un particular". Periodista Digital. May 27, 2007.
  6. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado Royal Decree 2027/1998.
  7. ^ Divisive national anthem lyrics ditched Wed Jan 16, 2008
  8. ^ Liverpool fans help inspire Spain to write words to anthem Reuters, 5 June 2007
  9. ^ Spain to add lyrics to wordless national anthem MSNBC, 26 June 2007
  10. ^ "Lost for Words", The Economist, Vol 384 Number 8539.
  11. ^ "Spain: Lyrics for Anthem Pulled". New York Times. Associated Press. January 18, 2008. Retrieved 2011-01-13. 
  12. ^ http://gospain.about.com/od/spanishlife/qt/anthem_spanish.htm
  13. ^ http://gospain.about.com/od/spanishlife/qt/anthem_english.htm
  14. ^ "Controversy over lyrics stalls Plácido Domingo's dream of singing Spanish anthem". International Herald Tribune. 16 January 2008.  Retrieved on 17 January 2008.

Sheet music[edit]

External links[edit]