Marietta, Ohio

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Marietta, Ohio
City
Downtown Marietta in July 2007, including the Muskingum River (foreground) and the Ohio River (background right)
Downtown Marietta in July 2007, including the Muskingum River (foreground) and the Ohio River (background right)
Location of Marietta in Ohio
Location of Marietta in Ohio
Coordinates: 39°25′N 81°27′W / 39.417°N 81.450°W / 39.417; -81.450Coordinates: 39°25′N 81°27′W / 39.417°N 81.450°W / 39.417; -81.450
Country United States
State Ohio
County Washington
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Mayor Joe Mathews (D)
Area[1]
 • Total 8.75 sq mi (22.66 km2)
 • Land 8.43 sq mi (21.83 km2)
 • Water 0.32 sq mi (0.83 km2)
Elevation[2] 614 ft (187 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 14,085
 • Estimate (2012[4]) 14,027
 • Density 1,670.8/sq mi (645.1/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code 45750
Area code(s) 740
FIPS code 39-47628[5]
GNIS feature ID 1076339[2]
Website http://www.mariettaoh.net/
The Muskingum River near its mouth in downtown Marietta in 2007
The French monument in Marietta, Ohio.

Marietta is a city in and the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, United States.[6] During 1788, pioneers to the Ohio Country established Marietta as the first permanent settlement of the new United States in the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio. Marietta is located in southeastern Ohio at the mouth of the Muskingum River at its confluence with the Ohio River. The population was 14,085 at the 2010 census.

It is the second-largest city in the Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna, West Virginia-Ohio (part) Metropolitan Statistical Area. The private, nonsectarian liberal arts Marietta College is located here. It was a station on the Underground Railroad before the Civil War.

This is the site of the prehistoric Marietta Earthworks, a Hopewell complex more than 1500 years old, whose Great Mound and other major monuments were preserved by the earliest United States settlers in parks such as the Mound Cemetery.

History[edit]

Prehistoric[edit]

Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples have lived along the Ohio River and its tributaries for thousands of years. Among them were more than one culture who built earthwork mounds, monuments which generally expressed their cosmology, often with links to astronomical events.

Between 100 BC and 500 AD, the Hopewell culture built the multi-earthwork complex on the terrace east of the Muskingum River near its mouth with the Ohio. It is now known as the Marietta Earthworks. Developed over many years, it had a large enclosed square, within which were four platform mounds, used for ceremonial purposes and elite residential; another square, and a larger conical mound used for burials. A walled, graded path led to the river's edge.[7] By the time of the historic tribes, such as the Shawnee, the purposes and makers of the monuments were no longer known.

Settlement[edit]

In 1770, the future U.S. president George Washington, then a surveyor, began exploring large tracts of land west of his native Virginia. During the Revolutionary War, Washington told his friend General Rufus Putnam of the beauty he had seen in his travels through the Ohio Valley and of his ideas for settling the territory.

In the summer of 1781, John Carpenter built Carpenter's Fort or Carpenter's Station as it was sometimes called, a fortified house above the mouth of Short Creek on the Ohio side of the Ohio River, near present day Marietta.[8][9]

After the war, the newly formed United States had little cash but plenty of natural resources. Eager to develop additional lands, the new government decided to pay veterans of the Revolution with warrants for land in the Northwest Territory, which was organized under federal authority in 1787 by the Northwest Ordinance. Competing states had agreed to end their claims to the lands; Pennsylvania and Virginia received some lands. Arthur St. Clair was appointed by the president as governor of the new territory. The Ohio Company of Associates had supported provisions in the ordinance to allow veterans to use their warrants to purchase the land. They bought 1.5 million acres (6,100 km²) of land from Congress.

On April 7, 1788, 48 men of the Ohio Company of Associates, led by General Putnam, arrived at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio rivers. The site was on the east side of the Muskingum River, across from Fort Harmar, a military outpost built three years prior.

Bringing with them the first government sanctioned by the US for this area,[10] they established the first permanent United States settlement in the Northwest Territory.[11][12] They named Marietta in honor of Marie Antoinette, the Queen of France, who had aided the colonies in their battle for independence from Great Britain.

The Native Americans were unhappy to see white settlers moving into their territory. The latter immediately started construction of two forts: Campus Martius, whose former site is now occupied by the museum of the same name, and Picketed Point Stockade, at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio rivers. At the same time, the settlers started developing their community, platted according to plans they had made in Boston.

Campus Martius fort at Marietta, with Great Mound visible to right of tree
Picketed Point stockade at Marietta

In 1788, George Washington said, "No colony in America was ever settled under such favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at the Muskingum...If I was a young man, just preparing to begin the world, or if advanced in life and had a family to make provision for, I know of no country where I should rather fix my habitation...".[13] The families of the settlers began arriving within a few months. By the end of 1788, 137 people populated the area.

In 1789, the United States signed the Treaty of Fort Harmar with several Native American nations who occupied areas of the Northwest Territory, to settle issues related to trade, and the boundary between their lands and United States settlement. The US did not address the Native Americans' major grievance about European-American settlers moving into their lands, particularly in the Western Reserve, where there were disputes over land. Although Congress authorized Governor Arthur St. Clair to give land back to the Indians, he did not do so. Conflict increased as the Native American tried to push the settlers out. After years of warfare in the region, they were defeated. The US signed the Treaty of Greenville (1795) with the Native Americans, which secured the safety of settlers to leave the forts and develop their farms.

The settlers held services regularly and chartered the first church in 1796. It was a Congregational institution; its charter was unusually inclusive due to the varied religious backgrounds of its members. The congregation constructed the first church building in 1807.

Education was important to the settlers, many of whom had been officers during the Revolution. During that first winter, they began a basic school for the children at Campus Martius. In 1797, settlers founded Muskingum Academy. The town had numerous abolitionists, and Ephraim Cutler was instrumental as a state delegate in 1802 at the state convention in swaying the vote for the state to be free of slavery.[14]

19th century[edit]

Townspeople organized and chartered Marietta College in 1835. It was used as a station on the Underground Railroad to help slaves escape from the South.[14] The University of Ohio was founded earlier elsewhere in the territory, on land reserved for public education under the Northwest Ordinance.

The settlers preserved the Great Mound, or Conus, by planning their own cemetery around it. They also preserved two largest platform mounds, which they called Capitolinus and Quadrophenus. The former has been used as the site for the library.[7] The Mound Cemetery has the highest number of burials of Revolutionary War officers, indicating the nature of the generation that settled Marietta.[15]

Marietta's location on two major navigable rivers made it ideal for industry and commerce. Boat building was one of the early industries. Artisans built oceangoing vessels and sailed them downriver to the Mississippi and south to New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico. In less than two decades after settlement, the steamboat had been developed, and was also constructed here. Brick factories and sawmills supplied materials for homes and public buildings. An iron mill, along with several foundries, provided rails for the railroad industry; the Marietta Chair Factory made furniture.

Survey of Marietta Earthworks, 1837

Interest in the prehistoric culture that built the Marietta Earthworks continued. The complex was surveyed and drawn by Ephraim George Squier and Edwin Hamilton Davis, whose large project on numerous prehistoric mounds was published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1848 as Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. It was the first book published by the Smithsonian. Their drawing to the right shows the plan of the original complex, which "included a large square enclosure surrounding four flat-topped pyramidal mounds, another smaller square, and a circular enclosure with a large burial mound at its center."[7] The walled, graded path, called by the settlers the Sacra Via, led from the largest enclosure to the lower river's edge. This was destroyed in 1843 during mid-nineteenth century development.[7]

Railroads and oil[edit]

Local development began with the Belpre and Cincinnati Railroad (B&C); it was founded in 1845. It was intended to connect from Belpre, Ohio, the next town downriver, to a planned Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) spur to Parkersburg. But, for years, the Virginia government did not allow the B&O to construct track south of Wheeling. In 1851 developers changed the Ohio state terminus to Marietta and changed the name of the railroad to the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad that year. The right-of-way for an alternate connection to the B&O extended upriver from Marietta to Bellaire, Ohio. The M&C was bankrupt by 1857, but construction of track continued west to reach Cincinnati. The first through-train from Cincinnati ran on April 9, 1857. The M&C got out of bankruptcy in 1860.

Col. William Stacy marker, facing the Great Mound or Conus

The railroad was never constructed upriver from Marietta. The Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) in its expansion later purchased the right-of-way between Marietta and Bellaire.

Passengers traveling between Marietta and Parkersburg, Virginia (now West Virginia) had to take a steamboat for the 14 miles between the two towns and transfer. With help from the B&O and the Baltimore City Council, the Union Railroad finally connected Marietta to Belpre, Ohio in 1860. Later absorbed by the B&O, this section of track is still in operation (2008), with unit coal trains providing most of the traffic.

The planned bridge from Parkersburg across the Ohio River to Belpre was finally built 1868-1870 by the B&O, as part of its main line from Baltimore to St. Louis, Missouri.[16] This cut Marietta off from traffic and trade, although it retained local and Ohio service. In the early 20th century, Marietta was served by 24 passenger trains a day, most of which ran on the PRR tracks.

William P. Cutler was a major figure in the M&C. He also backed the Union Railroad and the Marietta, Columbus and Cleveland Railroad, among other local railroads. Cutler served as General Manager and as President of the M&C for many years.

In 1860, oil was first drilled in the Marietta region. Oil booms in 1875 and 1910 made investors rich, leading to the construction of numerous lavish houses in the town, of which many still stand.[17] The Dawes brothers of Marietta founded the Pure Oil Company. All four brothers became nationally prominent businessmen and/or politicians: Charles Gates Dawes, Rufus C. Dawes, Beman Gates Dawes and Henry May Dawes. Charles Dawes was elected in 1924 with President Calvin Coolidge to serve as the 30th Vice President of the United States (1925-1929). In 1925 he shared the Nobel Peace Prize, based on his work on the Dawes Plan and relieving an international crisis in 1923 related to German reparations after World War I.

In 1880, the first Putnam Street Bridge was opened to connect Marietta to Fort Harmar. It provided the first free crossing of the Muskingum.

20th century to present[edit]

As transportation advanced, Marietta was passed by. From 1868-1870, the B & O Railroad built a bridge to connect Parkersburg, West Virginia and Belpre; and the National Road went further north through Zanesville. The Pennsylvania Railroad had a station in Marietta, with 26 daily trains between Marietta and Pittsburgh. After WWII passenger service decreased and the last rail passenger service ended in 1953. Marietta was relatively isolated from new travel routes until 1967, when I-77 was opened with close access to the city.

In 1939, the Sons and Daughters of Pioneer Rivermen was established in Marietta during the Great Depression to celebrate the city's substantial river history and its people. Two years later the Ohio River Museum was opened. In 1972, the museum campus was totally redesigned.

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

The city of Marietta uses the mayor-council form of government. The mayor is a full-time position; the seven city council members and the city council president are all part-time positions. The city is divided into four wards, with a person from each ward elected to the council. In addition, there is a non-voting city council president and three voting at-large councilmen.

Michael "Moon" Mullen, a Democrat, is the current Mayor of Marietta. He followed Democrat Joseph Matthews after defeating him in the 2003 Democratic primary. Before becoming mayor, Mullen was an at-large member of city Council. He had served the first ward on council and as the Marietta City Development Director. On November 2, 2003, Mullen was elected Mayor after defeating Republican challenger Cathy Harper and independent candidate Dan Harrison. Mullen took office in January 2004, and was reelected in 2007.

Al Miller is the current Safety Service Director of Marietta. He was appointed by Mullen in January 2011.

In 2007, no Republican candidate filed for the position of mayor. The former mayor Joe Matthews challenged Mayor Mullen for the Democratic nomination, but was defeated in the May 8th primary 55%-45%. 2003 Mayoral Candidate Dan Harrison filed to run for City Council President as an Independent. It was found that he had voted in the Democratic primary, thus voiding his Independent status, so his name was removed from the ballot. In the November 6th general election, Mullen defeated two independent candidates, Chris Hansis and Rich Hudson. Mullen took 63.15% of the vote. Hansis, a 26-year-old newcomer to politics, took 27.13%, and Hudson, owner of a local store, took 9.72%.[citation needed]

City Council of Marietta, Ohio (2008-2010 Term)
Council President Paul Bertram III Republican
At-Large Harley Noland Democrat
At-Large Denver Abicht Democrat
At-Large Josh Schlicher Republican
First Ward David White Republican
Second Ward Mike McCauley Democrat
Third Ward Jon Grimm Republican
Fourth Ward Tom Vukovic Democrat

With the retirements and electoral decisions, Marietta will have a council on which at least half of the eight Council positions will be held by new officeholders.

After winning a majority of council seats in the 2007 elections, the Republican Party lost that majority in 2009. Mike McCauley, a former Republican who switched parties to run as a Democrat, defeated the Ward 2 incumbent Randy Wilson. The City Council and City Hall are under control of the Democratic Party.

City of Marietta politics feature a number of citizens groups that influence policy and public opinion. Such groups as Citizens for Responsible Government, the Citizen's Armory Preservation Society, and Neighbors for Clean Air work to improve the public process. exercise significant influence over the government of the city.

State and federal government[edit]

The residents of the city of Marietta are represented by former Council-at-Large Republican Andy Thompson in the Ohio House of Representatives and Republican Jimmy Stewart in the Ohio Senate. Senator Stewart won the 2008 election after defeating Democrat Rick Shriver.

In the U.S. House of Representatives, Marietta is represented by Republican Bill Johnson.

Geography[edit]

Marietta is located at 39°25′15″N 81°27′2″W / 39.42083°N 81.45056°W / 39.42083; -81.45056 (39.420824, -81.450506).[18]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.75 square miles (22.66 km2), of which, 8.43 square miles (21.83 km2) is land and 0.32 square miles (0.83 km2) is water.[1]

The Muskingum River and Duck Creek flow into the Ohio River at Marietta. The area is part of the Appalachian Plateau which covers the eastern half of Ohio. The Appalachian Plateau consists of steep hills and valleys and is the most rugged area in the state. The area is within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau.[19] This portion of the state is blessed with beautiful scenery and Ohio's most abundant mineral deposits. [1]

Climate[edit]

The climate in this area is characterized by relatively high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Marietta has a Humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.[20]

Transportation[edit]

Highways[edit]

Interstates[edit]

Interstate 77 runs east of Marietta connecting it to Cleveland, Ohio to the north and Charleston, West Virginia to the south.

State Routes[edit]

Five state routes run through Marietta. These are; Ohio State Route 7, Ohio State Route 60, Ohio State Route 26, Ohio State Route 550, and Ohio State Route 676.

Air[edit]

Marietta is served by Mid-Ohio Valley Regional Airport in Williamstown, West Virginia which has 3 flights a day Monday Through Friday from Cleveland Hopkins International Airport.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1830 1,207
1840 1,814 50.3%
1850 3,175 75.0%
1860 4,323 36.2%
1870 5,218 20.7%
1880 5,444 4.3%
1890 8,273 52.0%
1900 13,348 61.3%
1910 12,923 −3.2%
1920 15,140 17.2%
1930 14,285 −5.6%
1940 14,543 1.8%
1950 16,006 10.1%
1960 16,847 5.3%
1970 16,861 0.1%
1980 16,467 −2.3%
1990 15,026 −8.8%
2000 14,515 −3.4%
2010 14,085 −3.0%
Est. 2012 14,027 −0.4%
Sources:[21][22][5][23]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 14,085 people, 5,828 households, and 3,215 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,670.8 inhabitants per square mile (645.1 /km2). There were 6,519 housing units at an average density of 773.3 per square mile (298.6 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 94.9% White, 1.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.5% from other races, and 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population.

There were 5,828 households of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.9% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 44.8% were non-families. 37.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.80.

The median age in the city was 39 years. 18.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 16% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 21.1% were from 25 to 44; 25.7% were from 45 to 64; and 18.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.9% male and 53.1% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[5] of 2000, there were 14,515 people, 5,904 households, and 3,501 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,747.0 people per square mile (674.4/km²). There were 6,609 housing units at an average density of 795.4 per square mile (307.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.31% White, 1.08% African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, and 1.11% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population.

There were 5,904 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.7% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.86.

In the city the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 14.0% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,272, and the median income for a family was $36,042. Males had a median income of $30,683 versus $22,085 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,021. About 13.6% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.

Notable people[edit]

Notable events[edit]

  • The Ohio River Sternwheel Festival is held on the weekend after Labor Day in September. 2005 was the 30th anniversary of the event, which brings dozens of Sternwheelers to the banks of the Ohio River near downtown Marietta. The Festival includes performances from musical artists, Sternwheel races, and a large fireworks display, and brings in thousands of visitors from across the country.
  • Annually, the Riverfront Roar powerboat races are held in July. The event includes formula 2 and formula 3 powerboat racing along the Ohio River.
  • Marietta Civil War Reenactment is also held at the end of September, and includes Union and Confederate reenactors battling across the scenic Muskingum River.
  • Goodfest is held at Goodfellows Park and is a local music festival for teenagers featuring local musicians in a drug & alcohol free environment.
  • A number of regattas run throughout the spring, chief among them Marietta High School's Ralph Lindamood Memorial Regatta and the Marietta Invitational Regatta hosted by Marietta College, which brings some of the nations fastest college rowing programs to the Muskingum River. In the fall season, the "Head of the Muskingum" head race is held, again bringing in rowing teams from across the country. The race is run over a 3-3.5 mile course starting in Devola, Ohio and ending at Marietta College's Lindamood-Van Voorhis Boathouse.

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 
  2. ^ a b "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 
  4. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  5. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Marietta Earthworks", Ohio History Central, accessed 20 August 2012
  8. ^ J. A. Caldwell: History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties, Ohio, Historical Publishing Co., Wheeling, W.Va., 1880, p. 605, reprinted 1983.
  9. ^ Julie Minot Overton, with Kay Ballantyne Hudson and Sunda Anderson Peters eds.: Ohio Towns and Townships to 1900: A Location Guide, The Ohio Genealogical Society, Mansfield, O. (Penobscot Press), 2000, p. 59.
  10. ^ a b Hildreth, S. P.: Pioneer History: Being an Account of the First Examinations of the Ohio Valley, and the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory, H. W. Derby and Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (1848)
  11. ^ a b Hulbert, Archer Butler: The Records of the Original Proceedings of the Ohio Company, Volume I, Marietta Historical Commission, Marietta, Ohio (1917).
  12. ^ a b Hulbert, Archer Butler: The Records of the Original Proceedings of the Ohio Company, Volume II, Marietta Historical Commission, Marietta, Ohio (1917). Note: Older European settlements include Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, 1668; Detroit, 1701; Prairie du Rocher, Illinois, 1720; and Vincennes, Indiana, 1732, settled by French from Canada.
  13. ^ Sparks, Jared: The Writings of George Washington, Vol. IX, Harper and Brothers, New York (1847) p. 385.
  14. ^ a b Robert C. Yeager, "A Historic River Town Where the West Began", New York Times, 6 November 2009, accessed 22 August 2012
  15. ^ Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR): American Monthly, Vol. 16, Jan-Jun 1900, New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1900, p. 329
  16. ^ Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Parkersburg Bridge, Ohio River, Parkersburg, Wood County, WV, Historic American Engineering Record, accessed 22 August 2012
  17. ^ Yeager, Robert C. (November 6, 2009). "A Historic River Town Where the West Began". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010. 
  18. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  19. ^ "Level III Ecoregions of Ohio". National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 28 September 2013. 
  20. ^ Climate Summary for Marietta, Ohio
  21. ^ "Number of Inhabitants: Ohio". 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  22. ^ "Ohio: Population and Housing Unit Counts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  23. ^ "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  24. ^ Summers, Thomas J.: History of Marietta, The Leader Publishing Co., Marietta, Ohio (1903).
  25. ^ "BARBER, Levi, (1777 - 1833)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  26. ^ "BARTLETT, Dewey Follett, (1919 - 1979)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  27. ^ "Ohio Governor John Brough". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  28. ^ "CUTLER, William Parker, (1812 - 1889)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  29. ^ "ELSTON, Charles Henry, (1891 - 1980)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Ohio Governor Nancy P. Hollister". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Biography of Perley Brown Johnson". Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  32. ^ "Kansas Governor Alfred Mossman Landon". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  33. ^ "Ohio Governor Return Jonathan Meigs Jr.". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  34. ^ "Ohio Governor Crane William O'Neill". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Ohio Governor George White". National Governors Association. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  36. ^ Reichler, Joseph L., ed. (1979) [1969]. The Baseball Encyclopedia (4th edition ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-578970-8. 
  37. ^ "Katrina: Marietta's sister city". August 28, 2010. 

External links[edit]