Mardavij

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Mardavij
King of the Ziyarid dynasty
MardavijCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Reign 930–935
Successor Vushmgir
House Ziyarid
Father Ziyar
Born ca. 890
Tabaristan
Died January 935
Isfahan, Iran
Religion Zoroastrianism

Mardavij (Persian: مرداویج‎, also spelled as Mardaviz, Mardavich, Mardavige, and Mardavaz; died 935), was the founder of the Ziyarid dynasty, which was founded in 930.

Born to a Zoroastrian family native to Tabaristan, Mardavij was an anti-Muslim, who sought to revive the Persian Empire which was conquered in 651 by the Muslims. He first started his career by joining the army of Asfar ibn Shiruya. Mardavij, however, later betrayed him, and killed him, conquering much of Jibal. Mardavij then set out to conquer Hamadan, Dinavar and Isfahan from the Abbasids, where he declared himself king of Iran and made Isfahan the capital of his kingdom.

He then defeated the Dailamite general Makan ibn Kaki, and conquered Tabaristan in 932. By 934, his authority was acknowledged in Shiraz[1] and Ahvaz.[2] However, his goal of recreating the Persian Empire was ruined when he was murdered by his own Turkish slaves.

Biography[edit]

Map of northern Iran

Early life[edit]

Mardavij was born ca. in 890 when Amr-i Laith Saffari and Nasr I ruled in Sistan and Khorasan respectively. Some reports say that his birthplace was in Daylaman (in northwestern Iran) or somewhere in Mazandaran. Mardavij was the son of Ziyar, and a sister of Harusindan, a Gilite ruler. Mardavij belonged to the Arghich tribe, which claimed to be descended from Arghush Farhadan, king of Gilan who lived during the time of Kai Khosrow.[3] Members of the Arghich clan were mostly known to be considered as warriors, and the name of Mardavij which means 'a man who fights bravely' should have been popular. The religion of Ziyar and his family is not exactly known. Zoroastrianism, including heterodox branches such as the Mazdakite, the Zurvanite and Gayomardian, was still popular at his time. However, Mardavij was known to harbor Zoroastrian sympathies and practiced that religion.

Rise to power[edit]

Around 913, Mardavij joined the army of Asfar ibn Shiruya. Like Mardavij, Asfar was a Dailamite Zoroastrian, who was native to Lahijan. Asfar was a general in the service of Zaydids, who ruled Tabaristan at the time.

In 930, Asfar invaded the domains of the Zaydi Abu Muhammad Hasan ibn Qasim. During the invasion, Mardavij managed to heavily wound Abu Muhammad near Amol, thus avenging his maternal uncle Harusindan, who was killed by the hands of the Alids. The army of Asfar then marched towards Ray, where they defeated the Dailamite general Makan ibn Kaki, who fled to Daylam.[4][5] Asfar managed to successfully conquer Tabaristan, and also captured Qazvin and Zanjan. He then appointed Mardavij as the governor of Zanjan. In 930, Mardavij along with Asfar's brother, Shirzad, were ordered to capture Tarom, the capital of the Sallarid ruler Muhammad bin Musafir. During the siege, Mardavij, on the urging of Makan and Muhammad, betrayed Asfar by revolting against him. With the aid of Muhammad and Makan, Mardavij defeated and killed Shirzad, including other members of his tribe. He then marched towards Qazvin, the residence of Asfar. However, Asfar managed to flee. Mardavij thus founded the Ziyarid dynasty, and became ruler of Asfar's former territories, which included; Ray, Qazvin, Zanjan, Abhar, Qom and Karaj.[3] He is said to have worn a "crown of Anushirvan" at his court.[6]

Reign[edit]

Persia in the mid-10th century

Mardavij then aggressively began expanding his domains, by attacking Asfar, who was now residing in Hamadan after his disastrous defeat. In 931, Mardavij managed to defeat and kill Asfar. He then began quickly capturing the Abbasid cities of Hamadan, Dinavar, and Kashan, and finally in Isfahan,[3] which became his capital. He then appointed his brother Vushmgir as the governor of Amol. Mardavij planned to conquer Baghdad, remove the caliphate, be crowned in Ctesiphon and restore the Persian empire.[1]

In 930, Makan managed to defeat Mardavij, and briefly recover Tabaristan. Makan then extended his rule over most of Gurgan and even take possession of Nishapur in western Khurasan, which he was forced to abandon in 931, bowing to pressure by the Samanid ruler Nasr II.[4][3] In 931, Mardavij sent an army against Makan, but the latter defeated Mardavij's forces in a first engagement in 931. Eventually, after Makan's return to Tabaristan from Nishapur, Mardavij personally launched an attack that conquered Tabaristan.[4][3]

Just after Mardavij's victory, Ali ibn Buya, along with his two brothers Hasan ibn Buya and Ahmad ibn Buya, managed defect to Mardavij's side just as he was preparing to undertake the conquest to the south of the Alborz mountains as far as Qazvin.[7] Not long afterwards Mardavij granted Ali administrative rule over Karaj, a strategically important town probably situated near modern Bahramabad. While making a stop in Ray on his way to Karaj, however, Ali was warned by Mardavij's vizier al-'Amid that Mardavij was planning to eliminate him. Hurriedly leaving Ray, he arrived at and took over Karaj.[7] In 933, Mardavij made peace treaty with the Samanid ruler Nasr II; Mardavij agreed to cede Gurgan to the Samanids and pay tribute for his possession of Ray.[1] Mardavij then began to focus on western Iran, where his troops managed to conquer as far as Ahvaz, and forced Ali, who was now in Shiraz, to once again acknowledge his authority.[1]

Death[edit]

In January 935, shortly before Nowruz festivities, Mardavij was assassinated by his Turkish slaves, whom he had treated bad and had favored his Dailamite troops instead of them.[4][1] After his assassination, many of his troops entered the service of the Abbasids, while some others joined Ali, who managed to found the Buyid dynasty, and had take over Mardavij possessions in central and southern Iran, while Mardavij's brother Vushmgir succeeded him in northern Iran. Mardavij was buried in Gonbad-e Mardaviz, a place located in the north east of Amin Abbad Borough in the city of Rey, south of Tehran.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Madelung 1975, p. 213.
  2. ^ Bosworth 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e Madelung 1975, p. 212.
  4. ^ a b c d Nazim 1987, p. 164.
  5. ^ Madelung 1975, p. 211.
  6. ^ Busse 1975, p. 273.
  7. ^ a b Busse 1975, p. 254.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
None
Ziyarid king
930–935
Succeeded by
Vushmgir