Marie Antoinette (1938 film)
|Directed by||W. S. Van Dyke|
|Produced by||Hunt Stromberg|
|Screenplay by||Donald Ogden Stewart
F. Scott Fitzgerald (uncredited)
Talbot Jennings (uncredited dialogue)
|Based on||Marie Antoinette: The Portrait of an Average Woman
by Stefan Zweig
|Music by||Herbert Stothart|
|Cinematography||William H. Daniels|
|Editing by||Robert Kern|
|Running time||149 minutes|
Marie Antoinette is a 1938 film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. It was directed by W. S. Van Dyke and starred Norma Shearer as Marie Antoinette. Based upon the 1932 biography of the ill-fated Queen of France by the Austrian writer Stefan Zweig, it had its Los Angeles premiere at the legendary Carthay Circle Theatre, where the landscaping was specially decorated for the event.
The film was the last project of Irving Thalberg who died in 1936 while it was in the planning stage. His widow Norma Shearer remained committed to the project even while her enthusiasm for her film career in general was waning following his death.
With a budget close to two million dollars, it was one of the most expensive films of the 1930s, but also one of the biggest successes.
In Vienna, 15-year-old Marie Antoinette (Norma Shearer) is informed by her mother, Empress Marie Therese of Austria, that Marie is to marry the future King of France, the Dauphin Louis XVI. The young princess is excited to meet her future husband and live as a queen, but the Dauphin she married is actually a shy man, more at home with locksmithing than attending parties at the court at Versailles. After they are married, Marie tries desperately to please her husband, and after some trepidation, the Dauphin realizes he can trust Marie and tells her he cannot produce heirs. Even though Dauphin does not like him, Marie is bored and associates with the power-hungry Duc d'Orleans (Joseph Schildkraut).
On their second wedding anniversary, Marie is insulted by Madame du Barry (Gladys George), the mistress of King Louis XV, who gives Marie a gift of an empty cradle to symbolize Marie's uselessness in producing and heir to the throne. Marie is enraged, but the Dauphin is too weak to have his father punish her. Later, at a costume party, she meets the Swedish Count Axel von Fersenshe (Tyrone Power) and introduces him as a member of the Russian nobility as a party game. She then wagers and loses a necklace worth 200,000 livres, which causes her mother's ambassador, Count Mercey (Henry Stephenson) to scold her for her "wonton" behavior and disregard for the people.
On their fourth wedding anniversary, a ball is held to conciliate Madame du Barry and Marie, but a confrontation between the two women ensues. Louis XV decides that the marriage between his grandson and Marie should be annulled. This decision drives the Dauphin to finally defend his wife, and pushes his grandfather down and threatens to put Madame du Barry in the Bastille. When Marie is told she is to be sent back to Austria, she is immediately discarded by d'Orleans, who only was her friend because of her role as future Queen of France. Nonetheless, the king remains adamant Marie must go. Count von Fersen arrives and tells her he loves her and has loved her for years -- learning all he could about her from museums.
Eventually, Marie falls in love with Count von Fersen, but as she goes to tell the Dauphin of this fact, she learns that King Louis XV is on the verge of death. The Dauphin tells Marie that she cannot leave and he tolerates her, even if he does not love her. Marie consents, they become King and Queen of France. Marie tells Count von Fersen that they can meet at another palace to be together, but he declines and tells her to fulfill her duty as Queen. She ultimately gives birth in front of an audience, and a new Dauphin is born.
Some years later, as the Dauphin is a boy, villagers throw stones at Marie's carriage, and she is shocked at the intense dislike displayed by the people of France. She blames d'Orleans for inciting them. Marie later rejects a jeweler's expensive and elaborate necklace, but she is framed by court insiders and the Affair of the Diamond Necklace erupts. Marie is outraged, but d'Orleans tells the royal couple to abdicate the throne in favor the Dauphin under the regency of d'Orleans.
The French Revolution comes, and the royal family is taken prisoner. Count von Fersen returns with a plan of escape, but when the Dauphin tells a guard that his father is a locksmith, the King is recognized and captured after being identified by the former priest at Versailles. The King is put on trial and sentenced to death, and spends his last night with his family, his children not realizing this is the last night they will spend with their father. Marie is heartbroken, but is then separated from her children and put on trial as well. The Dauphin, too young to understand what is going on around him, is forced to testify against his mother. The night before she is executed, Count von Fersen goes to the prison and they pledge their love to each other, with Marie telling him that she will never say goodbye.
William Randolph Hearst originally planned this film as a vehicle for Marion Davies as early as 1933. However, a clash with Louis B. Mayer after the failure of her film Operator 13 led to the couple switching to neighboring Warner Brothers.
Norma Shearer was the wife of MGM studio head Irving Thalberg when this project was greenlighted sometime before his death in 1936. This was reportedly Shearer's favorite role.
Originally to be directed by Sidney Franklin, the job was given to W.S. Van Dyke. Irving Thalberg originally planned for Charles Laughton to play the role of Louis XVI, but Laughton, after lengthy deliberations, finally declined.
Costumes and set designs
The movie had thousands of expensive costumes and lavish set designs. Costume designer Adrian visited France and Austria in 1937 researching the period and buying antique lace, fabric and accessories. Although much artistic licence was taken, he studied the paintings of Marie Antoinette, even using a microscope on them so that the embroidery and fabric could be identical. Fabrics were specially woven and embroidered with stitches sometimes too fine to be seen with the naked eye. As early as September 1937 the MGM studio manager raged at the amount of money being spent on the costume materials and labour for the film. The attention to detail was extreme, from the framework to hair. Some gowns became extremely heavy due to the amount of embroidery, fabric and precious stones used. Ms. Shearer's gowns alone had the combined weight of over 1,768 pounds, the heaviest being the 108 pound wedding dress which used over 500 yards of white silk satin. Originally slated to be shot in color, many of the gowns were specially dyed. The fur trim on one of Ms. Shearer's capes was therefore sent out to be dyed the exact shade of her eyes.
The ballroom at Versailles was built to be twice as large as the original and much antique furniture was used. The budget was a then-enormous $2.9 million, and plans to render it in color were scrapped because of concerns it would cost even more to add Technicolor.
Sofia Coppola released her 2006 film version of the life of the queen at Versailles, causing Warner Brothers to release its 1938 vault version of Marie Antoinette on DVD. Extras are sparse, with only two vintage shorts included on the disc. "Hollywood Goes to Town" provides a glimpse of the elaborate premiere for the movie, while a trailer is also included.
Academy Award nominations
- Best Actress - Norma Shearer
- Best Supporting Actor - Robert Morley
- Best Art Direction - Cedric Gibbons
- Best Music, Original Score - Herbert Stothart
- Variety film review; July 13, 1938, page 15.
- Harrison's Reports film review; August 27, 1938, page 138.
- Marie Antoinette (1938) - Full cast and crew
- The Costumes of Marie Antoinette | The Movies and the Woman
- DVD Verdict Review - Marie Antoinette (1938)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marie Antoinette (1938 film).|
- Marie Antoinette at the Internet Movie Database
- Marie Antoinette at the TCM Movie Database
- Marie Antoinette at allmovie