Broquedis competed at the 1912 Olympics at Stockholm where she won the gold medal in outdoor singles by beating German Dora Köring 4–6, 6–3, 6–4 in the final. In mixed doubles, she won the bronze medal partnering Albert Canet. In 1913 and 1914, she won the French championships, beating 15-year-old Suzanne Lenglen in the 1914 final. She received the nickname "the goddess" for being the only player to ever beat Lenglen in a singles final. She also took part in the 1924 Olympics at Paris but couldn't win any medal there.
From 1925 to 1927, Broquedis had another successful time in her tennis career, reaching the singles semifinals at Wimbledon in 1925, and the quarterfinals twice at the (now fully international) French championships in 1925 and 1927. Moreover, she won the mixed doubles title partnering Jean Borotra at Paris in 1927. She was ranked world No. 9 by A. Wallis Myers in 1925.