Maria of Calabria

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Maria of Calabria
Countess of Alba
Duchess consort of Durazzo
Lady of Baux
Titular Latin Empress
Spouse Charles, Duke of Durazzo
Robert, Lord of Baux
Philip II, Prince of Taranto
Issue Joanna, Duchess of Durazzo
Agnes, Latin Empress
Margaret, Queen of Hungary
Raymond III, Lord of Baux
Francis, Lord of Aubagne
Phanette of Baux
Ettienette, Lady of Roussillon and Annonya
seven others who died young
House Capetian House of Anjou
Father Charles, Duke of Calabria
Mother Maria of Valois
Born May 1329
Died 20 May 1366 (aged 36 or 37)
Religion Roman Catholic

Maria of Calabria (May 1329 – 20 May 1366) was a Neapolitan princess of the Capetian House of Anjou whose descendants inherited the crown of Naples following the death of her older sister, Queen Joanna I.

Youth and first marriage[edit]

Maria was a posthumous daughter of Charles, Duke of Calabria, by his second wife Maria of Valois. Maria was a younger sister of Joanna I of Naples. Maria was born approximately six months following her father's death. She was born and raised at the court of her paternal grandfather, King Robert, in Naples. The King died on 20 January 1343. By the provisions of his will, her elder sister Joanna was to become ruler of Naples, while Maria was given the County of Alba and vast inheritance.[1]

Maria was intended as a potential bride for either Louis I of Hungary or John II of France. Shortly after the death of her grandfather, however, Maria was abducted by Agnes de Périgord, widow of John, Duke of Durazzo. Agnes arranged the marriage of Maria to her son, Charles, Duke of Durazzo. The marriage took place on 21 April 1343, the bride being almost fourteen-years-old and the groom twenty.[2] They had five children:

Charles and Maria headed a faction opposing Queen Joanna and her husband, King Louis. On 15 January 1348, Charles was named Lieutenant General and Governor of the Kingdom of Naples. The King and Queen had fled in the face of an invasion by the King of Hungary, Charles apparently seeing an opportunity to claim power in their absence. He was captured by the Hungarians only days later, near Aversa. On 23 January 1348, Charles was decapitated in front of San Pietro a Maiella. His period of power had lasted less than a week.[3] Maria had become a nineteen-year-old widow.

Second marriage[edit]

With Charles dead, Maria fled Naples for Avignon. She sought refuge at the court of Pope Clement VI. In 1348, the Black Death reached the Italian Peninsula, forcing the King of Hungary and the majority of his army to retreat back to their homeland in hope of escaping the spreading epidemic. Maria returned to Naples and settled at the Chateau de l'Oeuf.[4] She was then abducted again, her second captor being Hugh IV, Lord of Baux. He arranged the marriage of Maria to his son and heir Robert, Lord of Baux. The marriage took place in 1348. They had four children:[5]

  • Raymond III, Lord of Baux (d. 1372).
  • Francis of Baux, Lord of Aubagne (d. 1390).
  • Phanette of Baux. Married Ghiberto Terrici.
  • Ettienette of Baux. Married Aymar, Lord of Roussillon and Annonya.

Hugh IV was murdered on the orders of Maria's brother-in-law, King Louis, in 1351. Robert succeeded him but was held captive in the Chateau de l'Oeuf. Maria reportedly ordered the assassination of her second husband in 1353, allowing her son to succeed as Lord of Baux. She reportedly witnessed the murder first hand.[6]

Third marriage[edit]

In April, 1355, Maria married her cousin, Philip II of Taranto, who was also brother of her sister's husband. They had five children, all of whom died young:[7]

  • Philip (1356).
  • Charles (1358).
  • Philip (1360).
  • a child, (1362).
  • a child, (1366).

Maria died in 1366.

Ancestry[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cawley, Charles, Profile of Maria, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012 ,[better source needed]
  2. ^ Cawley, Charles, Profile of Maria, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012 ,[better source needed]
  3. ^ Cawley, Charles, Profile of Maria, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012 ,[better source needed]
  4. ^ Cawley, Charles, Profile of Maria, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012 ,[better source needed]
  5. ^ Cawley, Charles, Profile of Robert, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012 ,[better source needed]
  6. ^ Mihail-Dimitri Sturdza, Dictionnaire historique et Généalogique des grandes familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (1983), p. 504.
  7. ^ Cawley, Charles, Profile of Philip, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012 ,[better source needed]

References[edit]

Cawley, Charles, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy  Missing or empty |title= (help),[better source needed]

Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Marie of Bourbon
— TITULAR —
Latin Empress consort of Constantinople
1364–1366
Reason for succession failure:
Conquest by Empire of Nicaea in 1261
Succeeded by
Elisabeth of Slavonia