Maria Anna Mozart
Maria Anna Walburga Ignatia Mozart (30 July 1751 – 29 October 1829), called Marianne and nicknamed "Nannerl", was a musician, the older sister of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and daughter of Leopold and Anna Maria Mozart.
Maria Anna (Marianne) Mozart was born in Salzburg. When she was seven years old, her father Leopold Mozart started teaching her to play the harpsichord. Leopold took her and Wolfgang on tours of many cities, such as Vienna and Paris, to showcase their talents. In the early days, she sometimes received top billing, and she was noted as an excellent harpsichord player and fortepianist.
However, given the views of her parents, prevalent in her society at the time, it became impossible as she grew older for her to continue her career any further. According to New Grove, "from 1769 onwards she was no longer permitted to show her artistic talent on travels with her brother, as she had reached a marriageable age." Wolfgang went on during the 1770s to many artistic triumphs while traveling in Italy with Leopold, but Marianne had to stay home in Salzburg with her mother. She likewise stayed home with Leopold when Wolfgang visited Paris and other cities (1777–1779) accompanied by his mother.
There is evidence that Marianne wrote musical compositions, as there are letters from Wolfgang praising her work, but the voluminous correspondence of her father never mentions any of her compositions, and none have survived.
Marriage and children
In contrast to her brother, who quarreled with their father and eventually disobeyed his wishes with respect to career path and choice of spouse, Marianne remained entirely subordinate to her father. She fell in love with Franz d'Ippold, who was a captain and private tutor, but was forced by her father to turn down his marriage proposal. Wolfgang attempted, in vain, to get Marianne to stand up for her own preference.
Eventually, Marianne married a magistrate, Johann Baptist Franz von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg (23 August 1783), and settled with him in St. Gilgen, a village in Austria about 29 km east of the Mozart family home in Salzburg. Berchtold was twice a widower and had five children from his two previous marriages, whom Marianne helped raise. She also bore three children of her own: Leopold Alois Pantaleon (1785–1840), Jeanette (1789–1805) and Maria Babette (1790–1791).
Leopold's raising of her son
An unusual episode in Marianne's life occurred when she gave birth (27 July 1785) to her first child, a son who was named Leopold after his grandfather. Marianne had traveled from her home in St. Gilgen to Salzburg for the birth. When she returned to St. Gilgen, she left her infant in the care of her father and his servants. The elder Leopold stated (by a letter that preceded Marianne back to St. Gilgen) that he would prefer to raise the child for the first few months himself. In 1786, he extended the arrangement to an indefinite term. Leopold continued to care for his grandson, taking delight in his progress (toilet training, speech, and so on), and commencing with the very beginnings of musical training. Marianne saw her son on occasional visits, but in general was not involved in his care. The arrangement continued until the death of her father, on 28 May 1787.
Biographers differ on what was the basis for this arrangement. Little Leopold was ill in his infancy, and perhaps needed to be kept in Salzburg for this reason, but this does not explain why he was still kept there after his recovery. Another possibility attributes the arrangement to Marianne's delicate health or her need to take care of her stepchildren. Biographer Maynard Solomon attributes the arrangement to Leopold's wish to revive his skills in training a musical genius, as he had done with Wolfgang. He also suggests that giving up her son was indicative of Marianne's total subordination to her father's wishes.
Relationship with Wolfgang
When Mozart was a toddler, Nannerl (four and a half years older) was his idol. According to Maynard Solomon, "at three, Mozart was inspired to study music by observing his father's instruction of Marianne; he wanted to be like her." The two children were very close, and they invented a secret language and an imaginary "Kingdom of Back" of which they were king and queen. Mozart's early correspondence with Marianne is affectionate, and includes some of the scatological and sexual word play in which Mozart indulged with intimates. Occasionally Wolfgang wrote entries in Marianne's diary, referring to himself in the third person.
Wolfgang wrote a number of works for Marianne to perform, including the Prelude and Fugue in C, K. 394 (1782). Until 1785, he sent her copies of his piano concertos (up to No. 21) in St. Gilgen.
Concerning the relationship between Wolfgang and Marianne in adulthood, authorities differ. According to New Grove, Wolfgang "remained closely attached to her." In contrast, Maynard Solomon contends that in later life Wolfgang and Marianne drifted apart completely. He notes, for instance, that after Mozart's visit to Salzburg in 1783 (with his new wife Constanze), Wolfgang and Marianne never visited each other again, that they never saw each other's children, and that their correspondence diminished to a trickle, ceasing entirely in 1788.
Wolfgang died 5 December 1791. Sometime around 1800, Marianne encountered Franz Xaver Niemetschek's 1798 Mozart biography. Since this biography had been written from the perspective of Vienna and of Constanze, much of its content was new to Marianne. In an 1800 letter, she wrote:
Herr Prof. Niemetschek's biography so completely reanimated my sisterly feelings toward my so ardently beloved brother that I was often dissolved in tears, since it is only now that I became acquainted with the sad condition in which my brother found himself.
In her old age, Marianne had her first encounter in person with Mozart's widow Constanze since the visit of 1783. In 1820, Constanze and her second husband Georg Nikolaus von Nissen moved to Salzburg. Although Marianne had not even known that Constanze was still alive, the encounter was apparently "cordial", though not warm. Eventually, Marianne did the Nissens a great favor: To help them write a biography of Wolfgang, Marianne lent the Nissens her collection of family letters, including Wolfgang and Leopold's correspondence up to 1781.
In 1821, Marianne enjoyed a visit from Wolfgang's son, Franz Xaver Mozart, whom she had never met during her brother's lifetime. The son had come from his home in Lemberg to conduct a performance of his father's Requiem in remembrance of the recently deceased Nissen.
In her last years, Marianne's health declined, and she became blind in 1825. Mary Novello, visiting in 1829, recorded her impression that Mrs. Berchtold was "blind, languid, exhausted, feeble and nearly speechless," as well as lonely. She mistakenly took Marianne to be impoverished, though in fact she was frugal and had left a large fortune (7837 gulden).
As a fictional character
Many authors have created fictional characters based on Maria Anna Mozart.
- Marianne was the subject of a 2001 "biography in poems," The Other Mozart by Sharon Chmielarz.
- Mozart's Sister, a 2005 novel by Alison Bauld, follows Nannerl Mozart's life through marriage, children, widowhood, and death in conversations with her nephew Franz Xaver, Mozart's younger son.
- Nancy Moser wrote Mozart's Sister: A Novel (2006).
- In La sorella di Mozart, a 2006 novel by Rita Charbonnier, Nannerl initially tells her life's story through a series of fictional letters to the Major Franz Armand d'Ippold, grows frustrated and debilitated by her father's refusal to acknowledge her ability to compose music, and eventually devotes her life to the promotion and study of her brother's music.
- The popular young adult author Carolyn Meyer wrote of Nannerl's life in her 2008 novel In Mozart's Shadow: His Sister's Story.
- Marianne and her family were noted in The 39 Clues series as members of the Cahill family branch, Janus.
- Marianne was the subject of Nannerl, la sœur de Mozart (Mozart's Sister), a 2010 French-language film from director René Féret. The film centers on the teenage years of Nannerl as she lives in the shadow of her famous younger brother as they travel throughout Europe performing for royalty. With the encouragement of the French Dauphin, Nannerl begins to find her own ways of challenging the established sexual and social order, though her rebellion is quickly crushed by those who inspired it.
- In his 2011 novel Mozart's Last Aria, Matt Rees has Nannerl investigating her brother's death.
- In 2013, Marianne's life was adapted into a one-person theatre piece called "The Other Mozart," where writer/musician Sylvia Milo portrayed Nannerl in a partially fictional autobiography.
- Solomon 1995, p. 404
- Solomon 1995, p. 389
- "Google Maps, St. Gilgen – Salzburg". Maps.google.com. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
- Deutsch 1965, p. 227
- Solomon 1995, pp. 389–392
- Eisen, Cliff (2009). "Mozart in Italy and the Enigma of a Collection: Newly-Discovered Portraits and Artifacts" (PDF).
- Solomon 1995, p. 399
- Solomon 1995, p. 414
- Solomon 1995, p. 501
- Deutsch 1965, p. 338
- Solomon 1995, p. 502
- Chmielarz 2001
- Bauld 2005
- Moser 2006
- Charbonnier 2007
- Meyer 2008
- Rees, Matt (2011). Mozart's Last Aria. Corvus. ISBN 978-1-84887-915-7.
- "About". The Other Mozart. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
Works of biography
- Deutsch, Otto Erich (1965). Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0233-0. OCLC 8991008.
- Eisen, Cliff et al. "Mozart". Grove Music Online. Retrieved 25 September 2010. (subscription required)
- Solomon, Maynard (1995). Mozart: A Life. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-019046-9. OCLC 31435799.
Works of literature with Maria Anna Mozart as a main character
- Bauld, Alison (2005). Mozart's Sister. London: Alcina Press. ISBN 978-0-9550713-0-0. OCLC 64769121. Bauld has also published a fictional diary as Nannerl Mozart in the form of Nannerls' blog.
- Charbonnier, Rita (2007). Mozart's Sister: A Novel. Ann Goldstein (trans.). New York: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 0-307-34678-1. OCLC 132585106. Originally published in Italy as: Charbonnier, Rita (2006). La sorella di Mozart: romanzo (in Italian). Milan: Corbaccio. ISBN 978-88-7972-759-4. OCLC 64219881.
- Chmielarz, Sharon (2001). The Other Mozart: Poems. Princeton: Ontario Review Press. ISBN 0-86538-101-1. OCLC 45207996.
- Meyer, Carolyn (2008). In Mozart's Shadow: His Sister's Story. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-15-205594-3. OCLC 180689946.
- Moser, Nancy (2006). Mozart's Sister. Minneapolis: Bethany House. ISBN 978-0-7642-0123-3. OCLC 70045811.
- Rees, Matt (2011). Mozart's Last Aria. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-201586-0. OCLC 703206599. A historical thriller in which Nannerl travels to Vienna to uncover the mysteries of her brother's death.
- Media related to Maria Anna Mozart at Wikimedia Commons