November 21, 1929|
Brooklyn, New York City, U.S.
|Died||May 2, 2009
Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
|Alma mater||Hofstra University, Harvard University|
Marilyn French (née Edwards) (November 21, 1929 – May 2, 2009) was an American author.
French was born in Brooklyn to E. Charles Edwards, an engineer, and Isabel Hazz Edwards, a department store clerk. She received a bachelor's degree from Hofstra University (then Hofstra College) in 1951, and studied philosophy and English literature. She also received a master's degree in English in 1964 from Hofstra. She married Robert M. French Jr., in 1950; the couple divorced in 1967. She later attended Harvard University, where she earned a Ph.D in 1972. She was an English instructor at Hofstra from 1964 to 1968 and was an assistant professor of English at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts, from 1972 to 1976.
In her work, French asserted that women's oppression is an intrinsic part of the male-dominated global culture. For instance, one of her first non-fiction works, Beyond Power: On Women, Men and Morals (1985), is an historical examination of the effects of patriarchy on the world.
French's 1977 novel The Women's Room follows the lives of Mira and her friends in 1950s and 1960s America, including Val, a militant radical feminist. The novel portrays the details of the lives of women at this time and the feminist movement of this era in the United States. At one point in the book the character Val says "all men are rapists". This quote has often been incorrectly attributed to Marilyn French herself. French's first book was a thesis on James Joyce.
French was diagnosed with esophageal cancer in 1992. This experience was the basis for her book A Season in Hell: A Memoir (1998). She survived cancer and later died from heart failure at age 79, on May 2, 2009, in Manhattan.
Political views and works
French took issue with the expectations of married women in the post-World War II era and become a leading, if controversial, opinionmaker on gender issues who decried the patriarchal society she saw around her. “My goal in life is to change the entire social and economic structure of Western civilization, to make it a feminist world,” she once declared.
Her first and best-known novel, The Women's Room, released in 1977, sold more than 20 million copies and was translated into 20 languages. Gloria Steinem, a close friend, compared the impact of the book on the discussion surrounding women’s rights to the one that Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man had had on racial equality 25 years earlier.
Her most significant work in later life was From Eve to Dawn: A History of Women. It was published in a Dutch translation in 1995 (in one volume of 1312 pages), but only appeared in English in 2002 and 2003 in three volumes (Mcarthur & Company) and in four volumes by The Feminist Press in 2008. It is built around the premise that exclusion from the prevailing intellectual histories denied women their past, present and future. Despite carefully chronicling a long history of oppression, the last volume ends on an optimistic note, said Florence Howe, who recently retired as director of the publishing house. “For the first time women have history,” she said of Ms. French’s work. “The world changed and she helped change it.”
While French was pleased by significant gains made by women in the three decades since her landmark novel, The Women's Room, she was also just as quick to point out lingering deficiencies in gender equality. Marilyn French is mentioned in the lyrics of "The Day Before You Came" by ABBA. The lyric says ..."I must have read a while, the latest one by Marilyn French or something in that style".
- The Book as World: James Joyce's Ulysses (1976)
- The Women's Room (1977)
- The Bleeding Heart (1980)
- Shakespeare's Division of Experience (1981)
- Beyond Power: On Women, Men, and Morals (1985)
- Her Mother's Daughter (1987)
- The War Against Women (1992)
- Our Father (1994)
- My Summer with George (1996)
- A Season in Hell: A Memoir (1998)
- Introduction: Almost Touching the Skies (2000)
- Women's History of the World (2000)
- From Eve to Dawn: A History of Women in Three Volumes (2002)
- In the Name of Friendship (2006)
- The Love Children (2009)
- Sulzberger, A. G.; Mitgang, Herbert (May 4, 2009). "Marilyn French, Novelist and Champion of Feminism, Dies at 79". The New York Times.
- French, Marilyn (1977). The Women's Room. Book 5. Chapter 19. ISBN 0-345-35361-7.
— [...] Whatever they may be in public life, whatever their relations with men, in their relations with women, all men are rapists, and that's all they are. They rape us with their eyes, their laws, and their codes.
- Een vrouwelijk geschiedenis van de wereld, translated by Viviane Franken e.a., Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1995.