Kastrioti family

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Kastrioti family
Coa Kastrioti Family.svg
Coat of arms of the Kastrioti family
Current region region around Debar (modern day Macedonia and Albania)
Notable members Gjon Kastrioti, George Kastrioti, Hamza Kastrioti, Gjon Kastrioti II
Name origin and meaning Castle-dweller (from the Latin castrum via the Greek word κάστρο)

The Kastrioti, or Castriota (Albanian: Kastriotët) were a 14th and 15th century Albanian noble family. This family controlled the region around Debar (modern Macedonia and Albania) at the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century. The most notable member was Skanderbeg, regarded as a national hero of Albania.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Kastrioti who was a kephale of Kanina in 1368 was the first member of the Kastrioti family mentioned in historical documents.[1][2] In the 14th century Kastrioti family was one of the less powerful noble families in Albania, whose power and influence was far less than those of Thopia, Dukagjini, Balšići or Arianiti.[3]

According to Kabashi the Kastrioti were first mentioned in 1394.[4] According to Turkish sources, the family originated from Kastrat in north Albania.[4] According to Malcolm, they originate from western Kosovo.[5][6][7] According to several historians, their surname has its origin in the Latin castrum via the Greek word κάστρο (English: castle).[8][9][10][11]

Elevation to nobility[edit]

The Kastrioti, unlike the Thopia and the Arianiti, did not have a long history as nobility.[4] The first nobleman was Pal Kastrioti,[4] who held Sinja (or Sina, Sinë) and Lower Gardi (Gardhi i Poshtëm)[4] as "segneur de Signa et de Gardi-ipostesi",[12][13] or it was possibly a Kastrioti, who was the kephale of Kanina in 1368.[14]

Pal Kastrioti had three sons: Konstantin[A], Alexius and Gjon Kastrioti[15][16] who was Skanderbeg's father.[17][18] Aleksa Kastrioti controlled three villages.[19] Konstantin Kastrioti was protovestiar of Sina (Serina) near Durrazo.[20] According to Venetian document discovered by Karl Hopf his title was Lord of Cerüja castle (Latin: dominus Serinae).[21]

Pal held a small area of Sinja (in Arras) and Lower Gardi (Unknown location). His son, John (Gjon) Kastrioti († 1437), became the lord of Matia (Mat).[13] He managed to expand his territory but was ultimately subdued by the invading Ottomans. The most notable member was George Kastrioti Skanderbeg (1405–1468), declared an Albanian national hero, renowned in Albanian folklore for his fight against the Ottoman forces.

Members[edit]

The branch of Granai (or Branai) Castrioti[edit]

The branch of the Granai (or Branai) Castrioti descent from John (Giovanni) († 1516), nephew of George Castsrioti Skanderbeg († 1463), the son of the latter's brother Bernard Wranan Castrioti and Maria Zardari., count of Mat and Ruler of Krujë.
They came to Italy around 1470. In 1494, John was granted by Alfonso II of Naples the title of Count of Copertino, whose fief included the town of Copertino, Veglie Levarano and Galatone and, in 1505, the Duchy of Ferrandina. His brothers were:

  • Ferrante († 1525), the great “condottiero” (army officer), was killed in the battle of Pavia. He was the Marquis of the city of Sant'Angelo and Count of Spoltone.
  • Alfonso († 1544), Earl and later Marquis of Atripalda from 1544, he married his cousin Maria, daughter of John, also becoming Earl of Duke of Cupertino and marital Ferradina appointments. He married in 1518 to Camilla of Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, a Venetian patrician. He tried to unite the family feuds through marriages between his sons and nieces. His son John married his cousin Joan (Giovana), daughter of Ferrante, Marchioness of the city of Sant'Angelo. His other son Antonio, Marquis of Atripalda from 1544, married his cousin Maria, daughter of John, also becoming Earl of Copertino and Duke of Ferradina .

This branch was extinct, since they did not have any offspring.[25][26]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Kastrioti genealogy written by Flavius Comnenus and quoted by du Cange Kostantin was Skanderbeg's great-grandfather and the name of Skanderbeg's grandfather was Georgius.[27] The later researches proved that Kostantin was in fact Skanderbeg's uncle while the correct name of Skanderbeg's grandfather is Pal.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Buda, Aleks, Shkrime historike 3, Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese 8 Nëntori, p. 239, ISBN 978-99927-1-651-9, OCLC 163395350, "Dokumentet përmendin për herë të parë një Kastriot në vitin 1368 si kështjellar ose kefali në Kaninë të Vlorës." 
  2. ^ von Thallóczy, Ludwig; Konstantin Jireček; Milan von Šufflay; Theodor A Ippen; Ernst C Sedlmayr; (1916), Illyrisch-albanische forschungen, (in German), München, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 80, 81, OCLC 35691167, "Der erste bekannte Kastriot war 1368 nur Kastellan der Berg Kanina bei Valona." 
  3. ^ Heinrich Kretschmayr (September 2012) [1920]. Geschichte von Venedig. BoD – Books on Demand. p. 375. ISBN 978-3-8460-0658-0. Retrieved 7 June 2013. "Sein geschlecht, die Kastriota, die „Stadtbürger“, war eines der geringsten unter den vielfach mit Serbengeschlechtern verschwisterten Dynasten Albaniens gewesen, hatte weit hinter den Topia, Arianiti, Dukagin und Balša des vierzehnten Jahrhunderts zurückgestanden." 
  4. ^ a b c d e Kabashi, August 2005, p. 12: " The Castriotas were first mentioned in sources in 1394 and 1410 when John, Scanderbeg’s father, notified the Republic of Venice of his decision to send his son over to the Turks as hostage.17 According to the Turkish sources, the Castriota family originated from the village of Kastrat in northeastern Albania. Unlike the Thopias and the Comnenis, the Castriotas did not have a long history as members of the aristocracy. In fact, their elevation of status began with Scanderbeg’s grandfather, Paul Castriota, who initially owned two villages named Sinja and Lower Gardi.18"
  5. ^ Malcolm, Noel (1998), Kosovo : a short history, New York: New York University Press, p. 88, ISBN 9780814755983, OCLC 37310785, "Skanderbeg (meaning 'Lord Alexander'; Alb.: Skenderbeu) was the Turkish name given to an Albanian nobleman, Gjergj Kastriot, whose family, originally from Western Kosovo, controlled extensive lands in north-central Albania." 
  6. ^ Hasluck, Margaret Masson Hardie (1954). The unwritten law in Albania. University Press. p. 15. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  7. ^ Akadémia, Magyar Tudományos (1985). Acta orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. Magyar Tudományos Akadémia. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  8. ^ Michaelides, Constantine E. (2003-11-30). The Aegean crucible: tracing vernacular architecture in post-Byzantine centuries. Delos Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-9729723-0-7. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  9. ^ Bulletin d'archéologie et d'histoire dalmate (in Croatian), 55—59, Split: Arheološki Muzej (Zadar); Arheološki Muzej (Split), p. 118, retrieved 30 November 2011, "Još treba istaći Skenderbegovo prezime Kastriot... To je svakako grčka izvedenica ... etnikum od castra" 
  10. ^ Thallóczy 1916, p. 80 : "Kastriot, die einen griechischen Namen führten, „Stadtbürger", kastriotis von kastron, Stadt (aus lat. castrum ; polis war nur Konstantinopel allein)."
  11. ^ Schmitt 2009, : "Der Name des Stammes Kastrioti leitet sich laut Schmitt vermutlich vom griechischen Wort «kastron» (Festung) ab"[page needed]
  12. ^ Buda, p. 239: "Në fund të shek. XIV Pal Kastrioti kishte këtu dy fshatra. Sinjën dhe Gardhin e Poshtëm."
  13. ^ a b Noli 1947: "he had not more than two villages, called Signa and Lower Gardhi. Paul's son, John Castrioti, became Lord of Matia."
  14. ^ Buda, p. 239: "Dokumentet përmendin për herë të parë një Kastriot në vitin 1368 si kështjellar ose kefali në Kaninë të Vlorës."
  15. ^ Šufflay 2000, p. 148

    Njegov potomak, Ivan, "gospodin Ivan" u srpskim poveljama, "Ivan Castrioth" u mletačkim spomenicima...

  16. ^ Muzaka, Gjon (1873) [1515], Karl Hopf, ed., Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi. Per Giovanni Musachi, despoto d'Epiro, Berlin, "You should know that the grandfather of Lord Scanderbeg was called Lord Paul Castriota. He ruled over no more than two villages, called Signa (Sina) and Gardi Ipostesi. To this Lord Paul was born Lord John Castriota who became Lord of Mat. And to him was born Lord Scanderbeg. The mother of the said Lord Scanderbeg, i.e. the wife of the said Lord John, was called Lady Voisava Tribalda who was of a noble family." 
  17. ^ Dialogue, Volume 5, Issues 17-20. Dijalog. 1996. p. 77. Retrieved 27 March 2012. "Njegov sin Pavle, gospodar od Sinje, imao je tri sina: Konstantina, Aleksu i Ivana... Ivan Kastriota, otac Skenderbegov, ozenio se Voislavom koja je" 
  18. ^ Hopf 1873, p. 533

    Constantino, Alessio, Giovanni

  19. ^ Friedrich Johann Hopf, Carl Hermann (1960) [1873], Geschichte Griechenlands vom Beginn des Mittelalters bis auf unsere Zeit (in German) II, B. Franklin, p. 97, OCLC 418936, "... Alexios Kastriota, der über drei Ortschaften gebot,..." 
  20. ^ Friedrich Johann Hopf, Carl Hermann (1960) [1873], Geschichte Griechenlands vom Beginn des Mittelalters bis auf unsere Zeit (in German) II, B. Franklin, p. 94, OCLC 418936, "... Auch KonstantinoS Kastriota, der den Titel Protovestiar führte und Serina unweit Durazzo ..." 
  21. ^ von Hahn;, Johann Georg (1867), Reise durch die Gebiete des Drin und Wardar : im Auftrage der K. Akademie der Wissenschaften unternommen im Jahre 1863, Kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, p. 23, OCLC 220497422, "Professor Hopf fand nämlich eine venetianische Urkunde, in welcher Constantin Kastriota, Skanderbegs Grossvater, „dominus Serinae" genannt wird." 
  22. ^ a b c d [1] p.96
  23. ^ Noli, Fan Stilian (1947), George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405–1468), International Universities Press, p. 64, OCLC 732882, "Vlajka me Stefan Stres Balshën" 
  24. ^ Gopčević, Spiridon (1914). Geschichte von Montenegro und Albanien (in German). Gotha: F.A. Perthes. p. 460. OCLC 9968504. Retrieved 29 March 2012. "Bezüglich der Strez herrscht Verwirrung. Hopf macht Ivo und Gojko BalSid zu Söhnen des Stefan Strez, welcher Vlajka Kastriota geheiratet hätte und Sohn des Gjuragj Balšić gewesen wäre, eines Bastards des Gjuragj I." 
  25. ^ Castriota (famiglia), article in the Italian Wikipedia
  26. ^ Giovanni Castriota Granai, article in the Italian Wikipedia
  27. ^ du Fresne, sieur du Cange, Charles (1680), Historia Byzantina duplici commentario illustrata : Prior familias ... Imperatorum Constantinopol. ... complectitur alter descriptionem urbis Constantinopolis (in Latin), Lutetia Parisorum, p. 270, OCLC 166008975, retrieved 13 September 2012 
  28. ^ Otadžbina, volume 21 (in Serbian). 1889. p. 193. Retrieved 10 September 2012. "Да се види нетачност Флавијева родослова доста је навести ово. Према новијим истраживањима Костантин је био Кастриоту стриц, а не прадед, а по сведоџби његова сродника, дед му се звао Павле Кастриот и није имао више од два села." 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]