Marine Corps Air Station El Toro
|MCAS El Toro|
|MCAS El Toro in 2011|
|Operator||United States Marine Corps|
|Location||Orange County, California|
|In use||1943 - 1999|
|Occupants||3rd Marine Aircraft Wing|
|Elevation AMSL||383 ft / 117 m|
|Source: Federal Aviation Administration|
Before it was decommissioned in 1999, it was the 4,682 acres (19 km2) home of Marine Corps aviation on the West Coast. Designated as a Master Jet Station, its four runways (two of 8,000 feet (2,400 m) and two of 10,000 feet (3,000 m)) could handle the largest aircraft in the U.S. military inventory. While it was active, all U.S. Presidents in the post-World War II era landed in Air Force One at this airfield. The El Toro "Flying Bull" patch was designed by Walt Disney Studios in 1944. It survived virtually unchanged until the close of the Air Station.
The land area originally taken by the air station is planned to be converted into a large recreational center, the Orange County Great Park.
In May 1942, Lieutenant Colonel William Fox was directed to select the sites for all of the Marine Corps' West Coast air stations. Fox sought the most expeditious and low cost option and thus chose the already existing airports of El Centro, Mojave and Santa Barbara. For the fourth station he chose land that had previously been looked at by the Navy for a blimp base. The Marine Corps gave the owner of the land, a farmer named James Irvine Sr., $100,000 for 4,000 acres (20 km2) including 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) designated for a blimp base. Construction of MCAS El Toro began on August 3, 1942 on land previously owned by the Irvine Company. The company greatly resisted the station's construction at this site, which at the time contained the largest lima bean field in North America, which was the company's prime source of revenue. The name El Toro came from the nearby small community which in 1940 only had a population of 130 people.
The base headquarters was established on November 4, 1942 and the first landing occurred in late November when a Major Micheal Carmichael, flying from Camp Kearny, was forced to make an emergency landing among the construction equipment. January 1943 saw the first operational units arriving at MCAS El Toro. First aboard were Marine Base Defense Aircraft Group 41 and VMF-113. They were followed later in the month by VMSB-142, VMF-224, VMSB-231 and VMSB-232, who were returning from fighting during the Battle of Guadalcanal in order to re-organize, re-equip and train. Soon after its opening, El Toro was handling the largest tactical aerodrome traffic on the Pacific Coast.
Already the largest Marine air station on the West Coast, in 1944, funds were approved to double its size and operations. By the end of 1944, the base would be home to 1,248 officers and 6,831 enlisted personnel.
In 1950, El Toro was selected as a permanent Master Jet Station for the Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific. To support this new role, the aviation infrastructure at El Toro was again expanded significantly. For most of the ensuing years, El Toro served as the primary base for Marine Corps west coast fighter squadrons. During the 1960s, many US Marines left for and returned from Vietnam at El Toro MCAS. In 1958, Marine Corps Air Station Miami was closed which brought the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing to El Toro.
The land originally surrounding the base was mostly at agricultural use when it first opened, but it the late 1980s and early 1990s, residential development started to begin in the area; most of it was directly in the path of the base's runways, which proved to be a major problem as the constant loud noise produced by jets and helicopters passing overhead was very irritating to those living in the area. Few desired to move there because of this, causing the new neighborhoods to struggle.
In 1993, MCAS El Toro was designated for closing by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission and all of its activities were to be transferred to Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. The station officially closed on July 2, 1999.
Base conversion controversy
The closing of MCAS El Toro ignited a political firestorm over the eventual fate of the facility. With its existing infrastructure, some favored converting the base into an international airport. Those favoring the new airport tended to come from northern Orange County, (desiring the convenience of a closer airport), and from areas in Newport Beach that are within the arrival and departure noise zones surrounding John Wayne Airport, (hoping to close that airport in favor of the new one at El Toro).
Those against the airport proposal were largely residents of the cities in the immediate vicinity of El Toro, such as Irvine, Lake Forest, Laguna Niguel, Laguna Woods, Dana Point, and Mission Viejo, where residents were alarmed at the idea of the aircraft noise. The cities opposed to the airport created a joint powers authority, the El Toro Reuse Planning Authority (ETRPA) to oppose the project. They were joined in the effort by grass-roots organizations that collected record numbers of signatures on petitions to place anti-airport initiatives on the ballot and raised funds for the election campaigns. The volunteer-run El Toro Info Site  was the Internet voice of the movement and one of the first political blogs.
This faction lobbied strongly in favor of other uses for the property. The city of Irvine sought to annex the property for park and related uses.
The battle between pro-airport and anti-airport groups dominated Orange County politics for much of the late 1990s and early 2000s. Airport proposals were defeated in two hotly contested ballot initiatives, and further challenges took place in the courts. A series of demonstration commercial flights from the airport in June 1999, generated less noise than the former military flights, but resulted in much public outcry due to the use of different flight paths from the military, and incessant circling over nearby cities to line up for another approach. Eventually the airport opponents prevailed, and in March 2002, the Department of Defense announced that it would sell the land to private interests to be developed into Orange County Great Park. This decision came right after the military stated that it wanted to return to the base.
Before the site could be developed for civilian use, the Department of the Navy (which oversees both the Navy and the Marine Corps) was required to perform environmental remediation to clean up contaminated soil on the site. The contamination was caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily industrial solvents that had been used over the years for purposes such as degreasing, paint stripping, and the cleaning of aircraft.
Over the years, the VOCs had seeped into the groundwater, resulting in a plume of contaminated groundwater extending for three miles (5 km) to the west of the station. In July 2005, the Department of the Navy's Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Program Management Office (PMO) issued a public notice stating that the cleanup of the contaminated soil was complete. The cleanup of the groundwater is being handled by the Irvine Desalter Project, a project of two local water authorities that has financial backing from the Navy and the State of California.
Sale of El Toro
The Department of the Navy hired the General Services Administration and Los Angeles-based Colliers International to assist in the sale of MCAS El Toro. Colliers branded the project as Heritage Fields combining the long standing history of the base and what the future of the base will be to the community and the generations to come. An online auction was conducted and in February 2005, the final bid of $650 million was accepted for the four parcels of land comprising the former MCAS El Toro. The winning bidder was Heritage Fields LLC, a joint venture between developer Lennar Corporation and several other firms. Development plans for the 3,724 acres (15 km2) site include residential, golf, commercial, R&D, and schools. 1,375 acres (5.6 km2) of the site will be dedicated to the Great Park. A ceremony to formally transfer ownership of the property to Heritage Fields LLC was held on August 29, 2005.
Accidents and incidents
- On June 25, 1965, a U.S. Air Force Boeing C-135A bound for Okinawa crashed just after takeoff at MCAS El Toro, killing all eighty-five on board.
- On Feb 12, 1987, a CH-46E helicopter from HMM-764, MAG-46 crashed, shortly after takeoff, into a steep, brush-covered ridge between Bell and Trabuco canyons. All three crewmembers, Major Dudley Urban, Major William Anderson, and Staff Sergeant Bradley Baird, died in the crash.
- On April 24, 1988, Marine Corps Colonel Jerry Cadick, then commanding officer of MAG-11, was performing a tactical aerial demonstration at the MCAS El Toro Air Show before a crowd of 300,000 when he crashed his F/A-18 Hornet at the bottom of a loop that was too close to the ground. The aircraft was in a nose-high attitude, but still carrying too much energy toward the ground when it impacted at more than 300 mph (480 km/h). Col. Cadick was subjected to extremely high G forces that resulted in his face making contact with the control stick and sustaining serious injury. He broke his arm, elbow and ribs, exploded a vertebra and collapsed a lung. Col. Cadick survived and retired from the Marine Corps. The F/A-18 remained largely intact but was beyond repair.
- On January 22, 1991, Marine Corps Colonel James Sabow was found dead amid allegations of base corruption from misused aircraft from commanding officers using military aircraft for personal use to military aircraft used on missions to Central America where weapons were delivered and cash and or drugs were brought back to the base to be used to finance the arms. The military investigators determined that a suicide in Col. Sabow's death, whereas competent civilian investigations revealled a murder.
- On 2 May 1993, during the 1993 MCAS El Toro airshow, an F-86 Sabre was going to engage with a MiG-15 in a mock dogfight when it crashed on the runway. The F-86 pilot, James A. Gregory, died on impact. No one was hurt on the ground. The airshow continued.
- The MCAS El Toro Air Show took place annually from the 1950s until 1997. It featured the U.S. Navy Blue Angels, as well as the USAF Thunderbirds. It also featured new aircraft that were coming into active service, such as the B-2 stealth bomber. Other displays featured military vehicles. The show also had a large gathering of vendors of military items and memorabilia. The final show in 1997 drew an estimated two million visitors.
- MCAS El Toro was regularly used for flight operations by Special Air Missions during President Richard Nixon's term in office, in support of the "Western White House", Nixon's home at San Clemente. The final Nixon flights were, first, when he landed there upon resigning the White House in 1974, and again, after his death in 1994, when his body was flown to California for burial. He flew both times in his Air Force One, SAM 27000.
In popular culture
- El Toro was featured in the 1996 film Independence Day. It was attacked by the aliens.
- MCAS El Toro was featured in the 1986 Clint Eastwood film Heartbreak Ridge. The closing scene of the movie, when the characters return to the United States, was filmed at El Toro.
- MCAS El Toro was featured, as the fictional MCAS El Diablo, in the 1986 TV movie The B.R.A.T. Patrol.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro.|
- FAA Airport Master Record for NZJ ( PDF), effective 2007-07-05
- M.L. Shettle, Jr. "MCAS El Toro". Historic California Posts: Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro. The California State Military Museum.
- Shettle 2001:73
- O'Hara, MCAS El Toro, p.7.
- Rottman 2002:414
- De Chant 1947:60
- Sherrod 1952:441
- Freeman, Paul. "Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields: California - Southeastern Orange County". El Toro MCAS (NZJ), El Toro, CA.
- Shettle 2001:75
- "July 2005, Public Notice - Cleanup of Contaminated Soil Successful at IRP Site 24 VOC Source Area, No Further Action Proposed". Department of Navy Base Realignment and Closure Program Management Office. Retrieved 2006-07-13.
- "Water Quality". Irvine Desalter Project. Archived from the original on 2006-06-26. Retrieved 2006-07-13.
- Heritage Fields website
- Lennar Corporation press release (August 30, 2005) "Changing of the Guard" Ceremony Conducted between Lennar, LNR, City of Irvine, and the U.S. Department of the Navy
- Beene, Richard (April 25, 1988). "300,000 Watch in Horror as Fighter Crashes Spectators Say F/A-18 Jet Appeared to Stall as Pilot Was Making a Loop". L.A. Times. p. 1.
- "The Good Life at San Clemente". Time Magazine. September 29, 1975. Retrieved 2007-11-19.
- De Chant, John A. (1947). Devilbirds: The Story of United States Marine Corps Aviation in World War II. Harper and Brothers Publishers.
- O'Hara, Thomas (1999). Images of America - Marine Corps Air Station El Toro. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia. ISBN 0-7385-0186-7.
- Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). U.S. Marine Corps World War II Order of Battle - Ground and Air Units in the Pacific War, 1939 - 1945. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31906-5.
- Sherrod, Robert (1952). History of Marine Corps Aviation in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Combat Forces Press.
- Shettle Jr., M. L. (2001). United States Marine Corps Air Stations of World War II. Bowersville, Georgia: Schaertel Publishing Co. ISBN 0-9643388-2-3.
- Kranser, Leonard (2002). Internet for Activists - A hands-on guide to Internet tactics field-tested in the fight against building El Toro Airport. Dana Point, CA: iUniverse. ISBN 0-595-23857-2.
- "El Toro Marine Corps Air Station". GlobalSecurity.org.
- Resources for this airport: