Mariano Trías

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For the municipality, see General Trias, Cavite.
Mariano Trías
Mariano Trias.jpg
1st Vice President of the Philippines
In office
March 22, 1897 – November 2, 1897[1]
President Emilio Aguinaldo
Preceded by Gregoria de Jesús
(Unofficial)
Succeeded by Abolished[2]
Title next held by Sergio Osmeña
Francisco Carreón
(Acting)
Minister of Finance
In office
July 15, 1898 – May 7, 1899
President Emilio Aguinaldo
Preceded by Baldomero Aguinaldo
Succeeded by Hugo Ilagan
Minister of War
In office
May 7, 1899 – April 1, 1901
President Emilio Aguinaldo
Preceded by Baldomero Aguinaldo
Succeeded by Teofilo Sison
Civil Governor of Cavite
In office
1901–1901
Personal details
Born (1868-10-12)October 12, 1868
San Francisco de Malabon (now Gen. Trias), Cavite
Died February 22, 1914(1914-02-22) (aged 45)
Manila, America Philippines
Nationality Filipino
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) María Concepción Ferrer

Mariano Trías y Closas (October 12, 1868 – February 22, 1914) is considered to be the first de facto Philippine Vice President of that revolutionary government established at the Tejeros Convention - an assembly of Philippine revolutionary leaders that elected officials of the revolutionary movement against the colonial government of Spain. When that assembly broke into factions, a truce known as the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was signed by the group and also recognized the elected officials and Trias as the vice president of Emilio Aguinaldo, who is also considered to be the first President of the Philippines. With the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution by the Malolos Convention, the First Philippine Republic was born. Under this Aguinaldo administration, Trias served in the cabinet as the Minister of War and Finance.

He was married to María Concepción Ferrer with whom he had eight children.

Early life[edit]

Mariano was the fifth of the nine children of Don Balbino Trías, a Cabeza de Barangay and Justice of the Peace during the Spanish regime who, after his term of office, become a landowner-farmer. His mother was Gabriela Closas.

He had primary schooling under the tutorship of Eusebio Chaves and Cipriano Gonzales, both local school teachers. Later, he was sent to Manila and enrolled at Colegio de San Juan de Letran for his Bachelor of Arts, then to University of Santo Tomas for his course in Medicine, which he was able to finish as he returned home to help his relatives manage the farm holdings.

Independent movements and career[edit]

Before the revolution in August 1896, he joined the Katipunan and became an active propagandist of the society in the towns of Silang and Kawit. In the election of the Katipunan popular council, which was organized by the Sangguniang Balangay of Mapagtiis, he was named fiscal.

When two councils of the Katipunan revolutionist came into existence (namely, the Sangguniang Bayang Magdiwang and the Sangguniang Bayang Magdalo), both factions set up their respective councils of leaders. Trías became the Minister of Justice and hope of the Magdiwang group.

Assuming the nom-de-guerre 'Labong' (which means "bamboo shoots"), he recruited troops and solicited contributions from rich Filipinos in Indang and Alfonso, Cavite, to help finance the effect.[3]

After he was criticized by the Magsaya council for establishing a public army, he joined the Magdalo.

Vice-Presidency[edit]

On March 22, 1897, a second assembly of Katipunan leaders from both factions was held, this time at Tejeros, near the coast, in the heart of the Magdiwang territory. This happened while Aguinaldo and the Magdalo factions were desperately trying to stop the advancing of the Lachambre soldiers. After a stormy debate, it was agreed to set up a new government, replacing that of the Katipunan. Nine positions were to be filled. By secret ballot, Emilio Aguinaldo, who was absent, defending Imus against the forthcoming attack by Governor Lachambre, was elected president and Mariano Trías as vice president. Andrés Bonifacio was defeated for both positions.

At the revolutionary assembly convoked by Aguinaldo in Naic, Cavite after Easter Sunday of 1897, Trías was again chosen as vice president of the new government.He led several attacks in Cavite and Laguna against Spanish forces.[4] On November 1, 1897, the Biac-na-Bato Republic was established. Emilio Aguinaldo was president and Trías was vice-president. However, Trías is not considered to be a vice-president of the Philippines as the Biak-na-Bato pact did not proclaim a sovereign state.

Later life and career[edit]

After the abolition of the dictatorial government and the establishment of the revolutionary government, Mariano Trías was appointed on July 15, 1898 as Secretary of Finance and continued in this office after the transfer of seat of the government to Malolos. In the Paterno Cabinet, which succeeded the Mabini Cabinet, he held the position of secretary of war. After the revolutionary government forces were practically dispersed in Central Luzon, he was named commanding general of Southern Luzon. He directed guerrilla offensive moves in Cavite.

He figured in a series of furious skirmishes with the troops of General Wheaton in January 1900 when he held the defense of Cavite until his men where finally dispersed.

Trías set free all the Spanish prisoners under his command in May 1900.

Nine days after the capture of Aguinaldo, Trías, accompanied by Severino de las Alas, former Secretary of the Interior, Ladislao Diwa, ex-governor of Cavite, two colonels, two lieutenant colonels and a number of majors, captains, and lieutenants, and some hundreds of soldiers with guns, voluntarily surrendered in Santa Cruz de Malabon, Cavite to General Baldwin on May 13, 1901.

With the establishment of the civil government by the Americans, Civil Governor William Howard Taft appointed him the first Civil Governor of Cavite on June 11, 1901 in accordance with Act No. 139.

Trías was the founder of the Nacionalista Party chapter in Cavite. He supported the candidacy of Rafael Palma as assemblyman, representing the lone district of Cavite in 1907. In the general elections of 1912, Trías was responsible for the election of Antero S. Soriano and Florentino Joya as Governor and Representative, respectively, of Cavite.[5]

He sailed to the United States as member of the honorary board of Filipino commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904.[6]:549 After his term of office, he engaged in agricultural activities, but this was a brief respite from politics. He was the acting governor of Cavite when he died of appendicitis at the Philippine General Hospital on February 22, 1914. He was buried in Manila. His remains were transferred to his hometown in 1923.

In his honor, the town of San Francisco de Malabon was renamed after him by virtue of Act No. 2880.

Descendants[edit]

Mariano Trías had two brothers, Pedro and Maximino.

General Mariano Trías married María Concepción Ferrer with whom he had two children:

  • Rafael, married to Concepcion Magtibay, children Rafael Trias Jr., Francisco Trias, Gregorio Trias, Antonio Trias and Manuel Trias.
  • Gabriel, married to Mercedes P. Trias, children Nimia Trias, Felina Trias, Marina Trias, Editha Trias, Gabriel Trias Jr., and Constancia Trias.

Brother Maximino Trias, married to Catalina Raqueño with only one son Jose Trias, married to Nieves Basa with 7 children:

  • Balbino, married to Mariquita Cupino, daughters: Angelina Trias, Georgina Trias, Azucena Trias and Gregoria Trias.
  • Gabriel, married to Felicitas Solis, children: Nieves Trias, Felicitas Trias, Gabriel Trias, Jr., Joseph Trias, Arielle Trias Flores and Catherine Trias-Jones.
  • Lorenzo, married to Filomena Cruz, sons: Alexander Trias and Maximino Trias.
  • Isabel Basa, never married.
  • Donata, married to Celso Gonzales, children: Celso T. Gonzales,Jr., Cynthia T. Gonzales, Claribel T. Gonzales, Criseldo T. Gonzales, Ma. Carmen T. Gonzales
  • Eleuterio, married to Manuela Pengson Lopez, children: Alfredo Trias, Irene Trias, Noela Trias, Edwin Trias, Eleuterio Trias, Jr., Jose Trias, Emmanuel Luis Trias, Elman Apollo Trias.
  • Andrea, married to Alfredo Reyes, children: Anne Reyes, Antonette Reyes, Alfredo Reyes, Jr., and Adrian Reyes

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Term ended with the Pact of Biak na Bato.
  2. ^ Abolished from 1897-1902 after the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.
  3. ^ Tomas L at the Wayback Machine (archived October 27, 2009)
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Vice President Mariano Trias
  6. ^ Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Gregoria de Jesús
(Unofficial)
Vice President of the Philippines
March 22, 1897 – November 2, 1897
Vacant
Title next held by
Francisco Carreón (Acting)
Preceded by
Baldomero Aguinaldo
Minister of Finance
1898–1899
Succeeded by
Hugo Ilagan
Preceded by
Baldomero Aguinaldo
Minister for War
1899-1901
Vacant
Office abolished; Restored as Secretary of National Defense
Title next held by
Teofilo Sison