There are several castles and ruins in the forests surrounding Maria Enzersdorf, including Liechtenstein Castle and the Schwarzer Turm (Black Tower) in the surrounding forest and Schloss Hunyadi in the town itself.
Maria Enzersdorf was most likely settled by the Romans and the Celts. It is mentioned for the first time in the 12th century. During this time period was also when Liechtenstein Castle was constructed as a fortress against Eastern (Ottoman) enemies.
The town was destroyed in 1529 and 1683 by the first and second Turkish sieges.
From 1938 to 1954, the town was part of Vienna's 24th district.