List of Protestant martyrs of the English Reformation

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Plaque in Maidstone, Kent, commemorating those burnt nearby.

Protestants were martyred during persecutions against Protestant religious reformers for their faith during the reigns of Henry VIII (1509-1547) and Mary I of England (1553–1558). Radical Protestants were also executed during the reigns of Edward VI (1547-1553), Elizabeth I (1558-1603) and James I (1603-1625). The excesses of this period were recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs.

Protestants in England and Wales were executed under legislation that punished anyone judged guilty of heresy against the Roman Catholic faith. Although the standard penalty for those convicted of treason in England at the time was execution by being hanged, drawn and quartered, this legislation adopted the punishment of burning the condemned. At least 300 people were recognised as martyred over the five years of Mary I's reign by contemporary sources.

Protestants executed under Henry VIII[edit]

The following might not be a complete list:

No. Name Residence Description Date of martyrdom Place of martyrdom References
1. Thomas Hitton Martham, Norfolk clergyman - priest burnt 23 February 1530 Maidstone, Kent [1]
2. Thomas Benet Exeter, Devon teacher burnt 15 January 1531 Exeter, Devon [2]
3. Thomas Bilney Taken at Norwich, Norfolk clergyman - priest burnt 19 August 1531 Norwich, Norfolk [3]
4. Richard Bayfield Taken at Mark Lane, London monk - Benedictine (former) and chamberlain of Bury St Edmunds Abbey burnt 27 November 1531 Smithfield, London [4]
5. John Tewkesbury St Michael-le-Querne Parish, Paternoster Row, London leatherseller burnt December 1531 Smithfield, London [5]
6. 'An old man' Buckinghamshire burnt 1531 [6][n 1]
7. Davy Foster Yorkshire poor artificer burnt 1531 [7][8]
8. James Bainham Middle Temple, London lawyer burnt 30 April 1532 Smithfield, London [9]
9. John Bent Urchfont, Wiltshire burnt in or before April 1532 Devizes, Wiltshire [10]
10. ... Trapnel burnt in or before April 1532 Bradford, Wiltshire [10]
11. Thomas Harding Chesham, Buckinghamshire 'aged father' his brains were dashed out with a billet of wood while he was being burnt at the stake, May 1532 Chesham, Buckinghamshire [11]
12. John Frith Westerham, then Sevenoaks, Kent[12] - Taken after he had been preaching at Bow Lane, London clergyman - canon at Cardinal College, Oxford burnt 4 July 1533 Smithfield, London [13]
13. Andrew Hewet Watling Street, London (born in Feversham, Kent) apprentice to a tailor burnt 4 July 1533 Smithfield, London [13]
14. - 23. Ten Dutchmen counted for Anabaptists - Segor, Derycke, Symon, Runa, Derycke, Dominicke, Dauid, Cornelius, Elken and Milo burnt 1535 'sundry places of the realm' [14][15]
24. Robert Pakington Cheapside, London mercer murdered 13 November 1536 Cheapside, London [16]
25. William Cowbridge Wantage, Berkshire clergyman (purported) - 'exercised the office of a priest, in teaching and administering of the sacraments, but being no priest indeed' burnt after - probably shortly after - 22 July 1538 Oxford, Oxfordshire [16][17][n 2]
26. John Lambert The Stocks - a market for meat and fish in the City of London clergyman - priest, and teacher of Greek and Latin burnt 22 November 1538 Smithfield, London [18]
27. ... Puttedew Suffolk burnt in or before 1538 Suffolk [16]
28. William Leiton or Leyton Eye Priory, Eye, Suffolk monk - Benedictine burnt in or before 1538 Norwich, Norfolk [16]
29. -30 Two Anabaptists, a man and a woman Dutch burnt 29 November 1538 Smithfield, London [19]
31. Giles Germane burnt 1539 St Giles in the Fields, outside London [20]
32. Launcelot ... servant of the king burnt 1539 St Giles in the Fields, outside London [20]
33. John ... painter burnt 1539 St Giles in the Fields, outside London [20]
34. - 36. Three Anabaptists - ... Mandeville, ... Collins and another burnt 29 April 1539 Newington Causeway, outside London [21]
37. William Collins London lawyer and gentleman burnt 7 July 1540 Smithfield, London or Southwark [16][17][n 3]
38. Robert Barnes Austin Friary, Cambridge (until 1528) monk - Augustinian burnt 30 July 1540 Smithfield, London [22]
39. Thomas Gerrard (or Gerard, Garret or Garrard) All Hallows Honey Lane Parish, London clergyman - rector of All Hallows Honey Lane burnt 30 July 1540 Smithfield, London [22]
40. William Jerome Stepney, London clergyman - vicar of St Dunstan's, Stepney burnt 30 July 1540 Smithfield, London [22]
41. - 42. Valentine Freese and his wife burnt 1540 York, Yorkshire [23][24]
43. Richard Mekins 'a child that passed not the age of fifteen years' burnt 30 July 1541 [25][26]
44. Richard Spenser clergyman (former) - 'a ... Priest ... who leaving his papistry, had married a wife, and became a player in interludes' Burnt about 1541/2 Salisbury, Wiltshire [25][27]
45. John Ramsey player in interludes burnt about 1541/2 Salisbury, Wiltshire [25][27]
46. Thomas Bernard burnt about 1541 Lincoln Diocese [28][29]
47. James Morton burnt about 1541 Lincoln Diocese [28][30]
48. Adam Damlip (also known as George Bucker) Calais clergyman - former chaplain to Bishop John Fisher hanged, drawn and quartered 22 May 1543 [31] Calais [32]
The Windsor Martyrs
49. Robert Testwood City of London (originally) musician in the college at Windsor burnt 28 July 1543 Windsor, Berkshire [33][34]
50. Anthony Pearson clergyman - priest of Windsor; popular preacher burnt 28 July 1543 Windsor, Berkshire [33][35]
51. Henry Filmer churchwarden of St John the Baptist Church, Windsor burnt 28 July 1543 Windsor, Berkshire [33][36]
52. Unknown man Calais poor laboring man burnt 1540[n 4] Calais [32]
53. ... Dodd Calais - a Scotsman burnt 1541[n 5] Calais [32]
54. ... Henry burnt 1545 or 1546 Colchester, Essex [37]
55. Unknown man servant of ... Henry burnt 1545 or 1546 Colchester, Essex [37]
56. ... Kerby burnt 1546 Ipswich, Suffolk [37]
57. Roger Clarke Mendlesham, Suffolk burnt 1546 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [37]
58. Anne Askew Stallingborough, Lincolnshire[38] wife of Master Thomas Kyme, a farmer and landowner of Friskney, Lincolnshire[38] burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London [39]
59. Nicholas Belenian Shropshire clergyman - priest burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London [40]
60. John Adams Colchester, Essex[41] tailor burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London [40]
61. John Lascelles Gateford, Nottinghamshire courtier burnt 16 July 1546 Smithfield, London [40]
62. ... Rogers Norfolk burnt 1546 Norfolk [42]
63. Oliver Richardine Whitchurch parish burnt 1546 Hartford West [43]

Posthumous proceedings[edit]

Those who sickened or died in prison[edit]

No. Name Residence Description Date of death Place of death References
1. Christopher, a Dutchman Antwerp, Flanders 1531 died in prison at Westminster [44]
2. John Porter Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire and St Sepulchre's, London tailor 1542 Newgate Prison, London [28][41]
3. Thomas Sommers London merchant About 1542 Tower of London, [28][29]

Radical Protestants executed under Edward VI[edit]

No. Name Residence Description Date of martyrdom Place of martyrdom References
1. Joan Bocher Kent - perhaps Romney Marsh 2 May 1550 Smithfield, London [45]
2. George van Paris Dutchman 1551 [46][47]

Protestants executed under Mary[edit]

The following might not be a complete list:

No. Name Residence Description Date of martyrdom Place of martyrdom References
1. John Rogers City of London clergyman - preacher, biblical translator, lecturer at St. Paul’s Cathedral burnt 4 February 1555 Smithfield, London [48]:p.113[49]
2. Lawrence Saunders City of London clergyman - preacher, Rector of All Hallows Bread Street, London burnt 8 February 1555 Coventry, Warwickshire [48]:p.98[50]
3. John Hooper Gloucester and Worcester clergyman - Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester under Edward VI burnt 9 February 1555 Gloucester, Gloucestershire [48]:p.98[51]
4. Rowland Taylor Hadleigh, Suffolk clergyman - Rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk burnt 9 February 1555 Aldham Common, Nr Hadleigh, Suffolk [48]:p.98[52]
5. Rawlins White Cardiff, Glamorgan fisherman burnt March 1555 Cardiff, Glamorgan [53]
6. Thomas Tomkins Shoreditch, London weaver burnt 16 March 1555 Smithfield, London [54]
7. Thomas Causton Horndon on the Hill or Thundersby, Essex gentleman burnt 26 March 1555 Rayleigh, Essex [55]
8. Thomas Higbed Horndon on the Hill or Thundersby, Essex gentleman burnt 26 March 1555 Horndon-on-the-Hill, Essex [55]
9. William Hunter Coleman Street Parish, London apprentice burnt 27 March 1555 (or 26 according to Foxe) Brentwood, Essex [56]
10. Stephen Knight barber burnt 28 March 1555 Maldon, Essex [57]
11. William Pigot (or Pygot) butcher burnt 28 March 1555 Braintree, Essex [57]
12. [n 6] William Dighel burnt 28 March 1555 Banbury, Oxfordshire [58][59]
13. John Laurence (or Lawrence) clergyman - priest and former Blackfriar at Sudbury, Suffolk [41] burnt 29 March 1555 Colchester, Essex [57]
14. Robert Ferrar St David's, Pembrokeshire clergyman - Bishop of St David's under Edward VI burnt 30 March 1555 Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire [60]
15. George Marsh Dean, Lancashire clergyman - curate to Laurence Saunders and minister at Dean, Lancashire burnt 24 April 1555 Boughton, Cheshire [61]
16. William Flower Lambeth, London surgeon and teacher burnt 24 April 1555 Westminster [62]
17. John Cardmaker Wells, Somerset clergyman - prebendary of Wells Cathedral burnt 30 May 1555 Smithfield, London [63]
18. John Warne[n 7] Walbrook, London upholsterer burnt 30 May 1555 Smithfield, London [63]
19. Thomas Haukes (or Hawkes) Essex gentleman burnt 10 June 1555 Coggeshall, Essex [64][65]
20. Thomas Watts (or Wattes) Billericay, Essex linen draper burnt 10 June 1555 Chelmsford, Essex [64][66]
21. John Ardeley (or Ardite) Wigborough, Essex husbandman burnt 30 May 1555 (or 'about 10 June', according to Foxe) Rayleigh, Essex [64][67]
22. John Simson Wigborough, Essex husbandman burnt 30 May 1555 (or 'about 10 June', according to Foxe) Rochford, Essex [64][67]
23. Nicholas Chamberlain (or Chamberlaine) Coggeshall, Essex weaver burnt 14 June 1555 Colchester, Essex [64][68]
24. William Bamford (or Butler)[n 8] Coggeshall, Essex weaver burnt 15 June 1555 Harwich, Essex [64][68]
25. Thomas Ormond (or Osmande)[n 9] Coggeshall, Essex fuller burnt 15 June 1555 Manningtree, Essex [64][68]
26. John Bradford City of London clergyman - prebendary of St Paul's Cathedral burnt 1 July 1555 Smithfield, London [64][69][70]
27. John Leaf (or Jhon Least) Christ Church Greyfriars, London (born in Kirkby Moorside, Yorkshire) apprentice tallow chandler burnt 1 July 1555 Smithfield, London [64][70][71]
The Canterbury Martyrs of July 1555
28. John Bland (or Blande) Rolvenden, Kent clergyman - vicar of Rolvenden, Kent burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][72]
29. Nicholas Shetterden (or Shitterdun) burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][73]
30. John Frankesh Adisham, Kent clergyman - parson of Adisham, Kent burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][n 10][73]
31. Humphrey Middleton Ashford, Kent burnt 12 July 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][73]
32. Nicholas Hall Dartford, Kent bricklayer burnt 19 July 1555 Rochester, Kent [64][74]
33. Christopher Wade Dartford, Kent linen-weaver burnt July 1555 Dartford, Kent [64][74]
34. Margaret Polley (or Margery)[n 11][75] Pepeling, Calais[n 12][30] widow burnt 17 July 1555 Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent [74]
35. Dirick Carver (also spelt Deryk, also known as Dirick Harman) Brighthelmstone (now Brighton), Sussex beer-brewer burnt 22 July 1555, Lewes, East Sussex [64][76][77]
36. John Launder Godstone, Surrey husbandman burnt 23 July 1555 Stenning, West Sussex [64][77]
37. Thomas Euerson (or Iueson, Iverson or Iveson) Godstone, Surrey carpenter burnt (day unknown) July 1555 Chichester, West Sussex [64][76][78]
38. Richard Hook (or Hooke)[79][80] lame man [59] burnt unknown date in July 1555 Chichester, West Sussex [64][81]
39. James Abbess Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk shoemaker burnt 2 August 1555 Thetford, Norfolk (or Bury, according to Foxe) [64][78]
40. John Denley Maidstone, Kent gentleman burnt 8 August 1555 Uxbridge, Middlesex [64][81]
41. Robert Smith Windsor, Berkshire clerk at the college in Windsor, Berkshire and painter burnt 8 August 1555 Uxbridge, Middlesex [64][82]
The Canterbury Martyrs of August 1555
42. William Coker burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][83]
43. William Hopper Cranbrook, Kent[73] burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][83]
44. Henry Laurence burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][83]
45. Richard Collier (or Colliar) burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][83]
46. Richard Wright Ashford, Kent[73] burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][83]
47. William Stere Ashford, Kent[73] burnt 23 August 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][83]
48. Elizabeth Warne (or Warren)[n 13] Walbrook, London widow of John Warne, upholsterer burnt 23 August 1555 Stratford-atte-Bow, London [64][84]
49. Roger Hues (alias Curryer) (or Corier) St Mary's, Taunton, Somerset burnt 24 August 1555 Taunton, Somerset [59][64][85]
50. George Tankerfield London (born in York) cook burnt 26 August 1555 St Albans [64][86]
51. Patrick Pakingham (or Packingham, Pachingham, Patchingham or Pattenham) burnt 28 August 1555 Uxbridge, Middlesex [64][81]
52. John Newman Maidstone, Kent pewterer burnt 31 August 1555 Saffron Walden, Essex [64][81]
53. Robert Samuel (or Samuell) Barfold, Suffolk clergyman - minister at Barfold, Suffolk burnt 31 August 1555 Thetford, Norfolk [64][87]
54. Stephen Harwood Ware, Hertfordshire brewer burnt 30 August 1555 Stratford in Essex [64][88]
55. Thomas Fust (or Fusse) hosier, August 1555 In the environs of London or Ware [64][88]
56. William Hale (or Hailes) Thorpe, Essex, late August 1555 In the environs of Barnet, London [64][88]
57. William Allen Somerton, Norfolk labourer burnt early September 1555 Walsingham, Norfolk [64][89]
58. Roger Coe (or Coo or Cooe) Melford, Suffolk shearman burnt date unknown September 1555 Yoxford, Suffolk [64][89]
59. Thomas Cob Haverhill, Suffolk butcher burnt date unknown September 1555 Thetford, Norfolk [64][89]
The Canterbury Martyrs of September 1555
60. George Catmer (or Painter) Hythe, Kent burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][64][90][91]
61. Robert Streater (or Streter) Hythe, Kent burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][64][90][91]
62. Anthony Burward Calete (possibly Calais) [92] burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][64][90][91]
63. George Brodbridge (or Bradbridge) Bromfield, Kent burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][64][90][91]
64. James Tutty (or Tuttey) Brenchley, Kent burnt about 6 September 1555, according to Foxe (or 12 July 1555) Canterbury, Kent [43][64][90][91]
65. Robert Glover (or Glouer) Mancetter, Warwickshire gentleman burnt 14 September 1555 Coventry, Warwickshire [64][93]
66. Cornelius Bongey (or Bungey) capper burnt 20 September 1555 Coventry, Warwickshire [64][94]
67. Thomas Hayward (or Heywarde) burnt mid September 1555 Lichfield, Staffordshire [43][64]
68. John Goreway Holy Trinity Parish, Coventry, Warwickshire [41] burnt mid September 1555 Lichfield, Staffordshire [43][64]
69. William Wolsey constable, one of the Wisbech Martyrs, burnt 16 October 1555 Cathedral Green, Ely, Cambridgeshire [64][95]
70. Robert Pygot (or Pigot) Wisbech, Cambridgeshire painter burnt 16 October 1555 Cathedral Green, Ely, Cambridgeshire [64][95]
71. Hugh Latimer (or Latymer) Baxterley, Warwickshire [96] clergyman - chaplain to King Edward VI burnt 16 October 1555 outside Balliol College, Oxford [64][97]
72. Nicholas Ridley Fulham Palace clergyman - Bishop of London under Edward VI burnt 16 October 1555 outside Balliol College, Oxford [64][97]
The Canterbury Martyrs of November 1555
73. John Webbe (or Web) gentleman burnt 30 November 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][98]
74. George Roper burnt 30 November 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][98]
75. Gregory Parke (or Paynter) burnt 30 November 1555 Canterbury, Kent [64][98]
76. John Philpot Winchester, Hampshire clergyman - Archdeacon of Winchester burnt 18 December 1555 Smithfield, London [64][99]
77. Thomas Whittle (or Whitwell) Essex clergyman - priest or minister burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [64][100]
78. Bartlett Green (or Bartholomew Green) Temple, London - born in Basinghall, London gentleman and lawyer burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [64][100]
79. Thomas Brown St Bride's parish, Fleet Street, London - born in Histon, Cambridgeshire burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [64][100]
80. John Tudson St Mary Botolph parish, London - born in Ipswich, Suffolk artificer burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [64][100]
81. John Went (or Winter or Hunt) Langham, Essex artificer burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [64][100]
82. Isobella Forster (or Annis Foster) St Bride's parish, Fleet Street, London - Born in Greystoke, Cumberland wife of John Foster, cutler burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [64][100]
83. Joan Lushford (or Jone Lashforde) (or Warne) Little Allhallows parish, Thames Street, London maid burnt 27 January 1556 Smithfield, London [64][100] [n 14]
The Canterbury Martyrs of 1556
84. John Lomas (or Jhon Lowmas) Tenterden, Kent burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap, Canterbury [64][101]
85. Annes Snoth (or Annis Snod) Smarden, Kent widow burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap, Canterbury [64][101]
86. Anne Wright (or Albright) alias Champnes burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap,Canterbury [64][101]
87. Joan Sole (or Jone Soale) Horton, Kent wife burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap, Canterbury [64][101]
88. Joan Catmer Hythe, Kent 'wife (as it should seem) of George Catmer', burnt in 1555 burnt 31 January 1556 Wincheap, Canterbury [101][n 15][64]
89. Agnes Potten Ipswich, Suffolk wife of Robert Potten burnt 19 February 1556 Ipswich, Cornhill [64][n 16][102]
90. Joan Trunchfield Ipswich, Suffolk wife of Michael Trunchfield, a shoemaker burnt 19 February 1556 Ipswich, Cornhill [64][n 16][102]
91. Thomas Cranmer Lambeth Palace clergyman - Archbishop of Canterbury (former) burnt 21 March 1556 outside Balliol College, Oxford [64][103]
92. John Maundrel Beckhampton, Wiltshire - brought up in Rowde, Wiltshire husbandman burnt 24 March 1556 outside Salisbury, Wiltshire [64][n 17][104]
93. William Coberly Wiltshire tailor burnt 24 March 1556 outside Salisbury, Wiltshire [64][n 17][104]
94. John Spicer (or Spencer) Winston, Suffolk [41] freemason or bricklayer burnt 24 March 1556 outside Salisbury, Wiltshire [64][104]
95. John Harpole St Nicholas Parish, Rochester, Kent burnt 1 April 1556 Rochester, Kent [64][105]
96. Joan Beach Tunbridge Wells, Kent widow burnt 1 April 1556 Rochester, Kent [64][105]
97. John Hullier (or Hulliarde) Babraham, Cambridgeshire clergyman - curate of Babraham, Cambridgeshire burnt 16 April 1556 Cambridge, Cambridgeshire [64][106][107]
98. William Tyms (or Timmes) Hockley, Essex clergyman - curate of Hockley, Essex burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [64][108]
99. Robert Drake Thundersley, Essex clergyman - minister or parson of Thundersley, Essex burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [64][108]
100. Richard Spurge Bocking, Essex shearman burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [64][108]
101. Thomas Spurge Bocking, Essex fuller burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [64][108]
102. George Ambrose Bocking, Essex fuller burnt 24 April 1555 Smithfield, London [64][108]
103. John Cavel (or Cauell) Bocking, Essex weaver burnt 24 April 1556 Smithfield, London [64][108]
The Colchester martyrs of April 1556
104. Christopher Lister Dagenham, Essex husbandman burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [64][109]
105. John Mace Colchester, Essex apothecary burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [64][109]
106. John Spencer Colchester, Essex weaver burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [64][109]
107. Simon Joyne sawyer burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [109]
108. Richard Nicol Colchester, Essex weaver burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [64][109]
109. John Hamond Colchester, Essex tanner burnt 28 April 1556 Colchester, Essex [64][109]
110. Hugh Laverock (or Lauarocke) Barking, Essex painter, (a lame man) burnt 15 May 1556 Stratford in Essex [64][110]
111. John Apprice (or Aprice) blind man burnt 15 May 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow or Stratford in Essex [64][110]
112. Thomas Drowry blind boy burnt about 15 May 1556 Gloucester, Gloucestershire [64][n 18][111]
113. Thomas Croker bricklayer burnt about 15 May 1556 Gloucester, Gloucestershire [64][n 18][111]
114. Katherine Hut Bocking, Essex widow burnt 16 May 1556 Smithfield, London [64][110]
115. Elizabeth Thackvel Great Burstead, Essex maid burnt 16 May 1556 Smithfield, London [64][110]
116. Joan (or Jone) Horns Billericay, Essex maid burnt 16 May 1556 Smithfield, London [64][110]
117. Thomas Spicer Winston, Suffolk labourer burnt 21 May 1556 Beccles, Suffolk [64][n 19][112]
118. John Deny (or Denny) (possibly a female Joan or Jone) Beccles, Suffolk burnt 21 May 1556 Beccles, Suffolk [64][n 19][112]
119. Edmund Poole Beccles, Suffolk burnt 21 May 1556 Beccles, Suffolk [64][n 19][112]
120. Thomas Harland Woodmancote, Sussex carpenter burnt 6 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][113][114][115]
121. John Oswald (or Oseward) Woodmancote, Sussex husbandman burnt 6 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][113][114][115]
122. Thomas Reed Ardingly, Sussex burnt about 6 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][114]
123.[n 20][116] Thomas Avington (or Euington) Ardingly, Sussex turner burnt about 6 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][114][115]
124. Adam Forster (or Foster) Mendlesham, Suffolk husbandman burnt 17 June 1556 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [117][118]
125. Robert Lawson linen weaver burnt 17 June 1556 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [117][118]
126. Thomas Wood/...'Whod' clergyman - pastor burnt about 20 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][114]
127. Thomas Milles Hellingly, Sussex burnt about 20 June 1556 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][114][n 21][115]
128. Thomas Moor servant and husbandman burnt 26 June 1556 Leicester, Leicestershire [79][n 22][64][114][29]
The Stratford Martyrs, 11 men and 2 women.
129. Henry Adlington/Addlinton Grinstead, Sussex sawyer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
130. Laurence/Lawrence Parnam Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire smith burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
131. Henry Wye Stanford-le-Hope, Essex brewer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
132. William Holywell/Hallywell Waltham Holy Cross, Essex, smith burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
133. Thomas Bowyer/Bowier Great Dunmow, Essex weaver burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
134. George Searle White Notley, Essex tailor burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
135. Edmond Hurst St James's parish, Colchester labourer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
136. Lion/Lyon Cawch City of London merchant/broker burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
137. Ralph Jackson Chipping Ongar, Essex, serving-man burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
138. John Derifall/Dorifall Rettendon, Essex labourer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
139. John Routh/Roth Wickes, Essex labourer burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][119]
140. Elizabeth Pepper St James's parish, Colchester wife of Thomas Pepper, weaver burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][n 23][119]
141. Agnes George West Barefold, Essex wife of Richard George, husbandman burnt about 27 June 1556 Stratford-Atte-Bow [64][n 23][119][n 24][120]
142. Roger Bernard Framsden, Suffolk labourer burnt 30 June 1556 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [117][118]
143. Julian Palmer Reading, Berkshire schoolmaster burnt about 15 July 1556 'The Sand-pits', Nr Newbury, Berkshire [64][121]
144. John Guin/Jhon Gwin shoemaker [59] burnt about 15 July 1556 'The Sand-pits', Nr Newbury, Berkshire [64][121]
145. Thomas Askin/Askue burnt about 15 July 1556 'The Sand-pits', Nr Newbury, Berkshire [64][121]
The Guernsey Martyrs - (Three women and one unborn male foetus)
146. Catherine Cauchés (sometimes spelt Katherine Cawches) St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands burnt 18 July 1556 St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands [122]
147. Perotine Massey (pregnant with male foetus) St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands burnt 18 July 1556 St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands [122]
148. Guillemine Gilbert St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands burnt 18 July 1556 St Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands [122]
149. Thomas Dungate (or Dougate) East Grinstead, Sussex burnt 18 July 1556 Grinstead, Sussex [64][79][115][123]
150. John Forman (or Foreman) East Grinstead, Sussex burnt 18 July 1556 Grinstead, Sussex [64][79][115][123]
151. Anne Tree (or Try) East Grinstead, Sussex burnt 18 July 1556 Grinstead, Sussex [64][79][115][123]
152. Joan Waste All Hallows', Derby, Derbyshire blind woman burnt 1 August 1556 Derby, Derbyshire [79]
153. Edward Sharp glover (possibly)[59] burnt early September 1556 Bristol, Gloucestershire/Somerset [79]
154. Rose Pencell burnt 17 October 1555 Bristol [124]
155. William Shapton weaver burnt 17 October 1555 Bristol [124]
156. John Kurde Syresham, Northamptonshire shoemaker burnt October 1556 or 20 September 1557 Northampton, Northamptonshire [79][125]
157. John Noyes Laxfield, Suffolk shoemaker burnt 22 September 1556 or 1557 [126]
158. Thomas Ravensdale burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [79][115]
159. John Hart burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [79][115]
160. Unknown man shoemaker burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [79]
161. Unknown man currier burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [79]
162. Nicholas Holden Withyham, Sussex weaver burnt 24 September 1556 Mayfield, Sussex [59][115]
163. Unknown man carpenter burnt 25 September 1556 Bristol, Gloucestershire/Somerset [79]
164. John Horn burnt late September 1556 Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire [79][127][n 25][128]
165. John Phillpott Tenterden, Kent burnt 16 January 1557 Wye, Ashford, Kent [64][n 26][129]
166. Thomas Stephens Biddenden, Kent burnt 16 January 1557 Wye, Ashford, Kent [64][n 26][129]
The Canterbury Martyrs of January 1557
167. Stephen Kempe Norgate, Kent burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]
168. William Waterer Biddenden, Kent burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]
169. William Prowting Thornham, Kent burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]
170. William Lowick Cranbrooke, Kent burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]
171. Thomas Hudson Selling, Kent burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]
172. William Hay Hythe, Kent burnt 15 January 1557 Canterbury, Kent [129]
173. Nicholas Final Tenterden, Kent burnt 16 January 1557 Ashford, Kent [64][n 27][129]
174. Martin Bradbridge Tenterden, Kent burnt 16 January 1557 Ashford, Kent [64][n 27][130]
175. William Carman (or Carmen)[n 28] burnt day and month unknown 1557 [131]
176. Thomas Loseby burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [64][132][n 29]
177. Henry Ramsey burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [64][132]
178. Thomas Thyrtell/Sturtle burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [64][132]
179. Margaret Hyde burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [64][132][n 30]
180. Agnes Stanley/Stanlye burnt 12 April 1557 Smithfield, London [64][132][133]
181. Richard Sharpe weaver burnt 7 May 1557 Cotham, Bristol [134]
182. Thomas Hale shoemaker burnt 7 May 1557 Cotham, Bristol [134]
183. Stephen Gratwick (or Steuen Grathwick) Brighthelmstone (now Brighton), Sussex burnt at end of May 1557 St. George's Fields, Southwark, Surrey [64][135]:p.272[136]
184. William Morant burnt at end of May 1557 St. George's Fields, Southwark, Surrey [64][135]:p. 272[136]
185. Thomas [59] King burnt at end of May 1557 St. George's Fields, Southwark, Surrey [64][n 31][135]:p.272[136]
The Maidstone martyrs
186. Joan/Jone Bradbridge Staplehurst, Kent Presumably a relative of Widow Bradbridge, burnt 19 June 1557[137] burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [64][138]
187. Walter Appleby Maidstone, Kent burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [64][138]
188. Petronil Appleby Maidstone, Kent wife of Walter Appleby burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [64][138]
189. Edmund Allin/Allen Maplehurst Mill, Frittenden, Kent miller burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [64][138]
190. Katherine Allin/Allen Maplehurst Mill, Frittenden, Kent Wife of Edmund Allin/Allen, miller burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [64][138]
191. Joan/Jone Manning Maidstone, Kent burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [64][138]
192. Elizabeth (surname possibly 'Lewis') blind maid burnt 18 June 1557 Maidstone, Kent [64][138]
The Canterbury martyrs of June 1557
193. John Fishcock/Jhon Fiscoke burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [64][138]
194. Nicholas White burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [64][138]
195. Nicholas Pardue/Perdue burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [64][138]
196. Barbara Final burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [64][138]
197. Bradbridge's Widow (Bradbridge's Wife) Probably Tenterden, Kent Probably the widow of Martin Bradbridge, burnt 16 January 1557 burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [138]
198. Mistress Wilson (also referred to as 'Wilson's Wife') burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [64][138]
199. Alice Benden, possibly also referred to as 'Benson's Wife' Staplehurst (or possibly Cranbrook), Kent[139] burnt 19 June 1557 Canterbury, Kent [64][138]
The Lewes Martyrs
200. Richard Woodman Warbleton, Sussex iron-maker burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][140]
201. George Stevens (or Steuens) Warbleton, Sussex burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][140]
202. William Mainard Mayfield, Sussex burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][140]
203. Alexander Hosman Mayfield, Sussex servant of William Mainard burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][140]
204. Thomasina Wood Mayfield, Sussex maidservant of William Mainard burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][140]
205. Margery Morris (or Marcery/Margaret) (or Morice) Heathfield, Sussex burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][115][140]
206. James Morris (or Morice) - son of Margery Heathfield, Sussex burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][115][140]
207. Denis Burcis (or Burgis) Buxted, Sussex burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][115][140]
208. Ann Ashdon (or Ashdown)(also referred to as 'Ashdon's Wife') Rotherfield, Sussex burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][140]
209. Mary Groves (or Gloue's)(also referred to as 'Gloue's Wife') Lewes, Sussex burnt 22 June 1557 Lewes, Sussex [64][76][140][n 32][115][141]
210. Simon Miller (or Milner) Lynn, Norfolk burnt 13 July 1557 Norwich, Norfolk [64][142]
211. Elizabeth Cooper St Andrew's Parish, Norwich, Norfolk wife of a pewterer burnt 13 July 1557 Norwich, Norfolk [64](which calls her 'a woman')[142]
212. George Egles/Eagles hung, drawn & quartered, August 1557 Chelmsford, Essex [64][143]
The Colchester Martyrs of August 1557
213. William Bongeor St Nicholas Parish, Colchester, Essex glazier burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
214. William Purchase (or Purcas) Bocking, Essex fuller burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
215. Thomas Benhote (or Benold) Colchester, Essex tallow-chandler burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
216. Agnes Silverside (or Smith) Colchester, Essex widow burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
217. Helen Ewring (or Ellen Ewring) Colchester, Essex wife of John Ewring, miller burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
218. Elizabeth Folk Colchester, Essex 'young maiden' and servant burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
219. William Munt (or Mount) Much Bentley, Essex burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
220. Alice Munt (or Mount) Much Bentley, Essex wife of William Munt (or Mount) burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
221. Rose Allen Much Bentley, Essex spinster, daughter of Alice Mount burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
222. John Johnson (or Aliker) Thorpe, Essex labourer burnt 2 August 1557 Colchester, Essex [144]
223. Richard Crashfield Wymondham, Norfolk burnt 5 August 1557 Norwich, Norfolk [64] which records 'one at Norwich' in July[145]
224. Father Fruier burnt August 1557 Rochester, Kent [64][143]
225. Robert Stevenson burnt August 1557 Rochester, Kent [146]
226. Sister of George Eagles burnt August 1557 Rochester, Kent [64][143]
227. Unknown Woman burnt August 1557 Rochester, Kent [64]
228. Thomas Benion weaver burnt 27 August 1557 Bristol [134]
229. Joyce Lewis Mancetter, Warwickshire gentlewoman burnt September 1557 Lichfield, Staffordshire [147][148] - may be the same as Joyce Bowes, August 1557 (the Regester)
230. Ralph Allerton/Rafe Glaiton Much Bentley, Essex burnt 17 September 1557 Islington [64][149]
231. James Austoo/Auscoo burnt 17 September 1557 Islington [64][149]
232. Margery Austoo/Auscoo burnt 17 September 1557 Islington [64][149]
233. Richard Roth/Rooth burnt 17 September 1557 Islington [64][149]
234. Agnes Bongeor/An Banger (also known as Bowmer's Wife), wife of Richard Bongeor -(similar name but different d.date) burnt 17 September (or unknown date July) Colchester, Essex [125] (or March 1558, Colchester)[64]
235. Margaret Thurston/Widow Thurston-similar name but different d.date) burnt 17 September (or unknown date July) Colchester, Essex [125](or March 1558, Colchester) [64]
236. Cicely Ormes St Edmund's Parish, Norwich, Norfolk wife of Edmund Ormes, worsted-weaver burnt 23 September 1557 Norwich, Norfolk [150][151][152]
237. Thomas Spurdance servant of the Queen burnt November 1557 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [151][153]
238. John Halingdale/Hallingdale/Hollingday carpenter[59] burnt, 18 November/or day unknown October 1557, Smithfield, London [64][151][154]
239. William Sparrow burnt, 18 November/or day unknown October 1557 Smithfield, London [64][151][154]
240. Richard Gibson gentleman[59] burnt, 18 November/or day unknown October 1557 Smithfield, London [64][151][154]
241. John Rough/Jhon Roughe London/Islington, Middlesex clergyman - minister at London/Islington, Middlesex burnt 22 December 1557 Smithfield, London [64][155]
242. Margaret Maring/Mering burnt 22 December 1557 Smithfield, London [64][155]
243. ... Lawton burnt March 1558 Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire [59]
244.[n 33] Cuthbert Symson/Symion London/Islington, Middlesex clergyman - deacon of the church in London/Islington, Middlesex died 28 March 1558 Smithfield, London [64][156]
245. Hugh Foxe hosier[59] died 28 March 1558 Smithfield, London [64][156]
246. John Devinish/Jhon Denneshe wool winder[59] died 28 March 1558 Smithfield, London [64][156]
247. William Nichol burnt 9 April 1558 SM9515 Haverfordwest/Hwlffordd, Pembrokeshire/Sir Benfro [64][157][158]
248. William Seaman/Symon Mendlesham, Suffolk husbandman burnt 19 May 1558 Norwich, Norfolk [64][159]
249. Thomas Hudson Aylsham, Norfolk glover burnt 19 May 1558 Norwich, Norfolk [159] described as 'Glouer' in [64]
250. Thomas Carman[n 28] burnt 19 May 1558 Norwich, Norfolk [64][159]
251. William Harris burnt 26 May 1558 Colchester [64][120]
252. Richard Day burnt 26 May 1558 Colchester, Essex [64][120]
253. Christian George (female) burnt 26 May 1558 Colchester, Essex - her husband had previously been married to Agnes George, mentioned above[64][120]
The Islington Martyrs[160]
254. Henry Pond (or Houde) burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [64][160]
255. Reinald Eastland (or Launder) burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [64][160]
256. Robert Southain (or Southam) burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [64][160]
257. Matthew Ricarby (or Ricarbie) burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [64][160]
258. John Floyd (or Flood) burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [64][160]
259. John Holiday (or Hollyday) burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [64][160]
260. Roger Holland London (taken in or near St John's Wood) merchant tailor burnt 27 June 1558 Smithfield, London [64][160]
261. Sir Richard Yeoman/Yeman Hadleigh, Suffolk clergyman - curate of Hadleigh, Suffolk burnt 10 July 1558 Norwich, Norfolk [64][161][162]
The Islington Martyrs (second group)[160]
262. Robert Mills burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [160]
263. Stephen Cotton burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [64][160]
264. Robert Dynes burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [160]
265. Stephen Wight (or Wreight) burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [64][160]
266. John Slade burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [64][160]
267. William Pikes (or Pikas/Peckes) tanner burnt 14 July 1558 Brentford, Middlesex [64][160]
268. John Cooke sawyer burnt about 25 July 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [163]
269. Robert Milles, or Plummer shearman burnt about 25 July 1558 Bury St Edmunds [163]
270. Alexander Lane wheelwright burnt about 25 July 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [163]
271. James Ashley bachelor burnt about 25 July 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [163]
272. Thomas Benbrike/Benbridge gentleman burnt unknown day in July 1558 Winchester, Hampshire [64][164]
273. John Snell or Richard Snell Bedale, Yorkshire burnt 9 September 1558 Richmond, Yorkshire [165]
274. Alexander Gooch (or Geche) (or Gouch) Woodbridge, Suffolk or Melton, Suffolk weaver of shredding-coverlets burnt 4 November 1558 Ipswich Cornhill [64][166]
275.[n 34] Alice Driver Grundisburgh, Suffolk wife of a husbandman burnt 4 November 1558 Ipswich Cornhill [166]
276. Philip Humphrey/Philip Humfrey burnt November 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [167]
277. John David/Jhon Dauy burnt November 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [167]
278. Henry David/H.Dauy,(brother of John David) burnt November 1558 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [167]
279. Agnes Prest Launceston, Cornwall burnt 15 August 1557 Southernhay, Exeter, Devon, [168]
280. John Corneford Wrotham, Kent burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury, Kent [169]
281. Christopher Brown Maidstone, Kent burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury [169]
282. John Herst Ashford, Kent burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury, Kent [169]
283. Alice Snoth burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury, Kent [169]
284. Katherine Knight/Tynley an aged woman burnt 15 November 1558 Canterbury [169]

Note: Mary I died on 17 November 1558.

Also mentioned by Foxe[edit]

Posthumous proceedings[edit]

Those who sickened or died in prison[edit]

No. Name Residence Description Date of death Place of death References
1C. John Alcock (or Awcock) Hadleigh, Suffolk shearman 2 April 1555 Newgate Prison, London [177][178]
2. William Minge clergyman - priest 2 July 1555 Maidstone Prison, Kent [64][174]
3. John Aleworth July 1555 Reading Prison, Berkshire [n 35][78]
4. ... Tingle September 1555 Newgate Prison, London [64][179]
5.[n 36] [180] George Kyng (or King) September 1555 sickened in Lollard's Tower [64][88][180]
6. Jhon Lesse September 1555 Newgate Prison, London [64][n 37][88]
7. John Wade September 1555 sickened in Lollard's Tower [88]
8. William Androwes (or Andrew) Horsley, Essex carpenter September 1555 Newgate Prison, London [64][88]
9. James Gore 7 December 1555 Colchester prison, Essex [64][98]
10. William Wiseman clothworker 13 December 1555, Lowlar's Tower/Lollard's Tower, Lambeth Palace, London [64][98]
11. Margaret Eliot (or Ellis) Billericay, Essex maid May 1556 Newgate Prison, London [64][110]
12. William Sleeke (or Slech) 31 May 1556 'King's Bench' Southwark, Surrey [64][114]
13. William Adheral minister 24 June 1556 'King's Bench' Southwark, Surrey [64][114]
14. John Clemente wheelwright 26 June 1556 'King's Bench' Southwark, Surrey [64][114]
15. Thomas Parret 27 June 1556 'King's Bench' Southwark, Surrey [64][118]
16. Martyne Hunte 29 June 1556 'King's Bench' Southwark, Surrey [64][118]
17. John Morris (or Norice) 29 June 1556 'King's Bench' Southwark, Surrey [117][118]
18. John Careless Coventry, Warwickshire weaver 1 July 1556 'King's Bench' Southwark, Surrey [64][181]
19. - 21. William Dangerfield, his wife Joan and their infant child sickened in prison [79]
22. - 24. Three people October 1556 Chichester Castle, Sussex (or Canterbury Castle, Kent, according to Knox) [59][79]
25. John Clark in or after November 1556 Canterbury Castle, Kent [79]
26. Dunston Chittenden in or after November 1556 Canterbury Castle, Kent [79]
27. William Foster Stone, Kent in or after November 1556 Canterbury Castle, Kent [79]
28. Alice Potkins Staplehurst, Kent in or after November 1556 Canterbury Castle, Kent [79]
29. John Archer Cranbrooke, Kent in or after November 1556 Canterbury Castle [79]
30. John Thurston taken at Much Bentley, Essex May 1557 Colchester Castle, Essex [144]
31. N. Ambrose about June 1557 (according to Foxe), or July 1557 (according to Farr) Maidstone Prison, Kent [64][117][182]
32. John Dale Hadleigh, Suffolk weaver Bury St Edmunds Prison [64][162]
33. Matthew Withers (or Wythers) June 1558 Newgate Prison, London [64][160]
34. Thomas Tyler June 1558 Newgate Prison, London [64][160]

Radical Protestants executed under Elizabeth I[edit]

No. Name Residence Description Date of martyrdom Place of martyrdom References
1. Jan Wielmacker[n 38] Dutchman - member of a conventicle in Aldgate, London 22 July 1575 Smithfield, London [183]
2. Hendrik Ter Woort[n 38] Dutchman - member of a conventicle in Aldgate, London 22 July 1575 Smithfield, London [183]
3. Matthew Hamont[n 39] Hethersett, Norfolk ploughwright 20 May 1579 Norwich Castle [184]
3. John Lewes[n 39] 18 September 1583 Norwich, Norfolk [184]
4. Peter Cole[n 39] Ipswich, Suffolk tanner 1587 Norwich [184]
5. Francis Kett[n 39] Wymondham, Norfolk clergyman and physician 14 January 1589 Norwich Castle [185]

Radical Protestants executed under James I[edit]

No. Name Residence Description Date of martyrdom Place of martyrdom References
1. Bartholomew Legate[n 40] Hornchurch, Essex cloth trader 18 March 1612 Smithfield, London [186]
2. Edward Wightman[n 38] Burton-upon-Trent, Staffordshire mercer and minister 11 April 1612 Lichfield, Staffordshire [187]

Historical context[edit]

The English Reformation had put a stop to Roman Catholic ecclesiastical governance in England, asserted royal supremacy over the English Church and dissolved some church institutions, such as monasteries and chantries. During the Reformation in England, many people were caught in conflict between Catholic and Protestant ascendancy.

An important year in the English Reformation was 1547, when Protestantism became a new force under the child-king Edward VI, England's first Protestant ruler. Edward died at age 15 in 1553 leaving the throne to Lady Jane Grey, who held it for nine days before Edward's Catholic half-sister Mary deposed her and assumed the crown, as was stipulated by Henry VIII in his Third Succession Act but revoked by Edward VI.[188]:p62

The relationship between the Church of England and Rome was restored under Mary in 1553. She went on to reign for five years (1553–1558) until her death. Protestants opposed Mary's actions. Many people were exiled, and hundreds of dissenters were burned at the stake, earning her the nickname "Bloody Mary".[189] The number of people executed for their faith during the persecutions is thought to be at least 287.[190]

Troubles for Protestants[edit]

After the accession of Queen Mary I to the English throne in 1553, and her repeal of all religious legislation passed under Edward VI, Protestants faced a choice: exile, reconciliation/conversion, or punishment.[191]:p.186 Mary had some 284 Protestants burned at the stake (including 56 women). Thirty others died in prison.[48]:p.79 While the so-called "Marian Persecutions" began with four clergymen,[191]:p.196 relics of Edwardian England’s Protestantism, Foxe’s Book of Martyrs offers an account of the executions, which branched well beyond the anticipated targets – high-level clergy. Tradesmen were also burned, as well as married men and women, sometimes in unison, "youths" and at least one couple was burned alive with their daughter.[191]:p.196

English Inquisition and the judicial process[edit]

However bloody the end, the trials of Protestant heretics were judicial affairs, presided by Bishops (most notably Bishop Bonner) adhering to a strict legal protocol under the privy council, with Parliament's blessing.[191]:p.195 Because of her controversial accession, Mary had difficulty forming an efficient Privy Council, which eventually numbered over 40 and never worked as a source of political advice, though it effectively pursued police work and enforcement of religious uniformity.[188]:p62-65 During the session that restored the realm to "papal obedience" parliament reinstated the heresy laws.[191]:p.196 From 20 January 1555, England could legally punish those judged guilty of heresy against the Catholic faith.[48]:p.91 Thus it became a matter of establishing the guilt or innocence of an accused heretic in open court – a process which the lay authorities employed to reclaim "straying sheep" and to set a precedent for authentic Catholic teaching.[48]:p.102 If found guilty, the accused were first excommunicated, then handed over to the secular authorities for execution.[48]:p.102 The official records of the trials are limited to formal accusations, sentences, and so forth; the documents to which historians look for context and detail are those written by the accused or their supporters.[48]:p.102

Cathedrals in operation[edit]

England

  • Canterbury Cathedral c.600 AD
  • Carlisle Cathedral (in various forms) 1092 AD
  • Chester Cathedral (in various forms) 875 AD
  • Chichester Cathedral 1080 AD
  • Durham Cathedral 997 AD
  • Ely Cathedral 1109 AD
  • Exeter Cathedral 1050 AD
  • Gloucester Cathedral 1541 AD
  • Hereford Cathedral 676 AD
  • Lichfield Cathedral 669-803, 1048 AD
  • Lincoln Cathedral 1070 AD
  • Norwich Cathedral 1094 AD (31 victims of Michael Dunning, the "bloody chancellor" of Norwich died from 1555 to 1558)
  • Oxford Cathedral (in various forms) 727 AD
  • Rochester Cathedral (in various forms) 604 AD
  • Salisbury Cathedral 1227 AD
  • Southwark Cathedral (in various forms) 1106 AD
  • Wells Cathedral 1239 AD
  • Westminster Abbey (The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster) 1080 AD
  • Winchester Cathedral 650 AD
  • Worcester Cathedral 743 AD
  • York Minster 300 AD

Wales

  • Bangor Cathedral - Church of St Deiniol, (in various forms) 1092 AD
  • Brecon Cathedral - Cathedral Church of St John the Evangelist, (in various forms) 1093/1110-1538 AD
  • Llandaff Cathedral - Cathedral Church of St Peter and St Paul (in various forms) 550 AD
  • St Asaph Cathedral (in various forms) 553 AD
  • St Davids Cathedral (in various forms) 580 AD

Irony of John Rogers's execution[edit]

Before Mary's ascent to the throne, John Foxe, one of the few clerics of his day who was against the burning of even obstinate heretics, had approached John Rogers to intervene on behalf of Joan of Kent, a female Anabaptist who was sentenced to burning in 1550.[191]:p.193 Rogers, a Protestant preacher and royal chaplain, refused to help, as he supported the burning of heretics. Rogers claimed that the method of execution was "sufficiently mild" for a crime as grave as heresy.[48]:p.87 Later, after Mary I came to power and converted England to Catholicism, John Rogers spoke quite vehemently against the new order and was burnt as a heretic.[48]:p.97

Observations[edit]

The figure of 300 victims of the Marian Persecutions was listed by Foxe[156] and later by Thomas Brice in his poem, "The Regester".[64]

Legacy[edit]

Throughout the course of the persecutions, Foxe lists 312 individuals who were burnt or hanged for their faith, or died or sickened in prison. Lists of these names are available here [n 41] and here.[n 42] Three of these people are commemorated with a gothic memorial in Oxford, England but there are many other memorials across England.[192] They are known locally as the "Marian Martyrs".

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 'Foxe has a terse report in the Rerum of an old man of Buckingham- shire being executed in 1531 for eating pork during Lent (Rerum, p. 126). Foxe's source for this episode is unknown; Bale does not mention this old man in any of his works. Perhaps Laurence Humphrey, who was Foxe's friend, a native of Buckinghamshire, and who was with Foxe in Basel, was the source for this story. In any case, the Rerum account was translated word-for-word in the 1563 edition. The story was dropped from all subsequent editions, possibly because Foxe grew unsure of this individual's existence or at least of his ability to prove it.' Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus
  2. ^ Foxe describes him as being 'mad and beside his right senses ... and destitute of sense and reason'. The Critical Apparatus to Foxe's Book of Martyrs lists a number of unorthodox beliefs which he held.
  3. ^ Foxe describes him as being 'mad ... ravished of his wits ... beside his wits'.
  4. ^ Six months before the execution of Robert Harvey for treason in Spring 1541 Harvey#C241.56 Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Critical Apparatus
  5. ^ 'within the space of a year, or thereabout, after' the previous man
  6. ^ The 1563 edition of Foxe's Book of Martyrs records that William Dighel was burned at about the same time as Nicholas Sheterden. However, this information is not repeated in subsequent editions of Foxe's work. "Was his omission in subsequent editions due to an accident in the print shop or did Foxe come to doubt his information on Dighel?"
  7. ^ husband of Elizabeth Warne, burnt in August 1555
  8. ^ May be the same as ... Butter, burnt (day unknown) June 1555, Location unknown (the Regester)
  9. ^ Buried in St. Michaels & All Angels Marble placed in 1748
  10. ^ which calls him 'Sir Franke'
  11. ^ The same as Jone Polley, burnt (day unknown) July 1555, Location unknown (the Regester)
  12. ^ Foxe erred in stating that Polley came from Pepenbury; see PRO C/85/144/33r.
  13. ^ widow of John Warne, burnt in May 1555
  14. ^ which says that 'Joan Lashford ... was the daughter of one Robert Lashford ..., and of ... Elizabeth, who afterward was married to John Warne'
  15. ^ may be the same as Jone Painter (the Regester)
  16. ^ a b which refers to 'two women in Ippeswiche towne'
  17. ^ a b which refers to 'two brethren more'
  18. ^ a b which refers to 'two at Glocester'
  19. ^ a b c which refers to 'two men and a syster dere'
  20. ^ 'The Regester' states that a person called 'Milwright' was burnt along with Harland, Oswald, Reed and Avington. However, this person is not mentioned in Foxe's Book of Martyrs, although he does appear in
  21. ^ may be the same as John Milles
  22. ^ the same as 'A merchant's servant burned at Leicester' and the same as 'the yong man at Lecester'
  23. ^ a b which refers to "two women"
  24. ^ her husband then married Christian George, mentioned below
  25. ^ May be an error for Edward Horne, burnt at Newent, Gloucestershire in September 1558. Foxe states that a woman was burnt with Horne. However, the Critical Apparatus quotes a letter from Foxe's papers stating that 'Edward Horne's wife was condemned with him but she recanted and her life was spared'
  26. ^ a b which refers to 'two at Wye'
  27. ^ a b which refers to 'two at Asheforde'. A number of Kentish people of Ashford Area are recorded as having been burnt 16 January 1556 at Ashford, Kent in Ashford Borough Council - Parks and Open Spaces. However, at this time the civil or legal year in England began on 25 March, so the date now known as 16 January 1557 would then have been recorded as 16 January 1556.
  28. ^ a b William Carman burnt unknown month 1557 and Thomas Carman burnt 19 May 1558 were brothers
  29. ^ may be the same as Jhon Lothesby, burnt at Smithfield, April 1557 (the Regester)
  30. ^ may be the same as Annis Hide, burnt at Smithfield, April 1557 (the Regester)
  31. ^ which records an 'other' burnt with Morant and Grathwick
  32. ^ May be the same as Christian Grover of the archdeaconry of Lewes
  33. ^ 'The Regester' states that a person called 'Hayne' was burnt along with Cuthbert Symion. However, this person is not mentioned in Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
  34. ^ 'The Regester' gives the name of the woman burnt with Alexander Gooch as Elizabeth Launson.
  35. ^ may be the same as William Ailewarde (the Regester)
  36. ^ Richard Smith is said to have died in prison (day unknown) September, Lowlar's Tower/Lollard's Tower, Lambeth Palace, London in 'the Regester', but is described as 'non-existent' in
  37. ^ may be the same as Thomas Leyes of Thorpe, Essex, sickened in Lollard's Tower, died (day unknown) September, Location unknown
  38. ^ a b c An Anabaptist
  39. ^ a b c d A Unitarian
  40. ^ An Arian
  41. ^ That list does not include John Wade, the three members of the Dangerfield family or the three who died in Chichester Castle - numbers 7 and 19 to 24 in the list of prisoners above. It appears to conflate Thomas Ravensdale and the shoemaker who was burnt with him - numbers 158 and 160 in the list of prisoners above. In other words, eight people appear above, but not in that list. On the other hand, numbers 212 and 213 in that list (two people burned in Suffolk on 18 June 1557) do not seem to appear elsewhere, and are not shown above. As a result, there are six fewer names in that list of 312 people than the totals above of those executed (284) and those who sickened or died in prison (34) - a grand total of 318.
  42. ^ That list does not include the following eight people mentioned above - (34) Margery Polley, (49) Roger Hues, (154) Rose Pencell, (175) William Carman, (212) George Egles - as he was hanged, drawn and quartered, as opposed to being burnt, (225) Robert Stevenson, (227) the woman at Rochester, (243) ... Lawton. On the other hand, that list duplicates (38) Richard Hook, (127) Thomas Milles/John Milles (128) Thomas Moor and (209) Mary Groves/Christian Grover. It counts (147) Perotine Massey's infant son separately. It includes John Warner and Thomas Athoth who are shown above as 'Also mentioned by Foxe'. It includes a woman said to have been burnt with (164) John Horne of Wotton-under-Edge. In other words, eight people appear in that list but not above. As a result, that list contains the same number of people as the list of martyrs above - 284.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 170. Mummuth and Hitton
  2. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 179. Thomas Benet
  3. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 171. Thomas Bilney
  4. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 173. Richard Bayfield, martyr
  5. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 174. John Tewkesbury, leatherseller, of London, martyr
  6. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 1563 Edition | Book 3 | Page 546
  7. ^ Gairdner, James Lollardy and the Reformation in England: An Historical Survey London, Macmillan and Co, 1908, Vol 1, P 392, Note 1
  8. ^ Review of Fox's Book of Martyrs, Page 119 - William Eusebius Andrews - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-11-08. 
  9. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 176. James Bainham, lawyer and martyr
  10. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 177. John Bent and others
  11. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 166. Martyrs in Scotland and England, 1525-32
  12. ^ David Daniell, ‘Frith, John (1503–1533)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2006 accessed 21 Sept 2014
  13. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 178. John Frith and Andrew Hewet
  14. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 181. King Henry's breach with Rome. See Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation [Oxford,1989], pp. 270-71 for the background to these executions.
  15. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 1583 edition, Book 8, page 1073
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  19. ^ Stow's Annals of England to 1603, P971
  20. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 222. Three divers sorts of judgments amongst the papists, against heretics as they call them. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2014-08-10.
  21. ^ Stow's Annals of England to 1603, P974
  22. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 197. The history of Robert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William Jerome, divines. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-1.
  23. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 175. John Randall and Edward Freese. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-08.
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  25. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 199. Further persecution arising from the Six Articles. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-8.
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  28. ^ a b c d 200. John Porter, Thomas Sommers, and others. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-08.
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  33. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 203. Four Windsor Martyrs. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2014-08-09.
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  38. ^ a b Diane Watt, ‘Askew , Anne (c.1521–1546)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 24 Aug 2014
  39. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 209. Anne Askew
  40. ^ a b c Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 210. The Martyrdom of John Lacels, John Adams, and Nicholas Belenian
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  42. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 211. One Rogers, a martyr, burned in Norfolk
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h Foxe's Book of Martyrs - 311. GEORGE CATMER, ROBERT STREATER, .ANTHONY BURWARD, GEORGE BRODBRIDGE, AND JAMES TUTTY; THOMAS HAYWARD AND JOHN GOREWAY. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-16.
  44. ^ a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 180. Persons abjured in London. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-18.
  45. ^ Andrew Hope, ‘Bocher, Joan (d. 1550)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 24 Aug 2014
  46. ^ Strype's Memorials of Cranmer, P 332
  47. ^ David Hume, The History of England, vol. 3 Chapter XXXIV
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Duffy, Eamon Fires of Faith: Catholic England Under Mary Tudor, New Haven, Yale 2008 ISBN 0300152167
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  50. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 265. Laurence Saunders. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17.
  51. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 266. John Hooper. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17.
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  61. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 279. George Marsh. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17.
  62. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs: 280. William Flower. Exclassics.com. Retrieved on 2013-05-17.
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  157. ^ Memorial to William Nichol, martyr:: OS grid SM9515 :: Geograph Britain and Ireland – photograph every grid square!. Geograph.org.uk (2007-06-18). Retrieved on 2012-08-16.
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