Maria Christina of Austria
|Archduchess Maria Christina|
|Queen consort of Spain|
|Tenure||29 November 1879 – 25 November 1885|
|Spouse||Alfonso XII of Spain|
|María Mercedes, Princess of Asturias
Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain, Princess and Duchess of Bavaria
Alfonso XIII of Spain
|Maria Christina Henriette Desideria Felicitas Raineria von Habsburg-Lothringen|
|House||House of Habsburg-Lorraine (by birth)
House of Bourbon (by marriage)
|Father||Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria|
|Mother||Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria|
21 July 1858|
Brno, Moravia, Austria
|Died||6 February 1929
Palacio Real, Madrid, Spain
Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria (Maria Christina Henriette Desideria Felicitas Raineria; 21 July 1858 – 6 February 1929) was Queen consort of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII of Spain. She was regent of Spain during the minority of her son Alfonso XIII and the vacancy of the throne between her husband's death and her son's birth.
Not counting her great-great-great-grandfather Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, the failed Habsburg claimant to the throne of Spain in the War of the Spanish Succession, Maria Christina was the first Habsburger or Habsburg-Lorrainer to be undisputed ruler of Spain since the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700.
Known to her family as Christa, she was born at Židlochovice Castle (Groß Seelowitz), near Brno, in Moravia, a daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria.
Various sources attributed good traits to Maria Christina before her marriage. One states she was "tall, fair, sensible, and well educated".
Marriage and issue
Maria Christina married King Alfonso XII of Spain on 29 November 1879 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, and became the mother of his only three legitimate children:
- HRH Infanta Mercedes, Princess of Asturias; married Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
- HRH Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain; married Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria
- HM Alfonso XIII of Spain (born posthumously); married Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
His previous wife was Mercedes of Orléans, who had died half a year after their marriage, leaving no issue. She lived a discreet life as queen.
When the King died, Maria Christina was pregnant, so the throne was vacant, depending on whether Maria Christina's unborn child was a male or a female; a male would make that child king, while a female would place her elder daughter, Infanta María Mercedes, on the throne. During this period, Maria Christina ruled as regent until her child, a son, was born, who was Alfonso XIII of Spain from birth. Maria Christina continued as regent until Alfonso XIII attained his majority in 1902; she is the "Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain" named as concluding in the Treaty of Paris (1898) with the United States of America, ending the Spanish-American War.
Her chief adviser and head of government was Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. Her rule is described as well balanced and in accordance with respect for the constitutional rights, and many political reforms were instated during her regency to prevent political conflicts and chaos. Her role was mostly ceremonial, and her purpose was to preserve the crown for her son until he became an adult. After her son's marriage in 1906, she lost her position as first lady at court and became Queen dowager and Queen Mother.
Titles and styles
- 21 July 1858 – 6 February 1929: Her Imperial Highness Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria
- 29 November 1879 - 25 November 1885: Her Majesty The Queen of Spain
- 25 November 1885 – 17 May 1902: Her Majesty Queen Maria Christina of Spain, The Queen Regent
- 17 May 1902 – 6 February 1929: Her Majesty Queen Maria Christina of Spain
|Heraldry of Maria Christina of Austria|
- "Maria Christina (Henriette Desideria Felicitas Raineria), Sternkreuzordens-Dame, Ehrengroßkreuz des souveränen Malteser-Ritterordens; geb. zu Groß-Seelowitz den 21. Juli 1858, vermählt zu Madrid den 29. November 1879 mit Seiner Majestät Alphons XII., König von Spanien, Inhaber des Infanterie-regiments Nr. 94, Witwe seit 25. November 1885." Schematismus für das kaiserliche und königliche Heer und für die kaiserliche und königliche Kriegsmarine für 1904. Vienna: Druck und Verlag der k.k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, December 1903. p.22
- Wormeley Latimer, p. 382.
- Campos y Fernández de Sevilla, Francisco-Javier. María Cristina de Habsburgo y la Regencia, 1885–1902. San Lorenzo de El Escorial: Estudios Superiores del Escorial, Real Colegio Universitario "María Cristina", 1994.
- Cancio R. Capote, Rita Maria. The Function of Maria Christina of Austria's Regency, 1885–1902, in Preserving the Spanish Monarchy. México: Ediciones Botas, 1957.
- Figueroa y Torres, Alvaro de, Conde de Romanones. Doña María Cristina de Habsburgo Lorena, la discreta regente de España. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1934.
- Martín Alonso, Aurelio. Diez y seis años de regencia, María Cristina de Hapsburgo-Lorena, 1885–1902. Barcelona: L. Tasso, 1914.
- Thoma, Helga. Habsburgs letzte Herrscherin: Maria Christine, Erzherzogin von Österreich, Königin-Regentin von Spanien. Wien-Klosterneuburg: Edition Va Bene, 2003.
- Wormeley Latimer, Elizabeth (1907). Spain in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co.
Maria Christina of Austria
Cadet branch of the House of HabsburgBorn: 21 July 1858 Died: 6 February 1929
as King of Spain
|Queen Regent of Spain
25 November 1885 – 17 May 1902
as King of Spain
Mercedes of Orléans
|Queen Consort of Spain
29 November 1879 – 25 November 1885
Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg