Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut

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"Margaret of Holland" redirects here. For the daughter of Count Floris IV of Holland, see Margaret of Holland, Countess of Henneberg.
Margaret II
Marguerite II de Hainaut.png
Countess of Hainaut and Holland
Tenure 1345–1356
Queen consort of Germany
Tenure 1324–1347
Holy Roman Empress
Tenure 1328–1347
Spouse Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Issue Margaret, Duchess of Slavonia
Anna, Duchess of Bavaria
Louis VI the Roman
Elisabeth, Countess of Württemberg
William V, Count of Holland
Agnes of Bavaria
Albert of Holland
Otto V the Bavarian
Beatrice, Queen of Sweden
House House of Wittelsbach (by marriage)
House of Avesnes (by birth)
Father William I, Count of Hainaut
Mother Joan of Valois
Born 1311
Died 23 June 1356
(aged 44–45)
Le Quesnoy
Burial Valenciennes
Religion Roman Catholicism

Margaret II of Avesnes (1311 – 23 June 1356) was Countess of Hainaut and Countess of Holland (as Margaret I) from 1345 to 1356. Margaret was the daughter of William I, Count of Hainaut, and his wife, Joan of Valois. On 26 February 1324 in Cologne she married Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian.

Biography[edit]

She succeeded in 1345 her brother William II of Hainaut (William IV) following his death in battle with later Louis IV the Bavarian designating that Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland were his wife's possessions.[1] and later these passed to their son William V. Margaret's sisters, including Philippa of Hainaut who was Queen consort of Edward III of England disavowed their hereditary claims.[2] Due to the dangerous hostility of the House of Luxemburg Louis increased his power base ruthlessly. Margaret then returned to Holland in 1346 to secure her position of power but did not manage to prevent the coronation of the Luxemburg Charles IV as anti-king in Aix-la-Chapelle by force.

When Louis IV died on 11 October 1347, he was succeeded by his six sons. In 1349 the brothers decided to partition their possessions; Louis V, Duke of Bavaria kept Brandenburg and Tyrol, he and his younger brothers Louis VI the Roman and Otto V the Bavarian received Upper Bavaria. Stephen II, William and Albert received Lower Bavaria, Holland and Hainaut. Louis V and Stephen were not sons of Margaret and her youngest sons Albert and Otto were still minors. Louis VI released Holland and Hainaut for his brothers William and Albert in 1349 since he expected the Polish crown by his marriage with Cunigunde of Poland. In 1353 also Stephen released Holland and Hainaut to his brother William.

Despite Margaret resigning her sovereignty in favour of her son William,[3] in 1350, the nobles of Holland asked Margaret to return to run Holland again. Her son William refused to pay her alimony so she then battled for the power in Holland and Hainaut for some years with her son. The Cod League was formed in 23 May 1350 by a number of supporters of William. On 5 September of the same year, the Hook League was formed. Soon afterward these factions clashed and a civil war began, known as the Hook and Cod wars.

Edward III of England, Margaret's brother-in-law through her sister Philippa of Hainault, came to her aid, winning a naval engagement off Veere in 1351; a few weeks later the Hooks and their English allies were defeated by William and the Cods at Vlaardingen, a defeat which ruined Margaret's cause. Edward III shortly afterwards changed sides and the empress saw herself compelled (1354) to come to an understanding with her son: he being recognized as count of Holland and Zeeland, she of Hainaut in her lifetime.[4] Margaret died two years later, leaving William in possession of the entire Holland-Hainaut inheritance.

Family and children[edit]

Coats of Arms of the Counts of Hainaut and Holland.

In 1324 she married Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Their children were:

  1. Margaret (1325–1374), married:
    1. in 1351 in Buda Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (d. 1354), son of the King Charles I of Hungary, and had issue;
    2. 1357/58 Gerlach von Hohenlohe.
  2. Anna (c. 1326 – 3 June 1361, Fontenelles) married John I of Lower Bavaria (d. 1340)
  3. Louis VI the Roman (1328–1365), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg. No issue.
  4. Elisabeth (1329 – 2 August 1402, Stuttgart), married with:
    1. Cangrande II della Scala, Lord of Verona (d. 1359) in Verona on 22 November 1350. No issue
    2. Count Ulrich of Württemberg (d. 1388) in 1362. No issue
  5. William V of Holland (1330–1389), as William I duke of Lower Bavaria, as Wiliam V count of Hainaut and Holland. He married Maud of Lancaster but their only daughter died young
  6. Agnes (Munich, 1335 – 11 November 1352, Munich). She became a nun, due to ill health and died young
  7. Albert I of Holland (1336–1404), duke of Lower Bavaria, count of Hainaut and Holland
  8. Otto V the Bavarian (1340–1379), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg
  9. Beatrice of Bavaria (1344 – 25 December 1359), married bef. 25 October 1356 Eric XII of Sweden
  10. Louis (October 1347 – 1348)

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sury, Geoffroy G., Bayern Straubing Hennegau : la Maison de Bavière en Hainaut, XIVe-XVe s., Brussels, © 2010 (2nd ed.), p. 66. - French: Un parchemin daté du 7/09/1346 à Francfort, dont le sceau est détruit, énonce que Louis IV de Bavière empereur du St.-Empire Romain Germanique s’engage pour lui-même et ses héritiers, et au nom de son épouse, l’impératrice Marguerite, à ne jamais céder, diviser ni engager les comtés de Hainaut, de Hollande, de Zélande et de la seigneurie de Frise, qui appartiennent à la dite Marguerite (Marguerite II (d’Avesnes) comtesse de Hainaut) et à ses héritiers, sauf les droits de ses soeurs, et, après le décès de cette dernière, à leur deuxième fils, Guillaume (futur Guillaume III comte de Hainaut) duc (I) de Bavière, et, celui-ci décédé, à Albert (futur Albert Ier comte de Hainaut), duc (I) de Bavière, leur troisième fils. A parchment dated 7 September 1346 in Frankfurt, of which the seal is destroyed, announces that Louis IV of Bavaria, Emperor of the Holy Germanic Empire bestows for himself and his heirs, in the name of his spouse, the empress Margaret, to never cede, divide or bestow the counties of Hainut, Holland, Zeeland and the palatine of Frisia, which belong to his wife, Margaret II (of Avesnes), Countess of Hainaut and to her heirs, excepting the rights of her sisters and after her death, to William (future William III, Count of Hainaut) Duke (I) of Bavaria, and after his decease to Albert (future Albert I, Count of Hainaut) G. Wymans, Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut , the State Archives, Palais des Expos, Aux Grands Près, Mons tél. 065/400460 order number (slide) 868, Editions A.G.R., Brussels, 1985, p. 190. (Or. sur pch. ; dét. (Francfort, 7/09/1346.)
  2. ^ Sury, Geoffroy G., Bayern Straubing Hennegau : la Maison de Bavière en Hainaut, XIVe-XVe s., Brussels, © 2010 (2nd ed.), p. 66. -<(French: Un chirographe sur parchemin daté du 17/10/1346 à Ypres (Ieper), dont le sceau est détruit, énonce un accord conclu entre l’impératrice Marguerite II comtesse de Hainaut (épouse de Louis IV de Bavière, empereur germanique) etc., et sa soeur Philippine (Philippa de Hainaut), reine d’Angleterre (épouse du roi Edouard III) touchant la succession de leur défunt frère, Guillaume II comte de Hainaut, etc. Philippa, renonçant à ses prétentions sur le Hainaut, la Hollande, la Zélande et la Frise. A chirograph on parchment dated 17 October 1346 in Ypres, of which the seal is destroyed, announces that an accord reached made between the Empress Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut (wife of Louis IV of Bavaria, the Emperor) etc., and her sister Phillippine (Phillipa of Hainaut), Queen of England (wife of King Edward III) concerning the succession of their late brother, William II Count of Hainaut, etc. Phillipa renouncing her pretentions to Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Frisia - G. Wymans, Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut, the State Archives, Palais des Expos, Aux Grands Près, Mons tél. 065/400460)order no (slide) 869, Editions A.G.R., Brussels, 1985, p. 190.
  3. ^ (French: Un parchemin daté du 8/09/1346 à Geertruidenberg, d’après une traduction latine de l’allemand, datée du 16/03/1347 (date nouv. st.), énonce que Marguerite II comtesse de Hainaut (épouse de Louis IV de Bavière, empereur germanique) etc., commet son fils Guillaume (le futur Guillaume III comte de Hainaut) au gouvernement des comtés de Hainaut, de Hollande, de Zélande, et de la seigneurie de Frise durant son absence. A parchment dated 8 Sep. 1346 in Geertruidenberg, in a Latin translation from German, dated 16 March 1347 (New Style), announces that Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut (spouse of Louis IV of Bavaria, the Holy Roman Emperor) etc. commits her son William (the future William III, Count of Hainaut) to the government of Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Frisia during her absence - G. Wymans, Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut , the State Archives, Palais des Expos, Aux Grands Près, Mons tél. 065/400460), ordre no.(slide)868, Editions A.G.R., Brussels, 1985, p. 190.
  4. ^ Geoffroy G. Sury, Bayern Straubing – Hennegau : la Maison de Bavière en Hainaut, XIVe – XVe s., Brussels, 2010, 2nd ed., p. 67. - French: Un parchemin en partie détruit et daté du 7/12/1354 à Mons, à 4 sceaux appendus brisés, énonce que Jean de Hainaut et Wallerand de Luxembourg seigneur de Ligny, agissant en qualité de personnes intermédiaires et arbitres, pour rétablir la paix entre Marguerite et son fils, le duc Guillaume de Bavière (le futur Guillaume III comte de Hainaut), font connaître les termes de l’ordonnance d’arbitrage évoquée dans les actes passés, dont ils restituent la teneur : .. En exécution de ladite ordonnance, la comtesse Marguerite (II) de Hainaut, etc. cède à son fils Guillaume duc de Bavière, les comtés de Hainaut, de Hollande, de Zélande, et la seigneurie de Frise, moyennant le paiement d’une somme de 40.000 florins de Florence et d’une pension viagère de 7.000 florins ; de son côté, ledit duc ..renonce à fair valoir ses droits sur le Hainaut tant que vivra sa mère. A partially destroyed parchment dated 7 December 1354 at Mons, with four broken seals appended, announces that John of Hainaut and Wallerand of Luxemburg, Lord of Ligny, acting as intermediaries and arbitrators, to reestablish the peace between Margaret and her son, the Duke, William of Bavaria (the future William III, Count of Hainaut), make known the terms of the arbitration settlement stated in previous deeds, which they uphold : .. In execution of the said settlement, the Countess Margaret (II) of Hainaut, etc. cedes to her son William, Duke of Bavaria the counties of Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and the lordship of Frisia, in return taking payment of 40000 Florence Florins and widow's pension of 7000 florins; for his part the said Duke waives his rights over Hainaut so long as his mother is living. - G Wymans, Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut , the State Archives, Palais des Expos, Aux Grands Près, Mons tél. 065/400460) order number(slide) 974, Editions A.G.R., Brussels, 1985, pp. 209-210.
Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut
Born: 1311 Died: 23 June 1356
Regnal titles
Preceded by
William the Bold
Countess of Hainaut,
Holland and Zeeland

1345–1356
Succeeded by
William the Mad
German royalty
Preceded by
Isabella of England
Empress consort of
the Holy Roman Empire

1328–1347
Succeeded by
Anne of Świdnica
Preceded by
Beatrice of Silesia
and Isabella of Aragon
Queen consort of Germany
1324–1347
With: Isabella of Aragon (1324–1328)
Succeeded by
Blanche of Valois