Mary of Hungary, Queen of Naples
|Mary of Hungary|
Queen Mary from the Bible of Naples
|Queen consort of Naples|
|Tenure||1285 – 5 May 1309|
|Spouse||Charles II of Naples|
|Issue||Charles Martel of Anjou
Louis of Toulouse
Robert of Naples
Philip I, Prince of Taranto
Raymond Berengar of Andria
John, Duke of Durazzo
Margaret, Countess of Anjou and Maine
Blanche, Queen of Aragon
Eleanor, Queen of Sicily
Maria, Queen of Majorca
Beatrice, Countess of Andria
|House||Árpád dynasty (by birth)
House of Anjou (by marriage)
|Father||Stephen V of Hungary|
|Mother||Elizabeth the Cuman|
|Died||25 March 1323
|Burial||Santa Maria Donna Regina, Naples|
Mary of Hungary (c. 1257 – 25 March 1323), of the Árpád dynasty, was Queen consort of the Kingdom of Naples. She was a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and his wife Elizabeth the Cuman. Maris served as Regent in Provence in 1290-1294 and in Napels in 1295-96, 1296–98, and 1302, in the absence of her consort.
Mary's mother followed the Shamanist religion, like other Cumans. She was considered a Pagan by contemporary Christians of Europe and Elizabeth had to convert to Catholicism in order to marry Maria's father, Stephen. It's unknown at what age became Christian, but could be possible that she was already raised in the Hungarian royal court since her childhood.
Mary was the second of six children. Her sisters, Elizabeth and Catherine both became Queen of Serbia. Another sister, Anna married Andronikos II Palaiologos. Mary's only brother was Ladislaus IV of Hungary.
In 1270, when Mary was only twelve years of age, she married the future Charles II of Naples. The wedding took place in Naples on 6 August 1270. The marriage was intended as a double alliance between Naples and Hungary to support the intended conquest of Byzantium by Naples, but it did not serve its purpose as her brother in 1272 made an alliance with Byzantium as well. Maria accompanied Charles on his trips and spent 1278-82 in Provence with her consort. In 1284, she made her first political act. When Charles was taken captive by Aragon, she made the decision to free the Aragonese prisoner Beatrice of Hohenstaufen. In 1285, Charles became monarch but remained in Aragonese prison. She did not take part in the regency for him in Napels, but remained in Provence, where she did take part in the administration from time to time, though she was not formal regent. In 1288, she took part in the negotiations of her consort's release, and the same year, she made a peace treaty with Aragon. Charles was release the same year, and they returned to Napels together. In 1290-94, she was regent for him in Provence.
On the 10 July 1290, Mary's brother, Ladislaus IV of Hungary died childless. The question now was who would succeed him: he had four sisters, three of them outlived him, all four had married powerful rulers and all four had had their own children. On the 21 September 1290, Mary claimed the throne of Hungary. She was up against her two sisters, Catherine and Elisabeth, and their children, plus the children of her younger sister Anna. Mary was crowned queen by a Papal legate in Naples 1291, but transferred her rights to her eldest son, Charles Martel of Anjou. The Pope confirmed her sole rights in Hungary on the 30 August 1295. However, Catherine's son, Stephen Vladislav II of Syrmia, was still a dangerous rival for Maria and Charles Martel. In the end, Charles Martel gave his cousin Slavonia as a compromise.
Charles Martel was only titular King of Hungary, it was Mary's grandson who became King, Charles I of Hungary. Ultimately the claims of the sisters Mary and Catherine were united in a common descendant when the pair's great-great-granddaughter, Mary of Hungary, ascended to the Hungarian throne in 1382. When the line of Charles Martel and the Angevins in Hungary died out, it was Sigismund, a remote descendant of Bela IV, whose family succeeded.
During 1290, Mary's sister Elisabeth fled from Bohemia with her son because her husband had lost favour and was executed, Mary allowed Elisabeth and her son to stay in Naples with her, before she became a nun, but escaped and remarried to Stephen Uroš II Milutin of Serbia (brother of Catherine's husband) Elizabeth's stay in Naples is documented during July 1300. In 1294, Maria returned with Charles to Naples. She was his representative at the negotiations with the Pope in 1295-96. Between 1296 and 1298, she served as regent of Naples in the absence of her consort. She served as regent the last time in 1302. After this, she lost her influence over states affairs, and retired to pious duties such as to finance convents and churches.
Mary's husband died in August 1309. Maria was now a widow. There is no evidence that she became a nun, which has sometimes been rumored, but she did spent a lot of her time in convents. She lived in Naples for the rest of her life, where she died on 25 March 1323. She was buried in Naples at the Santa Maria Donna Regina.
Mary and her husband, Charles had fourteen children:
- Charles Martel of Anjou (1271–1295), titular King of Hungary
- Saint Louis of Toulouse (February 9, 1275, Nocera – August 19, 1298, Chateau de Brignoles), Bishop of Toulouse
- Robert I of Naples, (1277–1343) King of Naples
- Philip I of Taranto, (1278–1331) Prince of Achaea and Taranto, Despot of Romania, Lord of Durazzo, titular Emperor of Constantinople
- Raymond Berengar (1281–1307), Count of Provence, Prince of Piedmont and Andria
- John (1283 – aft. March 16, 1308), a priest
- Tristan (1284–bef. 1288)
- Peter (1291 – August 29, 1315, Battle of Montecatini), Count of Gravina
- John of Gravina (1294 – April 5, 1336, Naples), Duke of Durazzo, Prince of Achaea, and Count of Gravina, married March 1318 (divorced 1321) Matilda of Hainaut (November 29, 1293 – 1336), and married secondly November 14, 1321 Agnes of Périgord (d. 1345)
- Margaret (1273 – December 31, 1299), Countess of Anjou and Maine, married at Corbeil August 16, 1290 Charles of Valois, brother of king of France, and became ancestress of the Valois dynasty
- Blanche of Anjou (1280 – October 14, 1310, Barcelona), married at Villebertran November 1, 1295 James II of Aragon
- Eleanor of Anjou, (August 1289 – August 9, 1341, Monastery of St. Nicholas, Arene, Elis), married at Messina May 17, 1302 Frederick III of Sicily
- Maria of Naples (1290 – c. 1346), married at Palma de Majorca September 20, 1304 Sancho I of Majorca, married 1326 Jaime de Ejerica (1298 – April 1335)
- Beatrice (1295 – c. 1321), married April 1305 Azzo VIII d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara (d. 1308), married 1309 Bertrand III of Baux, Count of Andria (d. 1351)
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2012)|
|Ancestors of Maria of Hungary |
Margaret of Burgundy
|Queen Consort of Naples
1285 – 5 May 1309
Sancha of Majorca