||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Italian Wikipedia. (October 2011)|
12 June 1922|
Florence, Tuscany, Italy
|Died||29 June 2013
Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy
Popular Science Writer
|Institutions||University of Trieste|
|Alma mater||University of Florence|
|Notable awards||Targa Giuseppe Piazzi (1994)
Premio Internazionale Cortina Ulisse (1995)
Margherita Hack, Dame Grand Cross OMRI (Italian: [marɡeˈriːta ak]; 12 June 1922 – 29 June 2013) was an Italian astrophysicist and popular science writer. The asteroid 8558 Hack, discovered in 1995, was named in her honour.
Born in Florence, her father was Roberto Hack, a bookkeeper of Swiss origin and Protestant religion. Her mother, from Tuscany, was of Catholic religion, graduate at the Accademia di Belle Arti and miniaturist at the Uffizi Gallery.
Both parents had left their religion of provenance to join the Italian Theosophical Society, for which Roberto Hack was secretary for a certain period under the chairmanship of the countess Gamberini-Cavallini.
Margherita Hack, after attending (without taking exams because of the outbreak of World War II) the Liceo Classico "Galileo Galilei" in Florence, graduated in physics from the University of Florence in 1945 with test score of 101/110, with a thesis in astrophysics on Cepheid variables, after studies made in the Arcetri Observatory at those times under the direction of Giorgio Abetti, that was for her a model of scientist, teacher and scientific research centre administrator.
In her youth, in addition to basketball, she practiced with success athletics, in which obtained victories in the long jump and the high jump at university championships, named Littoriali under the fascist regime.
In Italy, she was specially known for her anti-religious views and her continual criticism of the Catholic Church and of its hierarchy and institutions.
She was a vegetarian and has written a book explaining this choice entitled Perché sono vegetariana (Why I Am A Vegetarian).
Hack died in Trieste on 29 June 2013 at 4:30 am, at Cattinara hospital, after being hospitalized for a week for heart problems, for which she suffered from about two years. She had refused to have heart surgery.
She left to the city of Trieste her personal library containing 24000 books on astronomy.
She was full professor of astronomy at the University of Trieste from 1964 to 1° November 1992, when she was placed "out of role" for seniority. She has been the first Italian woman to administrate the Trieste Astronomical Observatory from 1964 to 1987, bringing it to international fame.
Member of the most prestigious physics and astronomy associations, Margherita Hack was also director of the Astronomy Department at the University of Trieste from 1985 to 1991 and from 1994 to 1997. She was a member of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (national member in the class of mathematical physics and natural sciences; second category: astronomy, geodesic, geophysics and applications; section A: astronomy and applications). She worked at many American and European observatories and was for long time member of working groups of ESA and NASA. In Italy, with an intensive promotion work, she obtained the growth of activity of the astronomical community with access to several satellites, reaching a notoriety of international level.
She has published several original papers in international journals and several books both of pupular science and university level. In 1994 she was awarded with the Targa Giuseppe Piazzi for the scientific research, and in 1995 with the Cortina Ulisse Prize for scientific dissemination.
In 1978 Margherita Hack founded the bimonthly magazine L'Astronomia whose first issue came out in November 1979; later, together with Corrado Lamberti, she directed the magazine of popular science and astronomy culture Le Stelle.
Awards and decorations
|Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic – awarded on 28 May 2012|
|Gold Medal of the Italian Order of Merit for Culture and Art – awarded on 27 May 1998|
- Teosofia in Italia
- Lo sguardo dell’astrofisica
- Hack, Margherita (2005). Idee per diventare Astrofisico - Osservare le stelle per spiegare l'Universo. Zanichelli. p. 150.
- L'astrofisica Hack, stella dei "Littoriali" del fascismo
- Corriere della Sera, «Giurai al regime, volevo la medaglia vinta in atletica» Margherita Hack
- Repubblica.it, Margherita Hack, la voglia di vivere diecimila anni
- "Morta l'astrofisica Margherita Hack". Rai News 24. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Margherita Hack: «Sono malata ma non mi opero. Come va, va»
- Hack, Margherita (2000). L'amica delle stelle. Storia di una vita. Rizzoli. p. 293. ISBN 9788817258708.
- "Grandi maestre/Grandi allieve - Margherita Hack e Chiara Daraio". d.repubblica.it. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Hack, Margherita". www.treccani.it. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- International Astronomical Union, European Physical Society, Società astronomica italiana, Italian Physical Society
- Yearbook 2014 on the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei site
- Conference: L'ASTRONOMIA ALLE SOGLIE DEL TERZO MILLENNIO, Circolo Astrofili Talmassons
- Editions archive of "Le Stelle"
- "Presidential Awards". Quirinal Palace. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "Presidential Awards". Quirinal Palace. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- Media related to Margherita Hack at Wikimedia Commons