Marian Spychalski

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Marshal of Poland
Marian Spychalski
Marian Spychalski.jpg
Marian Spychalski in 1965
Nickname(s) Marek, Orka
Born 6 December 1906 (1906-12-06)
Łódź, Piotrków Governorate, Congress Poland, Russian Empire
Died 7 June 1980 (1980-06-08) (aged 73)
Warsaw, Poland
Buried at Warsaw, Poland
Allegiance  Poland
Years of service 1944 - 1949, 1956 - 1968
Rank Marshal of Poland
Commands held Gwardia Ludowa
Defence Minister
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Order Budowniczych Polski Ludowej
Other work architect, politician

Marian "Marek" Spychalski pronounced [ˈmarjan spɨˈxalskʲi] (6 December 1906 – 7 June 1980) was a Polish architect in the interbellum, military commander, and communist politician. During World War II he belonged to the Soviet-led underground forces operating within Poland and was one of the leaders of the communist resistance movement Gwardia Ludowa (People's Guard), then Armia Ludowa (People's Army).[1]

In 1943 as part of the subversive Soviet effort to destroy Polish independence and resistance movement associated with the Polish government-in-exile, he denounced to the Gestapo various members of the Polish resistance organizations.[2]


Spychalski (centre)
with Świerczewski (right) and Rola-Żymierski, 1945

Born to a working-class family in Łódź, Spychalski graduated from the Faculty of Architecture at the Warsaw University of Technology in 1931. He was a member of the Communist Party of Poland since 1931, then Polish Workers' Party since 1942, and Polish United Workers' Party since 1948.[1]

After the war he held a number of offices in the communist government of Poland, one of his first being that of mayor of Warsaw (18 September 1944 – March 1945), technically still while the war was in progress. Among other posts, he was a long-time member of the Sejm (parliament) and, between 1968 and 1970, the chairman of the Council of State (the de iure head of state in the People's Republic of Poland).[1]

He was imprisoned during the purges in 1949–53 and was only released from prison in 1956 to become Polish Minister of Defense, replacing the Soviet marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky.

Honours and awards[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Polish Wikipedia.
Political offices
Preceded by
Edward Ochab
Chairman of the Polish Council of State
Succeeded by
Józef Cyrankiewicz


  1. ^ a b c Michał Nogaś, Wojciech Włodarczyk. (2011-06-17). "Marszałek Polski Marian Spychalski". Polskie Radio. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Bułhak, Władysław Komunistyczny donos do gestapo Rzeczpospolita 5–6 maja 2007