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|Born||Eleanor Margaret Peachey
August 12, 1919
|Known for||Astrophysics, Fellow of the Royal Society|
Eleanor Margaret Burbidge, née Peachey, FRS (born August 12, 1919 Davenport) is a British-born American astrophysicist, noted for original research and holding many administrative posts, including director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory.
During her career, she served at the University of London Observatory, Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago, Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, England, the California Institute of Technology, and from 1979 to 1988 was first director of the Center for Astronomy and Space Sciences at the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), where she has worked since 1962.
Burbidge started studying astronomy in 1936, at University College, London, was graduated in 1939 and received her Ph.D. at University College in 1943. She was turned down for a Carnegie Fellowship in 1945 because this fellowship would have meant that she would have had to observe at Mount Wilson observatory, which was reserved only for men at that time.
In 1950, she applied for a grant at the Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, and went to the United States in 1951. She returned to England in 1953 and started research in collaboration with her husband Geoffrey Burbidge, Fred Hoyle, and William Alfred Fowler. The resulting theory was called the B2FH theory after the participants.
After ten years, in 1955, she finally gained access to the Mount Wilson Observatory, posing as her husband's assistant. When the management found out, they eventually agreed that she could stay, if she and her husband went to live in a separate cottage on the grounds, rather than staying in the men's dormitory.
In 1972 she became director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. This was the first time in 300 years that that directorship was not associated with the post of the Astronomer Royal, which was instead awarded to radio astronomer (and later Nobel prize winner) Martin Ryle. Burbidge left this post in 1974, fifteen months after accepting it, when controversy broke out over moving the Isaac Newton Telescope from the Observatory to a more useful location.
Experiences such as these turned Burbidge into one of the foremost and most influential personalities in the fight to end discrimination against women in astronomy. Consequently, in 1972 she turned down the Annie J. Cannon Award of the American Astronomical Society because it was awarded to women only: "It is high time that discrimination in favor of, as well as against, women in professional life be removed". Twelve years later the Society awarded her its highest honor, regardless of gender, the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship.
In 1978, she becaume a Jury member for The Rolex Awards for Enterprise, one of two from the United States; Luis Marden being the other; 2 from France, Derek Jackson and Jacquest Piccard, and one from Switzerland, Olivier Reerdin. The 1978 laureates were Luc Jean-Francois Debecker of France, Billy Lee Lasley of the United States, Kenneth Lee Martin of Ethiopia, and Francine Patterson also from the United States.
In 1976, she became president of the American Astronomy society. In 1977, she became a United States citizen. In 1983 she was elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; she also has served as vice-president and president of the American Astronomical Society.
On April 2, 1948, she married Geoffrey Burbidge, a theoretical astrophysicist. Their daughter, Sarah, was born in late 1956. Geoffrey Burbidge died in 2010.
After receiving her Ph.D. in 1943, she started to research galaxies by linking a spectrograph to telescopes. At the Yerkes Observatory in the USA her work involved studying B stars and galaxy structure.
In 1957, the B2FH group showed the famous result that all of the elements except the very lightest, are produced by nuclear processes inside stars. For this they received the Warner Prize in 1959. In her later research she was one of the first to measure the masses and rotation curves of galaxies and was one of the pioneers in the study of quasars.
At UCSD she also helped develop the faint object spectrograph in 1990 for the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, she is a professor emeritus of physics at UCSD and continues to be active in research, such as engaging in non-standard cosmologies such as, intrinsic redshift.
- Helen B. Warner Prize for Astronomy, with her husband (1959)
- Catherine Wolfe Bruce medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (1982)
- National Medal of Science (1983)
- Henry Norris Russell Lectureship (1984)
- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, with her husband (2005)
Named after her
References and notes
- Hall of Fame Inductees, Women's Museum of California 2001
- G. Burbidge, E. M. Burbidge, H. C. Arp, W. M. Napier: Ultraluminous X-ray Sources, High Redshift QSOs and Active Galaxies. Preprint (2006)
- National Science Foundation - The President's National Medal of Science
- New name, big plans for Women's History Museum in 2011
- Autobiography in 1994 Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Biography from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
- Article from the UCSD Times
- Short biography
- Personal web page
- Personal web page at UCSD physics
- Oral History interview transcript with Margaret Burbidge 13 July 1978, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library and Archives
- The President's National Medal of Science Recipients