|This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (October 2013)|
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the French Wikipedia. (January 2012)|
|Margaret "Molly" Brown|
Margaret "Molly" Brown, survivor of the Titanic, 1920
July 18, 1867
|Died||October 26, 1932
New York City, New York
|Cemetery of the Holy Rood|
|Residence||New York City, New York|
|Other names||Molly Brown, Maggie Brown, The Unsinkable Molly Brown, Margaret Tobin Brown, Mrs. James J. Brown|
|Known for||Titanic survivor|
|Home town||Denver, Colorado|
|Salary||$700/month (1909; $18,374 today)|
|Net worth||$238,000 (1922; $3,353,292 today)|
|Spouse(s)||James Joseph Brown (1886–1922); (his death)|
|Parents||John Tobin (1820–1899)
Johanna Collins (1825–1905)
Margaret "Molly" Brown (née Tobin) (July 18, 1867 – October 26, 1932) was an American socialite, philanthropist, and activist who became famous because of her survival of the 1912 sinking of the RMS Titanic, after exhorting the crew of Lifeboat No. 6 to return to look for survivors. It is unclear whether any survivors were found after Lifeboat No. 6 returned to search. She became known after her death as "The Unsinkable Molly Brown", although during her life, her friends called her "Maggie". A 1960 Broadway musical based on her life was produced, along with a 1964 film adaptation of the musical. Both were titled The Unsinkable Molly Brown.
Born Margaret Tobin in Hannibal, Missouri on what is now known as Denkler's alley, her parents were Irish Roman Catholic immigrants John Tobin (1820–1899) and Johanna Collins (1825–1905). Her siblings were Daniel (born 1863), William (born 1869), and Helen (born 1871). Added to these, Margaret had two half-sisters: Catherine Bridget Tobin, by her father's first marriage, and Mary Ann Collins, by her mother's first marriage. Both her mother and father had been widowed young.
At age 18, Margaret relocated to Leadville, Colorado with her brother Daniel, where she found a job in a department store. In Leadville she met and married James Joseph Brown (1854–1922), nicknamed "J.J.", an enterprising, self-educated man. His parents, too, had emigrated from Ireland. Brown had always planned to marry a rich man but she married J.J. for love. She said,
I wanted a rich man, but I loved Jim Brown. I thought about how I wanted comfort for my father and how I had determined to stay single until a man presented himself who could give to the tired old man the things I longed for him. Jim was as poor as we were, and had no better chance in life. I struggled hard with myself in those days. I loved Jim, but he was poor. Finally, I decided that I'd be better off with a poor man whom I loved than with a wealthy one whose money had attracted me. So I married Jim Brown.
- Lawrence Palmer Brown (known as Larry), was born on August 30, 1887 in Hannibal, Missouri. He married Hannah Elizabeth Horton (1890–1985) on January 1, 1911 in Kansas City, Missouri. They had two children: Lawrence Palmer "Pat" Brown, Jr. (1911–1976) and Eileen Elizabeth "Betty" Brown (1913–1974). The marriage failed and Larry married Mildred Gregory (1895–1956) on November 17, 1926 in Beverly Hills, California. This marriage produced no other children. Larry died on April 2, 1949.
- Catherine Ellen Brown (known as Helen), was born on July 22, 1889 in Leadville, Colorado. She married George Joseph Peter Adelheid Benziger (1877– 1970) on April 7, 1913 in Chicago, Illinois. Her children were James George Benziger (1914–1995) and George Peter Joseph Adelrich Benziger (1917–1985). Her grandchildren include Katherine Benziger (born July 12, 1947) and Vincent Benziger (born August 1950). Helen died in 1969.
The Brown family acquired great wealth when J.J.'s mining engineering efforts proved instrumental in the production of a substantial ore seam at the Little Jonny Mine of his employers, Ibex Mining Company, and he was awarded 12,500 shares of stock and a seat on the board. In Leadville, Margaret helped by working in soup kitchens to assist miners' families.
In 1894, the Browns moved to Denver, Colorado, which gave the family more social opportunities. Margaret became a charter member of the Denver Woman's Club, whose mission was the improvement of women's lives by continuing education and philanthropy. Adjusting to the trappings of a society lady, Brown became well-immersed in the arts and fluent in French, German, and Italian. Brown co-founded a branch in Denver of the Alliance Française to promote her love of French culture.
After 23 years of marriage, Margaret and J.J. privately signed a separation agreement in 1909. Although they never reconciled, they continued to communicate and cared for each other throughout their lives. The agreement gave Margaret a cash settlement and she maintained possession of the house on Pennsylvania Street in Denver. She also received a $700 monthly allowance (equivalent to $18,374 today) to continue her travels and social work.
Margaret assisted in the fund-raising for Denver's Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception which was completed in 1911. Margaret worked with Judge Lindsey to help destitute children and establish the United States' first juvenile court which helped form the basis of the modern U.S. juvenile courts system.
Margaret ran for Senate again in 1914 but ended her campaign to return to France to work with the American Committee for Devastated France during WWI.
Passenger on the Titanic
Margaret was conveyed to the passenger liner RMS Titanic as a first class passenger aboard the tender SS Nomadic at Cherbourg, France. The Titanic sank early on April 15, 1912, at around 2:20 a.m. after striking an iceberg at around 11:40 the night before.
Margaret helped others board the lifeboats, but was finally convinced to leave the ship in Lifeboat No. 6. Brown was later called "The Unsinkable Molly Brown" by authors because she helped in the ship's evacuation, taking an oar herself in her lifeboat and urging that the lifeboat to go back and save more people. Her urgings were met with opposition from Quartermaster Robert Hichens, the crewman in charge of Lifeboat 6. Hichens was fearful that if they did go back, the lifeboat would either be pulled down due to suction or the people in the water would swamp the boat in an effort to get inside. Sources vary as to whether the boat did go back and if they found anyone alive when they did.
At the time of J.J. Brown's death on September 5, 1922, Margaret told newspapers, "I've never met a finer, bigger, more worthwhile man than J.J. Brown." J.J. died without a will and it required five years of disputation between Brown and her two children finally to settle the estate. Due to their lavish spending J.J. left an estate valued at only $238,000, equal to $3,353,292 today. Maggie was to receive $20,000 in cash and securities (equal to $281,789 today), and the interest on a $100,000 trust fund (equal to $1,408,946 today) in her name. Her children, Lawrence and Helen, received the rest. A court case against Helen and Lawrence was settled privately and Margaret and her children were reconciled at the time of her death in 1932.
Her fame as a well-known Titanic survivor helped her promote the issues she felt strongly about—the rights of workers and women, education and literacy for children, historic preservation, and commemoration of the bravery and chivalry displayed by the men aboard the Titanic. During World War I in France, she worked with the American Committee for Devastated France to rebuild areas behind the front line and helped wounded French and American soldiers. She was awarded the French Legion of Honour for her good citizenship including her activism and philanthropy in America. During the last years of her life, she was an actress.
- Thelma Ritter (1953) (Titanic). Margaret Brown's name was changed to Maude Young, and her Colorado silver mining fortune became a Montana lead mining fortune.
- Cloris Leachman (1957) (Telephone Time) ("The Unsinkable Molly Brown")
- Tucker McGuire (1958) (A Night to Remember)
- Tammy Grimes (1960) (The Unsinkable Molly Brown) (Broadway musical) Grimes won a Tony Award for her performance.
- Debbie Reynolds (1964) (The Unsinkable Molly Brown). Reynolds received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress.
- Cloris Leachman (1979) (S.O.S. Titanic) (TV movie)
- Fionnula Flanagan (1983) (Voyagers!) ("Voyagers of the Titanic")
- Marilu Henner (1996) (Titanic) (TV miniseries)
- Kathy Bates (1997) (Titanic)
- Morgan Hill (1998) (Titanic: Secrets Revealed) (TV documentary)
- Judy Prestininzi (2003) (Ghosts of the Abyss) (Documentary)
- Judy Prestininzi (2005) (Last Mysteries of the Titanic) (TV documentary)
- Linda Kash (2012) (Titanic) (TV series/2 episodes)
- Rosalind Blessed (2012) (Iceberg – Right Ahead!) (London Stageplay)
- Deborah Jean Templin (2012) (Unsinkable Women) (Touring One Woman Show)
- Titanic: A Night Remembered, Stephanie L. Barczewski, 2004, page 30.
- Harper, Kimberly. "Margaret Tobin Brown (1867 - 1932)". State Historical Society of Missouri. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Molly Brown dans l'Encyclopedia Titanica
- Iversen, Kristen (1999). Molly Brown: Unraveling the Myth. Boulder: Johnson Books. pp. 145–146.
- Iversen, p. 34
- Margaret "Unsinkable Molly Brown" Brown at Find a Grave
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Margaret Brown.|
- Margaret Brown On Titanic-Titanic.com
- Margaret Brown Death Certificate On Titanic-Titanic.com
- List of passengers and crew of RMS Titanic
- Margaret Brown at Find a Grave
- Molly Brown House Museum, Denver
- Book, Molly Brown: Unraveling the Myth
- 1920 passport photo of Margaret "Molly" Brown (courtesy flickr.com)