The Margolus–Levitin theorem, named for Norman Margolus and Lev B. Levitin, gives a fundamental limit on quantum computation (strictly speaking on all forms on computation). The processing rate cannot be higher than 6 × 1033 operations per second per joule of energy. Or stating the bound for one micro[clarification needed] system:
- A quantum system of energy E needs at least a time of to go from one state to an orthogonal state, where h = 6.626 × 10−34 J·s is Planck's constant.
The theorem is also of interest outside of quantum computation, e.g. it relates to the holographic principle, digital physics, simulated reality, the mathematical universe hypothesis and pancomputationalism.
- Norman Margolus, Lev B. Levitin (1998). "The maximum speed of dynamical evolution". Physica D 120: 188–195. arXiv:quant-ph/9710043. Bibcode:1998PhyD..120..188M. doi:10.1016/S0167-2789(98)00054-2.
- Seth Lloyd and Y. Jack Ng, "Black Hole Computers," Scientific American (November, 2004), pp. 53–61.
- A 2002 MIT presentation on the quantum speed limit MURI2002_Lloydrevised.pdf (PDF)
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