Margaret Wilson (Scottish martyr)
Margaret Wilson (c. 1667 – 11 May 1685) was a young Scottish Covenanter, from Wigtownshire in Scotland executed by drowning for refusing to swear an oath declaring James VII as head of the church. She died along with Margaret McLachlan. The two Margarets were known as the Wigtown Martyrs. Wilson became the more famous of the two because of her youth. As a teenager, her faith unto death became celebrated as part of the martyrology of Presbyterian churches.
From 6 February 1685 James II of England (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and King of Ireland as James II, and King of Scotland as James VII. James wanted to proceed quickly to his coronation, and was crowned with his wife at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685, (the same day the Scottish Parliament met and probably proclaimed James King of Scotland). The Scottish Parliament granted Margaret Wilson a reprieve one week later. "James VII of Scotland" was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Members of Britain's political and religious elite increasingly opposed him for being pro-French and pro-Catholic, and for his designs on becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, the tension exploded, and leading nobles called on William III of Orange (his son-in-law and nephew) to land an invasion army from the Netherlands.
Background and arrest
The Covenanter movement to maintain the reforms of the Scottish Reformation came to the fore with signing of the National Covenant of 1638 in opposition to royal control of the church, promoting Presbyterianism as a form of church government instead of an Episcopal polity governed by bishops appointed by the Crown. The dispute led to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the overthrow of the monarchy. With the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 the Covenants were declared treasonable and Episcopacy was restored. Particularly in the south-west of Scotland, ministers refused to submit. Barred from their churches, they held open air field assemblies called conventicles which the authorities suppressed using military force.
By 1684 they were hiding from the authorities in the hills, and increasingly draconian action had ended the large conventicles. There were still small gatherings held indoors, but now failure to take a test of allegiance to the king, which required renouncing the Covenant, met with the death penalty, as did even attending a conventicle or harbouring Covenanters. Despite the risks, she began attending conventicles together with her younger brother Thomas, possibly beginning when there was an opportunity at a local conventicle to see the charismatic James Renwick who had newly become leader of the more extreme Covenanters known as the Cameronians. On occasion they also took along their young sister Agnes.
In February 1685 the sixteen-year-old Thomas Wilson left to join other Covenanters in the hills. The girls went on a secret visit to Wigtown to visit friends, including an elderly widow Margaret McLachlan (there are various spellings of her second name). The young sisters Margaret and Agnes were taken prisoner, possibly after declining to drink the King's health, and put into the "thieves' hole". They refused to take the Abjuration Oath renouncing the Covenant. On the following Sunday Margaret McLachlan was arrested, and also put into the "thieves' hole" with the Wilson girls, along with a servant woman. They were taken before the "local assizes" of the Government Commissioners for Wigtownshire, (session record of the Parish of Penninghame, Wigtownshire).
On 13 April 1685 they were indicted as being guilty of the Rebellion of Bothwell Bridge, Aird's Moss, 20 Field Conventicles and 20 House Conventicles. The Assizes session took place and a guilty verdict was brought. The three main protagonists were found guilty on all charges, and sentenced to be "tied to palisades fixed in the sand, within the floodmark of the sea, and there to stand till the flood o'erflowed them". ( Battle of Bothwell Bridge was on 22 June 1679 when Margaret Wilson would have been about 12 years old. The battle of Airds Moss was on 22 July 1680 when Margaret Wilson would have been about 13 years old.)
Privy Council of Scotland
The father of the girls, Gilbert Wilson, went to Edinburgh and made a plea to the Privy Council of Scotland for clemency for all three, presenting a petition which claimed that Margaret McLachlan had recanted.
The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland states that Margaret McLachlan (referred to by the anglicised version of her surname "Lauchlinson"), "now prisoner in the tolbooth of Wigtoun" is
justlie condemned to die be the Lords Commissioners of his Majesties most honorable Privie Counsell and Justitiarie in ane court holden at Wigtoune the threttein day of Apryle instant for my not dissowning that traiterous Apollogeticall Declaratione laitlie affixed at severall paroch churches within this kingdom and my refuising the oath of abjuratione of the saymein, which wes occasioned by my not peruseing the saymein ; and now I haveing considdered the said Declaratione doe acknowledge the saymein to be traiterows and tends to nothing but rebellione and seditione and to be quyt contrair wnto the wryt in Word of God, and am content to abjure the same with my whol heart and soull." She therefore craves the Council to consider her case, she being about 70 years of age, and recal the sentence and grant warrant to some one to administer the oath of abjuration to her and liberate her, whereupon she shall live as a good and faithful subject and frequent the ordinances and do what else is prescribed to her. Signed by William Moir, notary, on her behalf because she cannot write; "A. Dunbar, witnes ; Will. Gordoun, witnes. " (Endorsed) "Petitione for Margaret Lachlisone, 1685."
Agnes was granted freedom on a bond of 100 Pounds Scots, and "reprieves were written out for the two Margarets with a date of 30 April 1685".
Reprieve and execution
A reprieve was granted for Margaret Wilson and Margaret McLachlan. It stated, "The Lords of his Majesties Privy Council doe hereby reprive the execution of the sentance of death pronunced by the Justices against Margret Wilson and Margret Lauchlison until the ..... day of ..... and discharges the magistrats of Edinburgh for putting of the said sentence to execution against them untill the forsaid day; and recomends the saids Margret Wilson and Margret Lauchlison to the "Lords Secretaries of State" to interpose with his most sacred Majestie for his royall remission to them."
Urging that Margaret Wilson and Margaret McLaghlan were officially reprieved by the Privy Council of Scotland, Mark Napier insisted that its agents should not have dared flout the Council's decree. Grierson of Lag, brother-in-law of Queensberry, nevertheless chose to do so. G. F. Crosbie writes that "over-zeal was no crime in 1685 - the year when Lag received his baronetcy in the pitiless James's coronation honour's list."
On 11 May 1685, 11 days after the signing of the reprieve, Margaret Wilson and Margaret McLachlan were chained to stakes on the Solway Firth. At the last moment, choking on the salt water, Margaret Wilson was allowed to offer a prayer for the King, which she did, but she continued to refuse to abjure the covenant. This was not good enough for her accusers, and she was forcibly thrust beneath the waves. It is said that, as the tide rose, she defiantly quoted from the psalms and the epistles and sang until she drowned. Robert Wodrow later wrote that the killers should have been prosecuted for ignoring the reprieve.
About 18 years of age at the time of her death, Margaret Wilson was buried, together with her friend Margaret McLauchlan, in the churchyard of Wigtown.
Twenty years after the date of the execution Kirkinner and Penninghame Kirk Session prepared two accounts that drew on stories collected from individuals who claimed to have witnessed the events: McLachlan's daughter's own account about the drowning of her mother was employed, and the records of the Penninghame Kirk Session included a statement referring to Wilson's brother Thomas, that he "lives to certifie the truth of these things, with many others who knew them too weel."
The story of the Wigtown Martyrs was among those collected by Robert Wodrow and published in his History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution. The Church of Scotland synod had decided in the year of the attempted Jacobite invasion, 1708, to collect accounts of persecution under the Stuart monarchs, and commissioned Wodrow to take on the research. He wrote that Thomas Wilson "lives now in his father's room, and is ready to attest all I am writing."  The account was published in 1721, and had a considerable effect on public perception despite it being attacked by royalists and supporters of the Scottish Episcopal Church.
Scottish lawyer and historian Mark Napier in his three-volume Memorials of Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, 1859–62, included letters of Claverhouse and other documents not previously in print. Its publication led to a small storm of controversy about the supposed drowning of the "Wigtown Martyrs". Napier raised doubts as to whether the executions as depicted ever took place, and critiqued the writings of Robert Wodrow, and his defenders. Napier replied in detail to his objectors in the Case for the Crown in re the Wigtown Martyrs proved to be Myths versus Wodrow and Lord Macaulay, Patrick the Pedlar and Principal Tulloch, 1863; and once more in History Rescued, in Reply to History Vindicated (by the Rev. Archibald Stewart), 1870.
Art and literature
The death of Margaret Wilson was depicted in 1862 by the Pre-Raphaelite artist John Everett Millais in an illustration (shown above) for the magazine Once A Week. The magazine also reproduced the verses describing her death which are inscribed on her grave in Wigtown.
Some years later Millais revisited the subject in his painting The Martyr of Solway (1871) (shown at the left), which hangs in the Walker Gallery in Liverpool. Although the painting today shows Margaret wearing an open-neck blouse, when conservators x-rayed the piece, they found that the figure had once been a nude looking sharply to the right.
In fact the head and torso had originally formed part of Millais' 1870 painting The Knight Errant, which portrayed a naked rape victim tied to a tree. A medieval knight is depicted cutting her free, having killed her attacker. The painting received negative reviews, leading Millais to cut away the head and torso section and add a fresh piece of canvas to paint it anew, with the woman's head turned distinctly away to the left. The original figure section was added to a new canvas for the 1871 Martyr painting and was repainted with chains and the more modest blouse.
The story of Wilson's death is discussed in Josephine Tey's 1951 novel The Daughter of Time, in which a modern detective criticises versions of historical events created to serve political agendas. Following Mark Napier, Tey portrays the death of Wilson as a myth, referring to the existence of the reprieve, held by the Scottish Privy Council "to this day". She claims that "the original collector of the material, canvassing the Wigtown district only forty years after the supposed martyrdom and at the height of the Presbyterian triumph, complains that 'many deny that this happened'; and couldn't find any eyewitnesses at all". In fact, Robert Wodrow, the original collector of the material published in The History and Sufferings of the Church 36 years after the event, wrote that "our jacobites have the impudence, some of them to deny, and others to extenuate this matter of fact which can be fully evinced by many living witnesses" Kirk Session records written out twenty years after the events provide detailed accounts complied form the narratives of individuals who claimed to have witnessed the events.
- Barbara Gilmour - fellow Scottish Covenanter.
- The Two Margarets
- The Two Margarets: The Solway Martyrs (Excerpt from Trial and Triumph: Stories from Church History)
- Harris, 45. The English coronation only crowned James King of England and Ireland; James was never crowned in Scotland, but was proclaimed King of Scotland around the same time.
- Elizabeth Robertson (14 June 1997). "Sacrificed to the cruel flood". The Herald. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
- A History of Dumfries and Galloway. by Sir Herbert Maxwell. p. 282. http://archive.org/stream/ahistorydumfrie00unkngoog#page/n302/mode/2up
- The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland. Third Series. Vol.XI 1685–1686, p. 286 no. 8.(c. 28 April) 1685. Petition by Margaret Lachlisone for liberation on taking the Test. p. 286.
- Register of the Privy Council of Scotland. Third Series. Vol. XI. 1685–1686. Acta, February 1685 - December 1685, p. 33. (P.56)
- Register of the Privy Council of Scotland. Third Series. Vol. XI. 1685–1686, p. 33. Acta, February 1685 - December 1685 (P.56)
- Sir Herbert Maxwell, A History of Dumfries and Galloway, p. 282. http://archive.org/stream/ahistorydumfrie00unkngoog#page/n302/mode/2up
- G. F. Crosbie, "Sir Robert Redgauntlet", The Glasgow Herald, 1934, 6 January, p. 4.
- Robert Wodrow, The History and Sufferings of the Church of Scotland, Book III, Chap. XI, pp. 248–9.
- Kirkinner Session minutes, 1702-1714, Ms CH2/228/1, National Archive of Scotland
- Penninghame Session minutes, 1696-1729, Ms CH2/1387/1, National Archive of Scotland
- Robert Wodrow; Robert Burns (1836). "The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution". 2nd Edition (Glasgow: Blackie and Son Limited). pp. 246–249. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
- Galloway and the Covenanters. p. 409 Wodrow's narrative. http://archive.org/stream/cu31924029476003#page/n411/mode/2up
- A. M. Starkey (1974). [ttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3164924 "Robert Wodrow and the History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland"]. 2nd Edition. Church History, Vol. 43, No. 4. pp. 488–498. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
- Liverpool Museums, The Martyr of Solway
- Tate Gallery, The Knight Errant
- Tey, J. (2002), The Daughter of Time, Arrow Books Ltd, ISBN 0-09-943096-7