Marine Le Pen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Marine Le Pen
MEP
Le Pen, Marine-9586.jpg
Marine Le Pen in 2014.
Leader of the National Front
Incumbent
Assumed office
16 January 2011
Preceded by Jean-Marie Le Pen
Member of the European Parliament
Incumbent
Assumed office
14 July 2009
Constituency North-West France
In office
20 July 2004 – 13 July 2009
Constituency Île-de-France
Regional Councillor
Incumbent
Assumed office
26 March 2010
Constituency Nord-Pas-de-Calais
In office
28 March 2004 – 21 March 2010
Constituency Île-de-France
In office
15 March 1998 – 28 March 2004
Constituency Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Municipal Councillor
In office
23 March 2008 – 24 February 2011
Constituency Hénin-Beaumont
Personal details
Born Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen
(1968-08-05) 5 August 1968 (age 45)
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
Political party National Front (1986–present)
Other political
affiliations
SIEL
(2011–present)
Spouse(s) Franck Chauffroy (div.)
Eric Lorio (div.)
Domestic partner Louis Aliot (2009–present)
Relations Jean-Marie Le Pen (father) Marion Maréchal-Le Pen (niece)
Children Jehanne
Louis
Mathilde
Residence Saint-Cloud
Henin-Beaumont
Millas
Alma mater Panthéon-Assas University
Occupation Politician
Profession Lawyer
Religion Roman Catholicism
Website www.marinelepen.fr

Marine Le Pen (French pronunciation: ​[ma.ʁin lə.pɛn]; born Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen; 5 August 1968) is a French political leader, lawyer by profession, a French politician and the president of the Front National (FN), the third-largest political party in France, since 16 January 2011. She is the youngest daughter of the French politician Jean-Marie Le Pen, former president of the FN and currently its honorary chairman. She is the aunt of Marion Maréchal-Le Pen.

She joined the FN in 1986, its Executive Committee in 2000 and was a vice-president of the FN for eight years (2003–2011). She currently is an ex officio member of the FN Executive Office, Executive Committee and Central Committee.

She has been a regional councillor since 1998 (Île-de-France: 2004–2010, Nord-Pas-de-Calais: 1998–2004, 2010–present), a Member of the European Parliament since 2004 (Île-de-France: 2004–2009, North-West France: 2009–present) and was a municipal councillor in Hénin-Beaumont, Pas-de-Calais for three years (2008–2011).

In 2010, she was a candidate for the leadership of the FN set up by Jean-Marie Le Pen on 5 October 1972.[1][2][3][4] She successfully succeeded him during the FN congress in Tours, Indre-et-Loire.[5][6][7] On 16 January 2011, she was elected with 67.65% (11,546 votes) as the second president of the Front National.[8]

She is described as a significantly more democratic and republican presence than her nationalist father; she wants to considerably reduce immigration, while her father wanted to abolish it. However, like her father, she strongly opposes euthanasia.

On 21 April 2011, she was ranked the 71st most influential person in the 2011 Time 100.[9]

She was a candidate in the 2012 French presidential election.[10] On 22 April 2012, she polled 17.90% (6,421,426 votes) in the first round and finished in third position behind François Hollande and incumbent president Nicolas Sarkozy.[11][12][13]

Marine Le Pen represented the FN as the FN leader at the legislative election in Pas-de-Calais' 11th constituency, on 14 May 2012.[14] She lost the race by about 100 votes. Marine Le Pen is one of the most formidable political figures in Europe.

Early life[edit]

Childhood[edit]

Born in 1968 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, she is the youngest of the three daughters of Jean-Marie Le Pen, a Brittany politician and a former paratrooper, with his first wife Pierrette Lalanne. She was baptized 25 April 1969, at La Madeleine by Father Pohpot. Her godfather was Henri Botey, a relative of Jean-Marie Le Pen.

She has two sisters: Yann and Marie Caroline. The three were teased at school that "papa" was a "fascist". In 1976, Marine survived a bomb attack on the family as they slept in their beds.[15] She was eight when a bomb meant for her father exploded in the stairwell outside the family's apartment. The blast ripped a hole into the outside wall of the building. Marine, her two older sisters and their parents were unharmed.[16]

She was a student at the lycée Florent Schmitt at Saint-Cloud. Her parents publicly divorced in 1987.[17][18]

Legal studies and work[edit]

She studied law at Panthéon-Assas University, graduating with a Master of Laws in 1991 and a Master of Advanced Studies (DEA) in criminal law in 1992.[8] Registered at the Paris bar association, she worked as a lawyer for six years (1992–1998).[8] Part of her legal work involved representing illegal immigrants. In France, when a defendant cannot afford a lawyer, one is chosen to represent him or her. She often fulfilled this role.

In 1992, she received the certificate as a lawyer (CAPA) and became a lawyer practising in Paris. She then argued regularly before the criminal chamber of the 23rd District Court of Paris which judges immediate appearances. She reported that she was brought in this context, to defend illegal aliens. She was a member of the Bar of Paris until 1998, when she joined the legal department of the National Front.

Private life[edit]

She was married in 1995 to Franck Chauffroy, a business executive who worked for the National Front. By Chauffroy, she has three children (Jehanne, Louis, and Mathilde).[17] After divorce from Chauffroy in 1999, she married Eric Lorio, the former national secretary of the National Front and a former adviser to the Regional election in Nord-Pas de Calais, whom she also divorced.

Since 2009, she has been in a relationship with Louis Aliot, the National Front General Secretary from 2005 to 2010, then the National Front vice president who was in charge of the Project.[19] She currently resides in Saint-Cloud but she has an apartment in Hénin-Beaumont. In 2010, she also bought a house with Louis Aliot in Millas.[20]

Political career and media[edit]

First steps and rise within the FN (1986–2010)[edit]

In 1986, at the age of 18, Marine Le Pen joined the FN. In 2000, she became president of Generations Le Pen, a loose association close to the party aimed at "de-demonizing the Front National".[17] In 1998, she joined the FN's juridical branch, which she led until 2003.

In 2000, she joined the FN Executive Committee (bureau politique). In 2003, she became vice-president of the FN.[17] In 2006, Jean-Marie Le Pen entrusted her with the management of his 2007 presidential campaign. In 2007, she became one of the two executive vice-presidents of the FN and was in charge of training, communication and publicity.[8]

In 1998, she acquired her first political mandate when she was elected regional councillor in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais. From 2002, she began to establish her parliamentary base in the former coal mining area of the Pas-de-Calais.[17]

Her aim is to expand the political influence of the FN and transform it into a "big popular party that addresses itself not only to the electorate on the right but to all the French people".[3] She has frequently stated that she rules out any political alliance with the Union for a Popular Movement.[21][22]

She has at numerous times distanced herself from some of Jean-Marie Le Pen's controversial statements,[23] notably those relating to war-crimes. The media point to her attempts to improve the party's image.[24]

Internal campaign for the FN leadership (2010–2011)[edit]

Her candidature was endorsed by an overwhelming majority of senior executives[25] and notably by Jean-Marie Le Pen, founder of the FN.[26][27]

Marine Le Pen in 2008.

She spent four months campaigning for the FN leadership, holding meetings with FN members in 51 departments to explain in detail her political views and projects for the party.[28] All the other departments were visited by one of her official supporters.[25]

On 3 September 2010, she launched her internal campaign at Cuers, Var.[29] During a meeting in Paris on 14 November 2010, she claimed: "My project is not to assemble our political family, or rather is not only to assemble our political family. It consists of shaping the Front National as the center of grouping of the whole French people". She also explained why the FN leadership and the candidature for the presidential election must not be dissociated: thus the next FN leader will run in the 2012 presidential election.[30] During her final meeting at Hénin-Beaumont on 19 December 2010, she claimed that the FN presents the real debates of the next presidential campaign.[31][32] Most of her campaign tours throughout France were reported in local newspapers and regional television programmes.

In December 2010 and early January 2011, FN members voted by post to elect their new president and the hundred members of the Central Committee. The party held its congress at Tours for two days (15–16 January 2011).[33] On 16 January 2011, Marine Le Pen was officially elected with 67.65% (11,546 votes) as the new president of the Front National[8][34] and Jean-Marie Le Pen became de facto its honorary chairman. Her challenger Bruno Gollnisch polled 32.35% (5,522 votes).

Controversy[edit]

Marine Le Pen stirred up controversy during the internal campaign. During a speech to the party faithful in Lyon on 10 December 2010, she said that the weekly illegal blocking of public streets and squares in multiple French cities (notably the rue Myrha in the 18th arrondissement of Paris) for Muslim prayers was comparable with an occupation of parts of French territory. The fact that she had mentioned World War II[35] brought claims from the media and politicians that she had drawn a controversial parallel with the German occupation of France (May 1940 – December 1944).

The whole political and media class strongly criticised her statement,[36][37] which was widely commented on by different political analysts.[38][39][40][41] Whereas the CRIF,[42] the French Council of Muslim Faith (CFCM)[43] and the LICRA[44] denounced her statement, other groups like the MRAP[45] and the LDH[46] declared their intention of lodging a formal complaint. The imam of the Great Mosque of Paris and former president of the CFCM, Dalil Boubakeur, claimed that though her parallel was questionable and condemnable, she had asked a valid question.[47]

A member of the FN's Executive Committee, Louis Aliot, denounced "the attempted manipulation of opinion by communitarian groups and those really responsible for the current situation in France".[48] On 13 December 2010, she confirmed her statement during a press conference held in the FN's headquarters in Nanterre.[49][50][51] After Jean-François Kahn's comments on BFM TV on 13 December 2010, she denounced "state manipulation" mounted from the Elysée with the intention of demonizing her in public opinion.[52][53]

President of the FN (2011–present)[edit]

Marine Le Pen in the traditional Jeanne d'Arc march, 1 May 2011.

As a president of the Front National, Marine Le Pen currently sits as an ex officio member among the FN Executive Office (8 members),[54] the Executive Committee (42 members)[55] and the Central Committee (3 ex officio members, 100 elected members, 20 co-opted members).[56]

During her opening speech in Tours on 16 January 2011, she advocated to "restore the political framework of the national community" and to implement the direct democracy which enables the "civic responsibility and the collective tie" thanks to the participation of public-spirited citizens for the decisions. The predominant political theme was the uncompromising defence of a protective and efficient State, which favours secularism, prosperity and liberties. She also denounced the "Europe of Brussels" which "everywhere imposed the destructive principles of ultra-liberalism and Free trade, at the expense of public utilities, employment, social equity and even our economic growth which became within twenty years the weakest of the world.[57]

After the traditional Joan of Arc and Labor Day march in Paris on 1 May 2011, she gave her first speech in front of 3000 supporters.[58][59] On 11 August 2011, she held an exceptional press conference about the current systemic crisis.[60]

On 10 and 11 September 2011, she made her political comeback with the title "the voice of people, the spirit of France" in the convention center of Acropolis in Nice.[61] During her closing speech on 11 September 2011, she tackled the audience about immigration, insecurity, the economic and social situation, reindustrialization and 'strong state'.[62]

During a demonstration held in front of the Senate on 8 December 2011, she expressed during a speech her "firm and absolute opposition" to the right of foreigners to vote.[63]

She regularly holds thematic press conferences[64] and interventions[65] on varied issues in French, European and international politics.

Media rise (2002–2011)[edit]

Marine Le Pen in 18 April 2005.

Her various appearances on television and radio have played an important role in her political rise at national and local levels. Her political personality regularly attracts the attention of the French media[66][67][68][69][70] as well as the European,[18][71][72][73][74] the Middle Eastern[75][76] and the US press.[77][78][79]

On 5 May 2002, after the run-off in the 2002 presidential election, she took part in a televised debate on France 3. Political analysts compared her appearance to a "media baptism" and claim that her political emergence has its roots in this debate.

During the programme Mots croisés (Crossed Words) on France 2 on 5 October 2009,[80] Marine Le Pen quoted sections of Frédéric Mitterrand's autobiographical novel The Bad Life, accusing him of having sex with underage boys and engaging in "sex tourism", demanding his resignation as a Minister of Culture.[81][82][83][84] According to French political commentator Jérôme Fourquet, during the Mitterrand case she broke through and gained a media ascendancy over the party.[85]

Hosted on France 2 by journalist and commentator Arlette Chabot, À vous de juger (You Be The Judge) was one of France's foremost political programmes. For her first appearance as a guest debater on 14 January 2010, Marine Le Pen opposed Éric Besson, then Minister of Immigration, Integration, National Identity and Mutually Supportive Development.[86] For her first appearance as a main guest on 9 December 2010, she was successively questioned on economic, societal and immigration matters by Arlette Chabot and political commentator Alain Duhamel, then debated with the socialist mayor of Évry Manuel Valls and finally was matched against Rachida Dati, former Minister of Justice.[87] Her appearance attracted 3,356,000 viewers (14.6% of the televised audience),[88] which represented the highest viewing figures for 2010 and the fourth best since the start of the series in September 2005.[89]

In December 2010, French journalist Guillaume Tabard described her as the "revelation of the year". He further described her as "first an electoral phenomenon" and "a media phenomenon after".[90]

Hosted on France 2 by journalist and anchorman David Pujadas, Des paroles et des actes (Words and Acts) replaced À vous de juger. For her first appearance as a main guest on 23 June 2011, Le Pen opposed Cécile Duflot, national secretary of the Greens.[91][92] Her appearance attracted 3,582,000 viewers which represented 15.1% of the televised audience.[93][94]

Hosted on TF1 by anchorwoman Laurence Ferrari and political commentator François Bachy, Parole directe (Direct Speech) is one of France's foremost political programmes. For her first appearance as a sole guest on 15 September 2011, Le Pen attracted an average of 6 million viewers (23.3% of the televised audience) with a peak of 7.3 million in the second half of the programme.[95][96]

International media[edit]

At an international level, she was invited by the Québec web-radio Rockik in December 2008,[97] the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Radio Canada) in May 2010[98] and the Israeli radio 90FM in March 2011.[99] In March 2011, she appeared on the front cover page of The Weekly Standard magazine with the heading "The Future of the European Right?".[100] During a press conference organized on 13 January 2012 by the European American Press Club, she spoke in front of international journalists about various topical and thematic issues.[101]

On 4 April 2011, she appeared for the first time as a candidate in the 2011 Time 100 Poll.[102] On 21 April, she was listed in the 2011 Time 100.[9] Vladimir Zhirinovsky, leader of the right-wing Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and vice chairman of the State Duma, wrote a commentary about her political destiny.[103]

In October 2011, she presented her book in Verona, Italy and met Assunta Almirante, the widow of the far-right MSI leader Giorgio Almirante.[104] The logo of the Front National was inspired by MSI logo.

In February 2013, she spoke at the Cambridge Union Society, the University of Cambridge's debating society. Her appearance sparked controversy, with anti-fascist group Unite Against Fascism opposing her invitation on a No Platform basis and organising a demonstration of about 200 people outside the venue[105][106] . The protests were supported by numerous Cambridge societies, including Cambridge University Students' Union and Cambridge Universities Labour Club, however others, notably the Cambridge Libertarians,[107] supported her right to freedom of expression.

Ideology[edit]

She is also described as far more democratic and republican than her nationalist father; She wants to considerably reduce immigration although her father wants to abolish it. She also wants to establish a referendum and is opposed to same-sex marriage (although she didn't take parti in the mass demonstrations against same-sex marriage in 2013),[108] euthanasia, and "trivialization" of abortion.

Economy[edit]

Marine Le Pen claims that the FN's immigration programme is better known among the voters; she thus concentrates on the party's economic and social programme.[109][110]

On 17 October 2011, in front of the French Dexia headquarters in La Défense, Marine Le Pen holds a press conference about the systemic banking crisis

Opposed to free trade and autarky, she advocates protectionism as a median way. In her view, if one considers the economy to be a raging river, then free trade is like allowing the torrent to rush along unchecked; autarky equates to the erection of a dam whereas protectionism is to install a sluice gate. "Protectionism is not autarky ! ... Our position is not extreme – as our opponents would have it believed – but one which favours the middle way".[30]

In 2010, she vigorously criticized the pension plan drawn up by Nicolas Sarkozy and his liberal-conservative government.[111][112]

She paid tribute to the economist Maurice Allais, who died on 9 October 2010.[113] The sole French laureate of the Nobel Prize in Economics (1988), Allais had expressed concerns about the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the single European currency, free trade and Globalization and the 2004 European Constitution.[114][115]

She favours the repeal of the 1973 Pompidou-Giscard Law, which makes it illegal for France to borrow at zero or a low rate of interest from the Banque de France and forces the country to borrow at higher rate on the international financial markets. In her view, the national debt has grown steeply because of this law. She claimed that in 2010 France had already refunded 1.355 trillion euros of accrued interest on loans at a time when the national debt represented around 1.650 trillion euros.[110][116]

She claims to be attached to the French public utilities, the civil servants and the general interest.[117][118] She thus opposes the programmed privatization of the French Post Office (La Poste) : in her view, "the privatization, with the aim of only making profitable, will result in the removal of post offices in the rural areas where the relinquishment of the state is already high". In October 2009, she claimed that three post offices had already disappeared each day in France since 1 January 2009.[119][120] She said that the liberalization of the French public utilities had been ratified by the former Prime Minister Lionel Jospin during the Barcelona summit on 15 and 16 March 2002.[121][122] She had also warned that the UMP government planned a "progressive privatization of the French Social Security system from 2011" – a condition imposed by the financial markets.[123]

During a press conference in June 2011, she advocated to reintroduce the Havana Charter and implement an "International Trade Organization" (in place of World Trade Organization), in order to reorganize the world trade exchanges.[124] Signed by 53 countries and rejected by the US in 1951, this Charter was a trade agreement that would have established an international currency known as the bancor.[125] She claimed that the "Havana Charters's proposals perfectly fit into her economic philosophy"[124] and that "its first article conciliates international trade and employment".[126]

During her speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. in November 2011, she proposed "three essential solutions to stop the current world systemic crisis and turn the world towards a greater justice and greater prosperity": reintroduction of a "polymetallic standard" in the International monetary systems as a world standard of reference and exchanges in order to establish a "free monetary system" and struggle against speculation; the ratification of the modernized Havana Charter by the 1948 signatory nations and incoming emerging countries, in order to favour a "reasonable protectionism that encourages cooperation in trade among nations through the end of 'unbridled free trade'"; application of the 1933 Glass–Steagall Act, which legally separated investment banking and commercial banking, to “the banking system of each country”.[125][126] In her view, these solutions will be able to bring a global support for employment thanks to the integration of "full employment" appearing as one of the main targets of the Havana Charter and for industry thanks to the authorization of state aids appearing in the Charter's article 13.[126]

In October 2011, she advocated to implement a drastic regulation of the banking sector separating by law the deposit banks from the merchant banks. She claimed that "the deposit banks should be rescued by a temporary and partial nationalization". In her view, "the balance sheet of the banks should be the object of a transparency operation".[127]

In October 2011, she pledged to "cut immediately seven expenses as harmful as expensive" in order to preserve in the short term France's AAA credit rating and save €30 billion a year.[128]

A president of the Mouvement des Entreprises de France (MEDEF), Laurence Parisot regularly levels strong criticism at the FN's economic and social programme.[129] She replied that "the FN is not the friend of the CAC 40 and is fighting the social regression brought about by the MEDEF and inflicted on the French people by the allies of the UMP and the PS".[130] After Parisot's new criticism, she claims that "the philosophy of the FN's economic project comes down to some words: construction of a strong, protective and strategist state, reasoned protections at the boundaries, support to the small and medium enterprises, and get back the monetary sovereignty, only able to assure France's recovery".[131] She also replied that "Laurence Parisot, this is the exact opposite of her democratic and republican project, a project of hope which puts back man and nation in the center of politics".[132] After the publication of Parisot's critical book relating to the FN economic project, she suggested a "direct and public debate" with the president of the MEDEF.[133]

Agriculture and environment[edit]

In her view, "the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) after 2013 will be unable to protect our farmers from speculators and savage global competition, or to compensate for the excesses of the multinationals of the food processing industry and large-scale distributors. The CAP after 2013 will remain wedged between the ultraliberal and internationalist market logic of the European Commission and a future ‘green’ CAP, in reality serving the neo-capitalists of ecological business".[134]

During her first visit at the Paris International Agricultural Show on 25 February 2011,[135] Marine Le Pen denounced the CAP as an "unbearable bureaucracy" and advocated to substitute it for a "French agricultural policy". She also claimed that "leaving the EU, we could allocate 15 billions of euros to our agriculture".[136][137][138]

She claims that 'internationalist organisations' such as the EU, FAO, United Nations and G-20 are directly responsible for the food crises throughout the world. She advocates France's food independence with regard to multinationals[139] and "a realignment of the farm aid politics to the third countries in order to favour their food sovereignty in particular by the reintroduction of localized food crops".[140]

She advocates the implementation of the "autarky of big spaces" and an "economy in concentric circles". In her view, it is an "ecological heresy to consume products grown at 20,000 km away and recycle waste thousands km further". She claims that we should "produce to the closest", "distribute on the spot", "consume as a priority products of its region" and then "in the nearby region" if not produced on the spot. She seeks to implement "contracts of cooperation" if necessary goods like coffee are not produced in Europe.[141]

Energy and transport[edit]

On 19 October 2011, Marine Le Pen in Milipol

Marine Le Pen regularly denounces sharp rises in energy prices[142][143] (gas,[144] gasoline,[145][146][147] electricity[148]) which has "harmful consequences on the purchasing power of the working and middle-class families".[145][146][147] In her view, this rise mainly stems from the European liberalization of the energy sector, jointly implemented by right wing and socialist governments since 1996.[142][144][148]

She advocates an immediate reduction of 20% of the domestic tax on oil products (TIPP), a surchage of fantastic profits of the largest gas and oil companies and a struggle against international speculation on basic products such as food and energy.[142][143][145][146][147] She considers that "a strong state has authority to be the guarantor of public utilities, being the exclusive owner of the strategic companies of public utility and the regulator of tariffs".[144]

After a fatal event occurred on 12 September 2011 in the Centraco nuclear installation located on the Marcoule Nuclear Site, she claimed that "this accident illustrated the dangerousness of this energy and the necessity to consider a progressive and well-thought-out exit from nuclear power". In her view, "the State must secure the 58 French nuclear power plants and invest in researches to process nuclear waste". She advocates to "start the energy diversification of France, in particular with an ambitious programme of research into hydrogen".[149]

She favours accompanied combined transport (ferroutage) and public transport.[141]

Taxation[edit]

Marine Le Pen denounces the current corporate tax as "a crying injustice". She claims that the main groups of CAC 40 only pay 8% of corporate tax whereas the small offices/home offices, the small and medium entreprises, the craftsmen and the shopkeepers fully pay 33.33%. She advocates to implement a flexible corporate tax according to the use of profits: heavier when the profits benefit the shareholders and lighter when the profits turn towards profit sharing, salaries, employment and productive investment, enabling a relocation of activities.[150]

European Union and globalization[edit]

MEP, she holds globalization, intergovernmental organizations, 'euro-mondialism', free trade and ultra-liberalism responsible for the decline of agriculture[151] and the fishing industry,[152] deindustrialization, offshoring and structural unemployment.[153][154][155] Advocating a 'Europe of the nations' like a loose confederation of sovereign nation states, she opposes supranationalism,[156] the euro and the eurozone,[157] the technocracy of Brussels,[158] and the EU's federalism.[159]

She opposes the establishment of a direct European tax, which is favoured by the leaders of the European Parliament and European Commission. She claims that an indirect European tax already exists, since France is a net annual contributor to the EU budget by up to 7 billion euros annually.[160]

She claims that the Treaty of Lisbon is the 'gravedigger of the independence and identity of the European nations' and the 'executioner of public utilities in the name of a cult of profitability and free competition – both mortal enemies of public interest'.[118][120] In her view, the Treaty of Lisbon is an 'exact copy' of the European Constitution which was twice rejected by referendum: first in France by 54.67% of the voters on 29 May 2005[161][162] and then in Netherlands by 61.54% of the voters on 1 June 2005.[163] She thus regretted that the Treaty of Lisbon had been imposed on the French people by parliament in order to avoid another referendum.[164][165] She also criticized its approval by the Socialist Party.[120] She denounces the Treaty's amending implemented by the EU leaders, notably Germany.[166] In her view, the revision is aimed at "solving the euro" and "forever eliminating the budgetary sovereignty of the states to institute a kind of supranational European monetary fund".[167]

Opposed to the accession of Turkey to the European Union, she prefers the option of a "privileged partnership".[168]

Euro and eurozone[edit]

She regrets the absence of a public debate in France about the relevance of the single currency and claims that such a debate promoted by economists exists in Germany.[169]

She claims that the implementation of the Euro entailed a rise in prices and its abandonment would lead to an increase in purchasing power.[170] Quoting economic data from Eurostat (annual average growth, unemployment, GDP gap), she notes that "the European countries which did not enter the euro display higher performances than countries in the eurozone for ten years".[170] Interviewed in October 2011 by Adam Boulton on Sky News, she cited the UK's relative stability as an example of how France's economy need not suffer from pulling out of the euro. She noticed that "United Kingdom is not in the eurozone and does not have the least desire to be in it. UK does not tolerate this kind of taking away of its freedom".[73]

In order to recover monetary sovereignty, she advocates that France should gradually leave the euro with a new conversion rate fixed to 1 euro = 1 franc. In her view, France should jointly negotiate a "grouped departure" from the euro and eurozone. This departure should take effect on the same day and include the other European countries (such as Ireland, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium) which are suffering because of the single currency.[171] Since the present government and the whole political class had strongly criticized her economic plan, she submitted a new document detailing how a successful departure of United Kingdom, Spain and Italy from the European Monetary System (EMS) had been achieved from September 1992.[172]

She explains the tenet and the mechanism of a competitive devaluation (J curve),[172] which "will quickly have a positive effect on employment and purchasing power, stimulating industry, international trade and enabling to fight offshorings".[170] Quoting extracts from a book by the French economist Alain Cotta, she claims that a devaluation of the franc will not bring about inflation.[170]

She anticipates a "total economic federalization of the eurozone". In her view, "this option which is favoured by the European technostructure, presents all the features of a totalitarian utopia". She claims that a "monstrous superstructure, already named 'European ministry of Finance', would decide in the opaqueness our policies of education, health and security". In her view, "the federal headlong rush also supposes a massive financial transfer of our countries towards Southern and Eastern Europe, at the detriment of the most vulnerable French people".[169]

About successive bailout plans, she laments that "the contributing countries, France in particular, throw in the hole of the European debt billions which dig their deficits and come them closer to the eye of the cyclone".[169] In her view, "the hundred of billions paid do not product any result, will not settle any problem, will not rescue a eurozone already in bankruptcy and push France into the chasm of excessive debt, whereas the French debt has already exploded under the mandate of Nicolas Sarkozy". Fearing that "France falls into the excessive debt", she refuses "any new assistance plan in order to bail out one after the other the countries suffering because of the single currency".[173]

She asserts that despite the expansion of the abilities of the European Financial Stability Facility, reassuring announcements and new austerity plans, Greece is sinking, social devastation is intensifying and the anger of the people bursts out.[169] On July 2011, she claimed that "after the seventeen billions of the first Greek bailout plan, the fifteen billions of the new assistance plan to Greece will make heavy our own already huge debt".[174][175] During her press conference organized on 6 September 2011 at the Pont de la Concorde in front of the National Assembly, she vigorously denounced the favourable voting by Socialist and UMP-NC MPs of second Greek bailout plan.[176][177][178]

Geopolitics and intergovernmental organizations[edit]

She pledged to pull France out of NATO, saying that the National Front has from day one been opposed to NATO membership.[179] Interviewed in October 2011 by Kommersant, she claimed that "she believed in a multipolar world".[74][180]

In her view, France has also to revise its geostrategic relations with the USA.[179] She regularly denounces France's bandwagoning towards the USA. She advocates that France takes its independence towards US and regains the geopolitical independence beloved by Charles de Gaulle.[181]

In May 2011, she claimed that the "old institutions" such as World Trade Organization, World Bank and International Monetary Fund were "expired".

In 2011, she advocated the "replacement of WTO by an 'International Trade Organization', founded on the sane principles of protection, interest of people and support to small and medium entreprises, the 'humbles' faced with the 'powerful' and cartels".[124][126]

In her view, IMF which "has become an infernal machine at the service of the ultraliberal ideology, is in its current form an extremely harmful institution". She claims that "the structural adjustment plans that IMF imposes on countries where it operates, systematically result in privatization of public utilities, dismantling of the state, drop in salaries and pensions, and removal of protections at boundaries". In her view, "peoples are always the first victims of IMF like in Argentina in 2001 and today in Greece". She claims that "the in-depth results of IMF are disastrous : rise in debts and sharp increase in rhythm of financial crises for two decades". She consequently advocates the abolition of IMF.[182] On 28 July 2011, she reacted after the publication of the IMF yearly report on France. In a letter addressed to the managing director of IMF Christine Lagarde, she explained in detail the "four pillars to get out France of the debt and straighten out our public accounts".[183]

Immigration[edit]

Illegal immigration[edit]

Marine Le Pen advocates to "vote for the abolition of the law enabling the regularization of the illegal immigrants". In her view, "this measure corresponds with the interest of France, the respect of its authority and the most elementary justice".[62]

In July 2011, she wrote an open letter to policemen, gendarmes and customs officers concerning the policy of the fight against illegal immigration.[184] She criticized the "passivity and inactivity of the UMP government faced with the collapse of expulsions of illegal immigrants" as well as its "blind submissiveness to very questionable European injunctions". Denouncing a "sharp fall in deportations since the beginning of 2011 after a decrease of near 5% in 2010", she claimed that "most of the detention centres are almost empty in 2011". Advocating the "return of any foreigner illegally entered to France towards his/her country of origin", she claims that she "refuses to give up the fight against illegal immigration".[184]

She favours a "radical change of politics in order to drastically reduce upstream the influx of illegal immigrants towards France". In her view, this policy requires to "cut the 'suction pumps' of illegal immigration while France is in this field one of the most incentive countries in the world".[184] Implemented in 2000 by Lionel Jospin's government, the aide médicale d'Ėtat (AME) grants free medical care to illegal immigrants. Denouncing a "state scandal" and an "increasing financial black hole for the French social security system", she "pledges to repeal the AME as soon as she will come to power".[123][184] She claims that, in the wake of selected immigration and then endured immigration, Nicolas Sarkozy is imposing health-care immigration on the French people.[123]

In February 2011, she claimed that in the wake of the Arab Spring, Europe and particularly France would be confronted with a surge in illegal immigration. She denounced "the EU's tragic helplessness to respond to this new migratory challenge" and "the EU's disability to face these emergency situations and to control effectively the migratory flows".[185]

Accompanied by the vice-president of the FN Louis Aliot and Mario Borghezio MEP (Lega Nord), she travelled to Lampedusa on 14 March 2011.[186] She met the island's mayor Bernardino De Rubeis (Movement for Autonomies) and visited a housing center for illegal immigrants. She said that "Europe can't welcome everyone... We would be pleased to take them all in our boat, but it's not big enough. We'll all go to the bottom. We would be adding one misery to another" and "I also want to offer my support to the inhabitants of Lampedusa who have had the feeling of being completely abandoned". Around 9,000 migrants had already reached Lampedusa by boat since mid-January 2011 when protests in Tunisia unleashed a revolution across the Arab world.[187][188][189][190] During an international press conference held in Rome on 15 March 2011, she explained the situation of illegal immigration in Lampedusa, emphasized "the helplessness of EU" and how "each nation is more efficient to deal with the issue", and proposed solutions to settle this issue.[191]

In order to curb the illegal immigration influx from Tunisia and Libya, she has enjoined Nicolas Sarkozy to announce France's immediate and definitive withdrawal from Schengen Area and to reinstate urgently customs controls in all the borders of the country. She claimed that the UMP government's deceptive announcements about Schengen issue aimed at concealing its political inactivity and attempting to cheat public opinion.[192][193] In her view, the announcement of a technical adjustment of Schengen Agreement proposed by Nicolas Sarkozy and Silvio Berlusconi during the 26 April 2011 French-Italian summit "will not settle strictly anything". Reminding that United Kingdom and Ireland have refused the Agreement, she claims that only the withdrawal from Schengen Area will enable France to re-establish necessary customs controls and stop immigration.[194] She claims that "trafficers and networks of smugglers thrive when a country does not control its borders".[184]

Legal immigration[edit]

Marine Le Pen seeks to establish a moratorium on legal immigration.[195][196] During a press conference on 21 February 2011, she unveiled "the 2010 real figures of immigration" based on data transmitted by high-ranking officials of the Minister of the Interior, detailed the welfare benefits to which the legal and illegal immigrants are entitled, and proposed concrete solutions based on working models in the UK and the Netherlands.[197] In July 2011, she claims that "with 203,000 residence permits allocated in 2010 versus 114,000 in 2000 under Lionel Jospin, the UMP power promotes a laxer than ever policy of legal immigration".[184]

On 28 November 2010, 52.9% of the Swiss voters and 15 5/2 cantons approved the popular initiative "for the deportation of criminal foreigners" while the governmental counterproposal was rejected by 54.2% of voters and all the 20 6/2 cantons. She praised "the great victory of the Swiss people against the ruling elite".[198] Afterwards, she took part in debates on Radio Suisse Romande (RSR) with the SVP national councillor Oskar Freysinger[199] and then on Radio Cité Genève.[200]

Interviewed by The Daily Telegraph, she praised David Cameron's pledge to cut net annual immigration to UK from around 200,000 to "tens of thousands".[201] In February 2011, David Cameron expressed a rejection of multiculturalism during a speech at Munich security conference.[202] Afterwards, she congratulated him, for what she claimed was an endorsement of the FN's views on the failure of multiculturalism and immigration.[203]

Citizenship and nationality[edit]

In her view, citizenship is indivisible from nationality and rests on the equality of all people before the law; the latter should preclude preferential treatment based on the membership of a social, ethnic or religious category.[204] As a result, she favours the repeal of affirmative action[204][205] and the restoration of the "republican meritocracy".[205][206]

She claims that filiation should be the normal route to French nationality, with naturalization the exception:[204] "nationality is inherited or merited".[195] In her view, naturalization can only be obtained after a check on the ability of assimilation to republican principles.[204] In order to settle the immigration issue, she advocates a reform of the nationality regulations so as to remove dual citizenship and the automatic acquisition of French nationality.[196] On 30 May 2011, she wrote a letter to the Members of Parliament about dual citizenship: she claimed that "in the dual citizenship lie one of the main ferments of breach of the republican cohesion that France needs more than ever and a potent brake on the assimilation of French people from immigration".[207][208]

She favours an enforcement of the law regarding loss of nationality.[195] In her view, a foreigner who does not respect the law in France should be deprived of French nationality; equally any foreigner committing serious crimes and offences in France should be returned to his or her country of origin.[195]

She favours a 'French first' policy with regard to employment, welfare and accommodation.[195][196]

Communitarianism and secularism[edit]

Advocating that the FN remains a non-denominational party, Marine Le Pen regularly states her attachment to secularism (laïcité) in French society.[209] She vigorously defends the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, stipulating that the French republic does not recognise, grant a salary or subsidise any form of religious worship.[204][209][210]

She favours a ban on any communitarian or religious demands in schools, and seeks an amendment to the Constitution stating that the French republic does not recognize any community (denominations and ethnic groups).[195][210] Opposed to the financing of mosques from public funds, she further seeks to deny their financing from foreign assets.[195][209][210] In her view, the construction, maintenance and financing of places of worship should be a matter for groups of worshippers operating within a regulated framework.[195][204] She advocates to implement "the separation of the mosque and the state" and opposes the training of Imams by the French republic.[210]

On 29 November 2009, 57.5% of Swiss voters and 19 ½ cantons approved the popular initiative "for a ban on the construction of new minarets" (without retroactive effect on the four minarets already built in Switzerland). She congratulated the Swiss people on the overwhelming approval of the ban and denounced the ruling elite for its contempt of direct democracy.[211][212][213][214]

In February 2010, the fast food chain Quick announced that eight of its franchises would offer exclusively halal meals. This decision immediately triggered a controversy among the French political class from the Socialist Party, the UMP (Lionnel Luca MP) and the FN.[215] The controversy was particularly sharp in Roubaix (Nord) : the socialist mayor René Vandierendonck even threatened a lawsuit and she wrote two official statements about the matter.[215][216] Denouncing an "accelerated policy of Islamisation" and a "breach of the constitutional principle of secularism", she claimed that Quick had been owned by the French state since October 2006 and that the UMP state is the owner of Quick through the Caisse des dépôts et consignations (Qualium Investissement subsidiary), which holds 99.63% of its capital.[215][216]

Interviewed by Radio 1 in June 2011, she said that unlike the leader of the PVV Geert Wilders, she is “not waging war against Islam” and "is fighting the Islamisation of French society". Emphasizing her divergence with the Dutch MP, she claimed : “That’s the difference between Geert Wilders and me. He reads the Qur’an literally: you can’t interpret the Qur’an – or indeed the Bible – literally. I resist fundamentalists who want to impose their will and law on France. Sharia Law is not compatible with our principles, our values or democracy.”[217]

Societal issues[edit]

Marine Le Pen is opposed to the repeal of the 1975 Veil Law (Loi Veil) which framed abortion in a restrictive legislative provision. She claims that an unfavorable socio-economic background is a determining factor for the majority of women who have undergone an abortion. Consequently, she advocates a strongly pro-family policy more conducive to the nurturing and raising of children. Favourable to a policy aimed at increasing the birth rate, she explains her views on abortion in her autobiography À contre flots.[218]

She is strictly opposed to any softening of the law against euthanasia.[219]

She supports a referendum on whether to reinstate capital punishment in France, which was abolished in 1981.[220] The electorate would have the choice between restoring the death penalty and introduce a 'real' life imprisonment (without parole). Currently, French lifers are eligible for parole after serving 18 to 22 years, except in small number of cases.[221]

National politics and overseas[edit]

On the 70th anniversary of the Appeal of 18 June, Marine Le Pen held a press conference at the FN's headquarters. Drawing a parallel with the fall of France in June 1940, she denounced the weakening of the nation state, German domination within the EU and subservience to Atlanticism. Her goal was to "become the personification of national ambition and to return to France a spirit of greatness and an awareness of its place in history".[222]

She remains committed to France's territorial sovereignty, including the Overseas departments and territories. During a debate on Radio Cité Genève with Éric Bertinat, an SVP member of the Grand Council of Geneva, she vigorously opposed his proposal that the French departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie be incorporated into Switzerland.[223]

During her opening speech, she reminded that France is present in three oceans and possesses the second-largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering 11 million km2[57][224] During her opening speech, she also emphasized the importance of the French language and Francophonie. She claimed that "our national language is spreading through the five continents, privilege that it shares only with English" and that "the Francophonie has to vibrate in the lands of Asia, Americas, Europe and Africa again".[57]

In April 2011, she wrote a letter to all the prefects of France.[225] She denounced "the weakening of the state", "the discouragement of its personnels" and "the ineffectiveness of its governance". She claimed that the history of France shows us that as soon as there is a gap of the state, the local baronies reconstruct. She proposed a politic of re-establishment of the state which will lean on the high-ranking and devoted civil servants.[226]

Mayotte[edit]

In a referendum on becoming an overseas department held on 29 March 2009, 95.22% of the Mahoran voters approved the change of status. An overseas collectivity from 2003, Mayotte became France's 101st department on 31 March 2011. A third of the population of Mayotte are illegal migrants, mostly from the nearby islands of the archipelago which make up the independent Comoran state.[227] In her view, the accession of Mayotte to an overseas department will create a new in-draught for illegal immigration, which constitutes a threat for the stability of the island. She claims that the departmental status of the island requires the relinquishment of the jus soli wished in 2005 by François Baroin, then Minister of Overseas and the implementation of the 'French first' policy in the granting of welfare aids.[228]

New Caledonia[edit]

Reasserting her indefectible[clarification needed] attachment to the French Caledonia, she stated that "New Caledonia is in France and must stay there". In her view, "the creation of a citizenship and an acknowledgment of a 'Kanak identity' organize a true dismemberment of the sovereignty and a breach of the unity of the French republic". In June 2010, she claimed that "the official acknowledgment of the flag of the separatists of FNLKS as emblem of New Caledonia would constitute an affront to France and would show the true will of the UMP government to get rid of this French territory".[229] She stated that "the only flag of New Caledonia, a French territory, is the French flag in accordance with the article 2 of the French constitution". In February 2011, she again claimed that "the controversial solution of the two flags, contrary to the Nouméa Accord, which was supported by the Prime Minister François Fillon, is an additional proof of the will of the government and Nicolas Sarkozy to want to get rid of a part of France".[230]

International politics[edit]

Europe[edit]

She advocates forging a privileged partnership with Russia. She claims that a French-Russian partnership is necessitated by "obvious civilization and geostrategic factors" as well as France's "energy security interests". In her view, "France's interests are in Europe, but in Great Europe, especially including its partnership with Russia".[179] Interviewed by Kommersant, she claimed that "the process of demonization of Russia is taking place at the level of the EU leadership and at the wishes of the US, which is trying to create a unipolar world." Interviewed about democracy in Russia and Vladimir Putin, she replied: "We also do not have an ideal democracy in France and, therefore, do not have the right to give Russia lessons in democracy. But I openly admit that, to some extent, I admire Vladimir Putin. He makes mistakes, but who doesn’t? The situation in Russia is complicated, and one cannot expect all the problems stemming from the collapse of the Soviet Union to be quickly resolved – they require time. I think that Vladimir Putin has principles and a vision of the future that is necessary to ensure Russia’s prosperity, which it deserves.[74][180]

She claims that the Front National is a "patriotic" party with more in common with the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) and its "opposition to the totalitarian character of the EU and its desire to remove people's sovereignty" than the British National Party (BNP).[201]

On 8 June 2011, Marine Le Pen and the leader of the Freedom Party of Austria Heinz-Christian Strache held in the European Parliament a joint press conference about "globalization, migration and economic threats in the UE".[231] Both are aiming at strengthening the ties between their two respective movements and also with other eurosceptic parties.[232]

In a statement written on 20 July 2011, she wrote that "If Belgium is going to split, if Flanders pronounces its independence, which seems more and more credible a possibility, the French republic would do well to welcome Wallonia to its heart." She said that "on this eve of the Belgian National Day, it is nevertheless the responsibility of France and the French to extend a hand to the Walloons". She claimed that "the historic and fraternal links that unite our two people are too strong for France to abandon the Walloons". She suggested any such plan to become part of France should be agreed by a referendum in both countries.[233][234][235]

In a statement about the 2011 Norway attacks, she reiterated her condolences to the Norwegian people and recalled her determination to fight mercilessly against all forms of violence and barbarity. In reply to a MRAP's statement, she claimed that "the Norwegian slaughter was the work of a lone lunatic who must be ruthlessly punished".[236]

In October 2011, after her resignation from the Alliance of European National Movements (AENM), she joined the European Alliance for Freedom (EAF), a Pan-European sovereigntist platform created in late 2010.[237]

Middle East and Asia[edit]

In October 2011, she denounced a "violence wave" in Tunisia and "numerous deadly attacks" perpetrated against the Copt minority in Egypt. She claimed that "the revolutions in Maghreb, which have been led in the name of freedom and human rights, turned into a democratic fiasco and the eruption of violent islamist movements". In her view, "these violent attacks illustrate the extreme fragility of the democratic processes in countries faced with the growing influence of radical islamist movements and the threats that hang over individual freedom". She also "expressed deepest concern faced with the possibility of seeing to surge islamist dictatorships on Europe's doorstep".[238]

About the situation in Libya, she claimed that the confrontations pertained to a civil war in which France's interest was not to interfere. She regretted the haste of the French diplomacy which had "prematurely recognized the National Transitional Council which spoke in the name of the Libyan rebels". She claimed that the transfer of the US command towards NATO increased the submissiveness of the French Armed Forces. Denouncing "the US supremacy" in the military intervention, she "refused the idea that France slavishly followed the USA in this new stalemate".[239] One month after the launching of hostilities, she claimed that "France mired into the 'vote-catching war' of Sarkozy". She noticed that "the United Nations' mandate had largely been overstepped", that "the war dragged on" and that "the deaths of civilians increased". Denouncing the planned dispatch of British, French and Italian military advisers, she lamented the decision of French authorities to compromise further France in "a new Afghanistan".[240][241]

Interviewed by the Israeli daily newspaper Haaretz about the fact that some of her European senior colleagues had formed alliances with, and visited, some Israeli settlers and groups, Marine Le Pen said : "The shared concern about radical Islam explains the relationship ... but it is possible that behind it is also the need of the visitors from Europe to change their image in their countries ... As far as their partners in Israel are concerned, I myself don't understand the idea of continuing to develop the settlements. I consider it a political mistake and would like to make it clear in this context that we must have the right to criticize the policy of the State of Israel – just as we are allowed to criticize any sovereign country – without it being considered anti-Semitism. After all, the National Front has always been Zionistic and always defended Israel's right to exist". She also opposed the immigration of French Jews to Israel in response to radical Islam, explaining: "The Jews of France are Frenchmen, they're at home here, and they must stay here and not emigrate. The country is obligated to provide solutions to the development of radical Islam in the problematic regions".[75]

In a statement about the death of Osama bin Laden, she welcomed his "salutary elimination" and claimed that his execution was "a right and appropriate answer to the death of the victims in the 2011 Marrakech bombing".[242]

She regularly claims that France should promptly withdraw its troops from Afghanistan.[181]

Africa[edit]

Marine Le Pen claims that "with the help or the protection of western major powers (including unfortunately France in front row), Africa became for the decolonization a privileged ground of all the lobbies which maintain on its territory unacceptable, criminal and 'neo-colonialist' networks of corruption". She also claims that "whereas Africa struggles to find the ways of growth and thus future prosperity, whereas starvation or disease decimate millions of innocent souls, whereas skillfully maintained conflicts discourage the most dynamic and talented African elites, French-African relations are marred by an unforgivable misdemeanour: corruption". She advocates to "have a dialogue with Africa in line with our common history and our mutual interests" and "implement a real partnership which enables a harmonious development of the African continent". In her view, "the only reasonable way lies in a close relationship between the European and African continents, because the development of the African continent will break the migratory stranglehold which threats us and enable the two continents to live their own identities in peace, security and prosperity".[243]

She claimed that only diplomacy, negotiation and consultation were able to settle the tangle of the 2010–2011 Ivorian crisis, which had begun in the aftermath of the run-off of the 2010 presidential election, when both Laurent Gbagbo and Alassane Ouattara have claimed victory and taken the presidential oath of office.[244][245][246]

Interviewed in January 2011 by the monthly panafrican magazine Première Ligne, she denounced the interference of France and the international community in internal politics of Côte d'Ivoire and criticized Nicolas Sarkozy's support for Alassane Ouattara as a "political mistake". Denouncing a "double standards diplomacy", she claimed that the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is not legitimate to decide a military intervention in Côte d'Ivoire since it had not intervened in Niger after the coup d'état led by Salou Djibo on 18 February 2010.[244][245]

In parliamentary questions addressed to the European Commission,[247] she denounced the violation of the article 5 of the fourth complementary agreement to Ouagadougou Political Agreement, which had planned the completion of disarmament and reunification of Côte d'Ivoire before the organization of elections.[246]

On 12 September 2011, she strongly criticised that the Rwandan president Paul Kagame be received by Nicolas Sarkozy. She claimed that "welcoming Kagame whose regime is accused in a United Nations report of 'crimes against humanity' against civilian populations in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sarkozy once more demonstrated his contempt for law and justice". She also claimed, that "accepting to receive Kagame in Paris, he sullied the reputation of the French army outrageously accused by Kigali of having taken part in the Rwandan Genocide.[248]

Elections (1993–2012)[edit]

Marine Le Pen sings "La Marseillaise" at the conclusion of the presentation of her presidential project held in Paris on 19 November 2011

2012 presidential election[edit]

Marine Le Pen present her presidential project on november 9 2011 in Paris.
Marine Le Pen in her presidential campaign, on 15 April 2012.
Marine Le Pen sings "La Marseillaise" on April 15, 2012, in Hénin-Beaumont, a week before the first round.

Marine Le Pen stood in the 2012 French presidential election. On 16 May 2011, her presidential candidacy was unanimously validated by the FN Executive Committee.[249] On 10 and 11 September 2011, her political comeback in Nice prefigured the launching of her presidential campaign.[62] During a press conference on 6 October 2011, she officially unveiled the line-up of her presidential campaign team.[250]

On 19 November 2011, she presented in Paris the main thematic issues of her presidential project: sovereign people and democracy, Europe, reindustrialization and strong state, family and education, immigration and assimilation versus communitarianism, geopolitics and international politics.[251][252][253] During a press conference held on 12 January 2012,[254] she presented in detail the assessment of her presidential project[255] and a plan of debt paydown of France.[256] During a press conference held on 1 February 2012, she presented an outline of her presidential project for the overseas departments and territories of France.[257]

On 11 December 2011, she held her first presidential meeting in Metz.[258][259] From early January to mid April 2012, she held weekly meetings in the major French cities. On 17 April 2012, between 6,000 and 7,000 people took part in her final meeting organized at the Zenith in Paris.[260][261]

On 13 March 2012, she publicly announced that she had the 500 necessary signatures to take part in the presidential election.[262][263] On 19 March 2012, the Constitutional Council officially validated her candidature and the one of nine others competitors.[10]

First round results : candidates with the most votes by departments (mainland France, overseas and French citizens living abroad). Marine Le Pen came first in Gard.

On 22 April 2012, she polled 17.90% (6,421,426 votes) in the first round and finished in third position behind François Hollande and incumbent president Nicolas Sarkozy.[11][12][13] Her national result was higher in percentage and votes than those of Jean-Marie Le Pen in the 2002 presidential election (16.86%, 4,804,772 votes in the first round; 17.79%, 5,525,034 votes in the run-off).[264]

She was in the lead in Gard (25.51%, 106,646 votes) whereas Sarkozy and Hollande respectively polled 24.86% (103,927 votes) and 24.11% (100,778 votes).[12][265] She came first in her municipal stronghold of Hénin-Beaumont (35.48%, 4,924 votes) whereas Hollande and Sarkozy respectively polled 26,82% (3,723 votes) and 15,76% (2,187 votes).[266] She globally achieved her highest results east of a line from Le Havre in the north to Perpignan in the south.[267] In contrast, she globally polled less in western France, especially big cities such as Paris, overseas and among the French citizens living abroad (5.95%, 23,995 votes).[268] However, she got significative results in two rural departments in western France such as Orne (20.00%, 34,757 votes)[269] and Sarthe (19.17%, 62,516 votes).[270]

She achieved her highest regional result in Picardy (25.03%, 266,041 votes),[271] her highest departmental result in Vaucluse (27.03%, 84,585 votes),[272] her highest overseas result in Saint Pierre and Miquelon (15.81%, 416 votes).[273]

In addition to Picardy, she also polled over 20% in ten other regions : Corsica (24.39%, 39,209 votes),[274] Champagne-Ardenne (23.91%, 172,632 votes),[275] Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (23.87%, 650,336 votes),[276] Lorraine (23.66%, 308,392 votes),[277] Languedoc-Roussillon (23.45%, 363,880 votes),[278] Nord-Pas-de-Calais (23.29%, 517,115 votes),[279] Alsace (22.12%, 219,252 votes),[280] Franche-Comté (21.29%, 141,972 votes),[281] Burgundy (20.36%, 191,148 votes),[282] Upper Normandy (20.15%, 207,520 votes).[283] In addition to Vaucluse, she also polled over 25% in nine other departments : Aisne (26.33%, 78,452 votes),[284] Meuse (25.82%, 29,038 votes),[285] Corse-du-Sud (25.71%, 19,081 votes),[286] Pas-de-Calais (25.53%, 216,753 votes),[287] Gard (25.51%, 106,646 votes),[265] Haute-Marne (25.26%, 27,624 votes),[288] Aube (25.12%, 40,740 votes),[289] Haute-Saône (25.12%, 36,807 votes),[290] Oise (25.08%, 109,339 votes).[291] In addition to Saint Pierre and Miquelon, she also polled over 10% in the Collectivity of Saint Martin (12.51%, 665 votes),[292] in New Caledonia (11.66%, 10,409 votes),[293] in Saint Barthélemy (11.41%, 310 votes),[294] in French Guiana (10.48%, 3,920 votes)[295] and in Réunion (10.31%, 37,549 votes).[296]

First round results : candidates with the most votes by municipalities in metropolitan France (dark gray : Marine Le Pen)

She achieved her lowest regional result in Île-de-France (12.28%, 655,926 votes),[297] her lowest departmental result in Paris (6.20%, 61,503 votes),[298] her lowest overseas result in Wallis and Futuna (2.37%, 152 votes).[299]

In addition to Île-de-France, she polled less 15% in Brittany (13.24%, 262,095 votes)[300] and in Pays de la Loire (14.39%, 308,806 votes).[301] In addition to Paris, she polled less 10% in Hauts-de-Seine (8.51%, 62,447 votes).[302] In addition to Wallis and Futuna, she polled less 5% in Mayotte (2.77%, 996 votes)[303] and in Martinique (4.76%, 6,960 votes).[304]

A French sociologist, Sylvain Crépon who analysed the social and occupational groups of the FN voters in 2012, explained : "The FN vote is made up of the victims of globalisation. It is the small shopkeepers who are going under because of the economic crisis and competition from the out-of-town hypermarkets; it is low-paid workers from the private sector; the unemployed. The FN scores well among people living in poverty, who have a real fear about how to make ends meet."[267] Crépon also analysed the increase of the FN vote in "rural" areas and the recent sociological changes in these areas made up of small provincial towns and new housing-estate commuter belts built on the distant outskirts of the cities : "The rural underclass is no longer agricultural. It is people who have fled the big cities and the inner suburbs because they can no longer afford to live there. Many of these people will have had recent experience of living in the banlieues (high immigration suburbs) – and have had contact with the problems of insecurity."[267] Commentators also pointed that there are more young people and women voting for the party in 2012.[267]

During a speech delivered in Paris on 1 May 2012 after the traditional Joan of Arc and Labor Day march, she has refused to back either incumbent president Sarkozy or socialist Hollande in the run-off on 6 May. Addressing the party's annual rally at Place de l'Opéra, she vowed to cast a blank ballot and told her supporters to vote with their conscience, saying : "Hollande and Sarkozy – neither of them will save you. On Sunday I will cast a blank protest vote. I have made my choice. Each of you will make yours." Accusing both candidates of surrendering to Europe and financial markets, she asked : "Who between Francois Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy will impose the austerity plan in the most servile way? Who will submit the best to the instructions of the IMF, the ECB or the European Commission?"[305]

European elections[edit]

North-West France in 2009[edit]

In the 2009 election, Marine Le Pen led the FN list in the North-West France's constituency.

Attaining the best result among the seven FN European lists, her list polled 10.18% (253,009 votes)[306] and only won one of the ten seats of MEP.[307]

Her list achieved its highest regional result in Picardy (12.57%, 63,624 votes),[308] its highest departmental result in Aisne (13.40%, 19,125 votes),[309] its highest municipal results in Pas-de-Calais : Hénin-Beaumont (27.92%, 1,799 votes),[310] Courcelles-lès-Lens (26.57%),[311] Noyelles-Godault (24.72%).[312] Her list also polled over 10% in Nord-Pas-de-Calais (10.90%, 115,350 votes)[313] and in four other departments : Pas-de-Calais (12.88%, 52,671 votes),[314] Oise (12.46%, 24,997 votes),[315] Somme (11.99%, 19,502 votes),[316] Eure (10.06%, 15,793 votes).[317]

Île-de-France in 2004[edit]

In the 2004 election, she led the FN list in the Île-de-France's constituency. Her list polled 8.58% (234,893 votes) and only won one of the fourteen seats of MEP.[318]

Parliamentary elections[edit]

Paris in 1993[edit]

At the age of 24, she was for the first time a parliamentary candidate in the Paris' 16th constituency (17th arrondissement of Paris). Whereas Bernard Pons was re-elected as MP with 63.14% (22,545 votes) in the first round, she arrived in third position with 11.10% (3,963 votes) behind the socialist candidate (11.85%, 4,233 votes).[319]

Lens in 2002[edit]

In the 2002 election, she was a candidate at Lens in the Pas-de-Calais' 13th constituency. There are many workers and unemployed people in this economically deprived constituency, one of the socialist strongholds in northern France.

She polled 24.24% (10,228 votes) in the first round and achieved 32.30% (12,266 votes) in the run-off whereas her socialist challenger Jean-Claude Bois polled 38.20% (16,120 votes) in the first round and was re-elected as MP with 67.70% (27,510 votes) in the run-off.[320]

Hénin-Beaumont in 2007[edit]

In the 2007 election, Marine Le Pen and her substitute Steeve Briois, who emphasise the importance of local politics, represented the FN at Hénin-Beaumont in the Pas-de-Calais' 14th constituency.

Marine Le Pen during the FN presidential rally at Lille on 25 February 2007

Located in the former coal mining area, this constituency is characterized by a higher level of unemployment than the national average, a significant number of citizens in recipient of welfare such as the Revenu minimum d'insertion (RMI) and the closure of important factories like Metaleurop North with the loss of 870 jobs. A few months previously, Steeve Briois had asked her to contest this constituency, one of the socialist strongholds in northern France. Explaining the choice of this area, she declared that the constituency was symbolic, with unemployment, offshoring and insecurity representing the major problems of France.[321] Asserting his disappointment with the incumbent socialist MP Albert Facon, Daniel Janssens, who had been a socialist activist for thirty years and a first deputy mayor of Leforest for 24 years, led her support committee during the electoral campaign.

Among the fourteen candidates running in the first round, she came second with 24.47% (10,593 votes) whereas Facon came top with 28.24% (12,221 votes).[322] In order to take part in the run-off, a parliamentary candidate must cross the minimal threshold of 12.50% of the registered voters. Throughout France, she thus was the only FN candidate able to compete in a run-off.[323] Between the first round and the run-off, she received the support of historic figures of Gaullism like Alain Griotteray, Michel Caldagués and the souverainiste MEP Paul-Marie Coûteaux.[324]

In the run-off, she achieved 41.65% (17,107 votes) winning 17.18% and 6,514 votes within a week whereas Albert Facon was re-elected as MP with 58.35% (23,965 votes).[322] She attained her highest results in three municipalities: Courcelles-lès-Lens (48.71%),[325] Noyelles-Godault (47.85%),[326] Hénin-Beaumont (44.54%, 4,729 votes).[327] Her results in the first round and the run-off are higher than those of Steeve Briois in 2002 (20.06%, 8,768 votes; 32.08%, 12,129 votes) whereas Facon lost 9.57% and 1,718 votes within five years (67.92%, 25,683 votes).[328]

According to political analysts, she confirmed her excellent showing in this economically deprived area achieving a very high percentage of votes thanks to economic and social matters like deindustrialization, unemployment and a feeling of abandonment rather than issues such as immigration and insecurity.[323]

Hénin-Beaumont in 2012[edit]

Marine Le Pen represented as the FN leader at Pas-de-Calais' 11th constituency, where the new constition regrouped Henin-Beaumont, had her best score in the presidential election.[329] She will be opposed to Philippe Kemel and Jean-Luc Mélenchon.[330] On the first round on 10 June 2012, She finished first with 42,36% (22 280 votes).[331] She was defeated in the second round by Philippe Kemel of the Socialist Party.

Convicted for fraud[edit]

In 2014, the Criminal Court of Bethune found Marine Le Pen guilty of fraud and sentenced her a 10,000 Euro fine, for producing and distributing flyers purporting to be from electoral opponent Jean-Luc Mélenchon in the 2012 election. In a statement, her counsel Wallerand de Saint-Just announced that she was appealing the conviction.[332][333][334]

Regional elections[edit]

Nord-Pas-de-Calais in 2010[edit]

In the 2010 elections, Marine Le Pen led the FN regional list in Nord-Pas-de-Calais and the departmental list in Pas-de-Calais whereas Steeve Briois figured in second position.[335] Largely spread during the electoral campaign, her regional programme included several topics about social, economic, political and cultural issues.[336]

In the first round, her list polled 18.31% (224.871 votes) and arrived in third position in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.[337] In Pas-de-Calais, her list polled 19.81% (96,556 votes) overtaking the one of the UMP (15.91%, 77,550 votes)[338] and largely came top in Hénin-Beaumont (39.08%, 2,949 votes).[339] Whereas Jean-Marie Le Pen's FN list attained 20.30% (296,283 votes) in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur,[340] she nationally achieved the second highest result among the FN regional lists. In Pas-de-Calais, her result was higher in percentage than the one of Jean-Marie Le Pen in the first round of the 2002 presidential election (18.41%, 135,330 votes).[341] In order to take part in the run-off, a regional list must cross the minimal threshold of 10% of the valid votes.

In the run-off, her list polled 22.20% (301,190 votes) and arrived in third position in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.[337] Eighteen FN councillors were elected among the 113 of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais' regional council.[342] Whereas Jean-Marie Le Pen's list attained 22.87% (387,374 votes) with 21 councillors elected,[340] she nationally achieved the second highest result among the FN regional lists. In Pas-de-Calais, her list polled 24.37% (130,720 votes) overtaking the one of the UMP (22.63%, 121,365 votes)[338] and achieved its highest municipal results in Hénin-Beaumont (44.23%, 3,829 votes)[339] and Courcelles-lès-Lens (40.60%).[343] Her list nationally realized the second highest departmental FN result behind Vaucluse (26.54%).[344] Her regional result and the one in Pas-de-Calais were higher in percentage than those of Jean-Marie Le Pen in the run-off of the 2002 presidential election (21.89%, 445,357 votes;[345] 22.17%, 170,967 votes).[341]

Thanks to her political success, she confirmed her regional presence and reinforced her internal position within the FN. As a member of the standing committee and a president of the regional group (Front National/Gathering for the Nord-Pas-de-Calais), she led a resolute opposition facing the left-wing regional executive managed by Daniel Percheron.

Île-de-France in 2004[edit]

In the 2004 elections, she led the FN regional list in Île-de-France and the departmental list in Hauts-de-Seine.

Her list polled 12.26% (448,983 votes) in the first round and achieved 10.11% (395,565 votes) with fifteen councillors elected in the run-off.[346][347]

She exercised the leadership of her regional group for five years and left it in February 2009 since she preferred to devote her energy to the European election campaign in the North-West France's constituency.[348] A member of the standing committee, she led a strong opposition facing the left-wing regional executive managed by Jean-Paul Huchon.

Nord-Pas-de-Calais in 1998[edit]

In the 1998 elections, she figured on the FN list in Nord-Pas-de-Calais and was a regional councillor for six years (1998–2004).[17]

Municipal elections[edit]

Marine Le Pen and Steeve Briois holding a press conference at Hénin-Beaumont, Pas-de-Calais, for the launch of the 2008 municipal election

Hénin-Beaumont in 2008[edit]

Since 2001, Gérard Dalongeville has been the mayor of Hénin-Beaumont, an economically deprived town in the former coal mining area.

A municipal councillor since 1995,[349] Steeve Briois led the FN list while Marine Le Pen was in second position. The FN list came second with 28.53% (3,650 votes) in the first round and achieved 28.83% (3,630 votes) with five councillors elected in the run-off.[350][351] In order to take part in the run-off, a municipal list must cross the minimal threshold of 10% of the votes cast.

Despite their electoral failure, Steeve Briois and Marine Le Pen led a sharp opposition against the re-elected mayor Gérard Dalongeville, his first vice-mayor Marie-Noëlle Lienemann and their left-wing team.

2009 Hénin-Beaumont by-election[edit]

A municipal by-election was held in Hénin-Beaumont on 28 June and 5 July 2009. Like in 2008, Steeve Briois was the FN top candidate whereas she figured in second position.

The FN list was largely in the lead with 39.33% (4,485 votes) in the first round and achieved 47.62% (5,504 votes) with eight councillors elected in the run-off.[352] Despite a weekly increase of 1,019 votes, the FN again failed its attempt to win the municipality.[353]

Steeve Briois, Marine Le Pen and the six other FN councillors led the sole political opposition against the new mayor Daniel Duquenne and his successor Eugène Binaisse.

On 24 February 2011, she resigned as a municipal councillor because of the law on the accumulation of mandates ("cumul des mandats").[354] In a letter entitled "I stay in Hénin-Beaumont !", she explained that her political action is more efficient for the city at regional and European levels than in the municipal council.[355]

Political mandates[edit]

Local mandates[edit]

  • Regional councillor of Nord-Pas-de-Calais : (15 March 1998 – 28 March 2004); since 26 March 2010: member of the standing committee, leader of the FN group.
  • Regional councillor of Île-de-France (28 March 2004 – 21 March 2010) : member of the standing committee, leader of the FN group until February 2009.
  • Municipal councillor of Hénin-Beaumont (23 March 2008 – 24 February 2011).

European mandates[edit]

Member of the European Parliament in the Île-de-France constituency (20 July 2004 – 13 July 2009) : Non-Inscrits (20 July 2004 – 14 January 2007/14 November 2007 – 13 July 2009) ; Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty (15 January 2007 – 13 November 2007).

Member of the European Parliament in the North-West France constituency : Non-Inscrits (since 14 July 2009)

Bibliography[edit]

(French) Welcome to a ruthless world (extract from À contre-flots chapter one, p. 9 to p. 22).

  • Pour que vive la France, Jacques Grancher, 2012, 260 pages

(French)[358]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Steven Erlanger (21 May 2010). "Child of France’s Far Right Prepares to Be Its Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  2. ^ Robert Marquand (25 June 2010). "France's National Front : will Marine Le Pen take the reins ?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Marine Le Pen in bid to head France's National Front". BBC News. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  4. ^ "Hot Spot—High Life". The Spectator. UK. 12 November 2005. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  5. ^ Christian Fraser (16 January 2011). "France's National Front picks Marine Le Pen as new head". BBC News. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  6. ^ "Marine le Pen succeeds father at helm of France's National Front". Haaretz. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  7. ^ Steven Erlanger (16 January 2011). "Le Pen’s Daughter Elected to Lead His Far-Right Party". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c d e (French) "FN : the new president elected by the members !". Front National. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011. [dead link]
  9. ^ a b "The 2011 Time 100 : full list". Time. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  10. ^ a b (French) "Decision: list of the 2012 candidates". Constitutional Council. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 
  11. ^ a b (French) "2012 French presidential election : Constitutional Council's statement after the official proclamation of the results in the first round". Constitutional Council. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in the departments after the official proclamation by the Constitutional Council". Constitutional council. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  13. ^ a b (French) "2012 presidential election : first round results in the whole France". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ (French) "Welcome to a ruthless world". Autobiography. xooimage.com. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  16. ^ Mathieu von Rohr (7 July 2011). "Marine Le Pen's Populism for the Masses (Part 2: The Divide Between the Governing and the Governed)". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f (French) "Marine Le Pen's biography". Élections présidentielles 2012. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  18. ^ a b Angelique Chrisafis (21 March 2011). "Marine Le Pen emerges from father's shadow". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  19. ^ "Leading Sarkozy to the Guillotine" "New York Times", 5 May 2012
  20. ^ [2]
  21. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen : "No alliance with the UMP"". Le Figaro (in French). 30 October 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  22. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen refuses the idea of an alliance with the UMP". Le Monde (in French). 31 October 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  23. ^ "Marine Le Pen : mightier than her père?". The Independent (UK). 13 September 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  24. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen again distances herself from her father". Le Figaro (in French). 28 April 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  25. ^ a b (French) "Marine Le Pen's support committee". Front National. Retrieved 24 January 2011. [dead link]
  26. ^ Henry Samuel (11 September 2008). "French far-right leader Jean-Marie Le Pen sets retirement date". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 17 November 2010. 
  27. ^ (French) "Jean-Marie Le Pen sides with his daughter Marine against Gollnisch". RMC. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2010. 
  28. ^ (French) "Timetable of Marine Le Pen's campaign trail for the 2011 Congress". Front National. Retrieved 1 November 2010. [dead link]
  29. ^ (French) "500 people were at Cuers for Marine Le Pen". Nations Presse Info. 4 September 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  30. ^ a b (French) "The 2012 great alternation is built in 2011". Nations Presse Info. 15 November 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  31. ^ (French) "AFP : according to Marine Le Pen, the FN presents the "real debates" of the presidential election". Agence France-Presse (Steeve Briois' website). 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010. 
  32. ^ (French) "FN leadership : Marine Le Pen's final meeting at Hénin-Beaumont". Agence France-Presse (Nations Presse Info). 21 December 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  33. ^ (French) "Official programme of the XIVth congress of the National Front". Front National. Retrieved 14 February 2011. [dead link]
  34. ^ Sebastian Moffett (17 January 2011). "Le Pen's Daughter Takes Party Helm". The Wall Street Journal Europe. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  35. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen shocks on street prayers". Le Figaro. 11 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  36. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen "reveals fascist banner" according to PS officials". Le Parisien. 11 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  37. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen compares the "Muslims' street prayers" to an "occupation"". Le Monde. 11 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  38. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen compares the "street prayers" to the "Occupation" of France". BFM TV. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  39. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen at the heart of actuality". France 2 (Nations Presse Info). 12 December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  40. ^ (French) Anne Fulda (12 December 2010). "Gap". Le Figaro. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  41. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen : Marine tails, Le Pen heads". Le Journal du Dimanche. 12 December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  42. ^ (French) "The CRIF denounces Marine Le Pen". Nations Presse Info. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  43. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen : "irresponsible" words". Le Figaro. 11 December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  44. ^ (French) "The Licra condemns Marine Le Pen's language". Le Figaro. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  45. ^ (French) "The MRAP lodges a formal complaint against Marine Le Pen for racial hatred". Le Nouvel Observateur. 12 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  46. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen : the LDH lodges a formal complaint". Le Figaro. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  47. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen asked a valid question". France Soir. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  48. ^ (French) Louis Aliot (16 December 2010). "Statement about communitarianism and those really responsible for the current situation in France". Front National. Retrieved 17 December 2010. [dead link]
  49. ^ (French) "Our occupied streets : Marine Le Pen's press conference". Front National. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. [dead link]
  50. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen "confirms and signs" for "the Occupation"". Le Point. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  51. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen confirms and signs". BFM TV (Nations Presse Info). 14 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  52. ^ (French) "Controversy of the street prayers. This is state manipulation : the proof !". Front National. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. [dead link]
  53. ^ (French) "Revelations : Marine Le Pen badmouthed by the Elysée". BFM TV (Nations Presse Info). 14 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  54. ^ (French) "The Executive Office". Front National. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  55. ^ (French) "The Executive Committee". Front National. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  56. ^ (French) "The Central Committee". Front National. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  57. ^ a b c (French) "FN Congress in Tours : Marine Le Pen's opening speech". Front National. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
  58. ^ (French) "1 May march : Marine Le Pen's speech". Front National. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011. 
  59. ^ "Marine Le Pen stakes out mainstream in speech". The Washington Times. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011. 
  60. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's exceptional press conference about the systemic crisis". Front National. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  61. ^ (French) "Programme of the "Summer days Marine 2012"". Front National. Retrieved 11 September 2011. [dead link]
  62. ^ a b c (French) "Speech at the "Summer days of Marine Le Pen"". Front National. 11 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  63. ^ (French) "Against the right of foreigners to vote : Marine Le Pen's speech". Front National. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  64. ^ (French) "Press conferences". Front National. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 
  65. ^ (French) "Thematic videos". Front National. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 
  66. ^ (French) Philippe Cohen (31 July 2010). "Marine Le Pen". Marianne. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  67. ^ (French) Michèle Cotta (24 August 2010). "The arch-enemy of the French political parties". Le Nouvel Économiste. Retrieved 20 November 2010. 
  68. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen: the new face of the far-right". Paris Match. 5 November 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  69. ^ (French) Antoine de Font-Réaulx (March 2011). "Interview with Marine Le Pen : "My aim is to come to power in order to implement my ideas"". La Revue Parlementaire. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  70. ^ (French) Patrick Vignal (1 September 2011). ""Barack Obama is more on my right" says Marine Le Pen". Le Point. Retrieved 29 April 2012. 
  71. ^ Mathieu von Rohr (7 July 2011). "Madame Rage: Marine Le Pen's Populism for the Masses (Part 1: Marine Le Pen's Populism for the Masses, Part 2: The Divide Between the Governing and the Governed, Part 3: 'As a Woman, You Have a Close Relationship with Reality'". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  72. ^ "Profile : Marine Le Pen". BBC News. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
  73. ^ a b Adam Boulton (14 October 2011). "Marine Le Pen praises UK riot response". Sky News. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  74. ^ a b c (Russian)"France will pull out of NATO – Marine Le Pen speaks to Kommersant about her programme". Kommersant. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  75. ^ a b Adar Primor (7 January 2011). "The daughter as de-demonizer". Haaretz. Retrieved 7 January 2011. 
  76. ^ "France's Le Pen sizes up her rivals". Al Jazeera English. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  77. ^ Bruce Crumley (3 February 2011). "Marine Le Pen: Her Father's Daughter". Time. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  78. ^ Devorah Lauter (17 January 2011). "A new Le Pen will lead the French far right". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  79. ^ Christopher Caldwell (14 March 2011). "Le Pen is mightier". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  80. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen during the Mots croisés programme on France 2 (Theme: sex crimes – How to prevent subsequent offences ?)". Front National. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  81. ^ Henry Samuel (7 October 2009). "Frédéric Mitterrand admitted to paying for sex with 'young boys’ in Thailand". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  82. ^ John Lichfield (8 October 2009). "Mitterrand fights for his job after rent boy admission". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  83. ^ Bruce Crumley (8 October 2009). "Mitterrand: a Friend to Polanski – and Young Boys?". Time. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  84. ^ Hugh Schofield (9 October 2009). "'Bad Life' minister's colourful dynasty". BBC News. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  85. ^ (French) "J. Fourquet: "Marine Le Pen has broken through the Mitterrand case"". Marianne. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  86. ^ (French) "À vous de juger: debate between Marine Le Pen and Éric Besson". Front National. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. 
  87. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen in À vous de juger: replies to Arlette Chabot (1st part), replies to Alain Duhamel (2nd part), talks with Manuel Valls (3rd part), debate with Rachida Dati (4th part)". Front National. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2011. [dead link]
  88. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen boosts the audience of À vous de juger". Nations Presse Info (Médiamétrie). 10 December 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. 
  89. ^ (French) Emmanuel Berretta (10 December 2010). "Marine Le Pen got a high score in À vous de juger". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 27 December 2010. 
  90. ^ (French) Guillaume Tabard (31 December 2010). "Le Pen, bis repetita". Les Echos. Retrieved 31 December 2010. 
  91. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen on France 2". Front National. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011. [dead link]
  92. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen revives the machine". France Soir (in French). 24 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  93. ^ (French) "Des paroles et des actes on France 2: viewers and televised audience (statistics)". Première. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  94. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen still champion of the ratings". Le Journal du Dimanche. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  95. ^ (French) ""Direct speech" with Marine Le Pen". TF1. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  96. ^ (French) "TV audience: Marine Le Pen followed on TF1 by 6 millions of viewers". PureMédias. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  97. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen on the Québec webradio Rockik". Nations Presse Info (Rockik). 8 December 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2010. 
  98. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen on Radio Canada". Nations Presse Info (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). 21 May 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. 
  99. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen on the Israeli radio 90FM". Front National. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011. [dead link]
  100. ^ "Cover Gallery". The Weekly Standard. March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  101. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen invited by the European American Press Club". Front National. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2011. 
  102. ^ TIME STAFF (4 April 2011). "Marine Le Pen (The 2011 TIME 100 Poll)". Time. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  103. ^ Vladimir Zhirinovsky (21 April 2011). "Marine Le Pen (The 2011 TIME 100)". Time. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  104. ^ http://droites-extremes.blog.lemonde.fr/2011/10/22/marine-le-pen-en-italie-lombre-portee-du-msi/
  105. ^ "Marine Le Pen sparks Cambridge protests". The Daily Telegraph (London: Telegraph Media Group). 2013-02-19. 
  106. ^ Pilgrim, Sophie (2013-02-19). "Marine Le Pen sparks protest on Cambridge visit". France 24 (Paris: France Médias Monde). 
  107. ^ Root, James (2013-02-17). "No Platform for Marine Le Pen – A Response by Cambridge Libertarians" (Press release). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Libertarians. 
  108. ^ http://www.lefigaro.fr/actualite-france/2013/05/24/01016-20130524ARTFIG00577-service-minimum-pour-marine-le-pen.php
  109. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen : "Social issues—the National Front's policies"". Front National. 24 September 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010. [dead link]
  110. ^ a b (French) Andrea Bambino (9 December 2010). "Marine Le Pen involves in economics". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  111. ^ (French) ""Pensions : Chaos – courtesy of Sarko" (Marine Le Pen, FN) !"". Front National. 22 October 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010. 
  112. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen: "Pensions : Sarkozy's cheating you !"". Front National. 14 June 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  113. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen pays a tribute to Maurice Allais, the sole French Nobel Prize in Economics". Nations Presse Info. 11 October 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  114. ^ "Maurice Allais' autobiography". Official website of the Nobel Prize. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  115. ^ "Globalization: destruction of the employment and growth—The empirical obviousness". Website dedicated to Maurice Allais (1911–2010). Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  116. ^ (French) "In order to absorb our debt: repeal the 1973 Law !". Front National. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010. [dead link]
  117. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen speaks to the civil servants". Front National. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011. [dead link]
  118. ^ a b (French) "How to straighten out the public utilities ?". Front National. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011. [dead link]
  119. ^ (French) "Privatization of the French Post: Marine Le Pen's position". Front National. 2 October 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  120. ^ a b c (French) "Reform of the French Post's statute: a serious undermining of the public utilities". Front National. 3 October 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  121. ^ (French) "Barcelona summit: the public utilities slip and the social EU regresses". Alternatives économiques (n° 202). April 2002. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  122. ^ (French) "Delicate European summit for Chirac and Jospin". Le Nouvel Observateur. 15 March 2002. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  123. ^ a b c (French) "Aide Médicale d'État—Free access for illegal immigrants: let's stop the scandal !". Front National. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010. [dead link]
  124. ^ a b c (French) "Protections at boundaries: how to revive industry and employment ?". Front National. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
  125. ^ a b John Gizzi (4 November 2011). "France's Marine Le Pen's Tea Party Embrace a Percolating Issue on the U.S. Right". Human Events. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  126. ^ a b c d (French) "Marine Le Pen's press conference at the National Press Club in Washington". Nations Presse Info. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  127. ^ (French) "Dexia fall: Marine Le Pen's proposals in order to get over the banking stagnation". Front National. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011. [dead link]
  128. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen: 7 immediate steps to save €30 billion a year". Front National. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  129. ^ (French) "Laurence Parisot denounces the National Front's "demagogic" economic programme". Agence France-Presse. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2010. 
  130. ^ (French) "The MEDEF does not like our economic and social programme: so what's new?". Front National. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2010. [dead link]
  131. ^ (French) "The National Front's economic programme upsets Mrs Parisot: we understand her !". Front National. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011. [dead link]
  132. ^ (French) "Laurence Parisot's book against Marine Le Pen: the tribute of the vice to the virtue". Front National. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011. [dead link]
  133. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's open letter to Laurence Parisot, president of the MEDEF". Front National. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011. [dead link]
  134. ^ "European Parliament resolution on the future of the Common Agricultural Policy after 2013". European Parliament. 8 July 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  135. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen at the Paris International Agricultural Show". Front National. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011. [dead link]
  136. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen visits the Paris International Agricultural Show". Le Journal du Dimanche. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011. 
  137. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen seeking to conquer the farmers". Le Point (in French). 25 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011. 
  138. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen at the Paris International Agricultural Show". 20 minutes (AFP). 25 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  139. ^ (French) "France's food safety and independence". Front National. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  140. ^ (French) "Speculation and food crisis". Front National. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011. [dead link]
  141. ^ a b (French) "Marine Le Pen : "lets establish an autarky of big spaces"". terraeco.net. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  142. ^ a b c (French) "Energy prices : a communication operation in defiance of purchasing power of French people". Front National. 5 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. [dead link]
  143. ^ a b (French) "Sharp rise in energy prices : Sarkozy does not act, the FN has a plan of action". Front National. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011. [dead link]
  144. ^ a b c (French) "New scandalous rise in gas prices : the state must regain the control of the situation". Front National. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. [dead link]
  145. ^ a b c (French) "Surge in gasoline prices : Marine Le Pen proposes an immediate plan of action faced with the government's inaction". Front National. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  146. ^ a b c (French) "Gasoline prices : the government must stop communication and urgently have a rethink". Front National. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. [dead link]
  147. ^ a b c (French) "New record of the gasoline prices, inaction of the Sarkozy power ! The FN urgently asks the adoption of a plan of action !". Front National. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011. [dead link]
  148. ^ a b (French) "The French state must immediately oppose the announced boom in electricity prices". Front National. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. [dead link]
  149. ^ (French) "Marcoule's nuclear accident: the urgency to secure the plants". Front National. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011. [dead link]
  150. ^ (French) "Fantastic profits of CAC 40 : how to make benefit French people ?". Front National. 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  151. ^ (French) "Agriculture : Euthanasia by Brussels". Front National. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. [dead link]
  152. ^ (French) "Fishermen persecuted by the European Union". Front National. 9 June 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. [dead link]
  153. ^ "Prospects for the Doha Development Agenda following the Seventh WTO Ministerial Conference (debate)". European Parliament. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  154. ^ (French) "Closure of Total oil refinery at Dunkirk". Front National. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. [dead link]
  155. ^ (French) "Video speech about the G-20 Seoul summit (G 20 / France 0)". Front National. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010. [dead link]
  156. ^ (French) "Sarkozy dupes the French while with his cronies at Davos". Front National. 27 January 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. [dead link]
  157. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen : "The real problem is the Euro!"". Front National. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  158. ^ (French) "The Brussels gravy train : enough is enough!". Front National. 19 October 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. [dead link]
  159. ^ (French) "Monetary sovereignty or economic and social chaos". Front National. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. [dead link]
  160. ^ (French) "NO to the European fiscal racketeering !". Front National. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011. [dead link]
  161. ^ (French) "29 May 2005 European Constitution referendum : results in France". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  162. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen : "The spirit of 29 May"". Front National. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  163. ^ (Dutch) "Verkiezingsuitslagen Referendum 2005—Nederland". Kiesraad. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  164. ^ "Question Hour with the President of the Commission-1". European Parliament. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  165. ^ "Question Hour with the President of the Commission-2". European Parliament. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2010. 
  166. ^ (French) "The European peoples' sacrifice for the euro is engraved in the marble of the Treaty of Lisbon". Front National. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011. [dead link]
  167. ^ (French) "Revision of the Treaty of Lisbon : the European oligarchy selects the financial markets against the peoples". Front National. 29 October 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011. [dead link]
  168. ^ "European Parliament resolution on Turkey's progress report 2008 (explanations of vote)". European Parliament. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2010. 
  169. ^ a b c d (French) Marine Le Pen (21 July 2011). "Going back to the monetary freedom". Les Échos. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  170. ^ a b c d (French) "Leaving euro will create purchasing power". Front National. 2 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011. [dead link]
  171. ^ (French) "How will we leave euro ? the twelve essential steps !". Front National. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2010. [dead link]
  172. ^ a b (French) "The winning countries are those which will leave". Front National. 21 December 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010. [dead link]
  173. ^ (French) "Irresponsability of Sarkozy who involves France into the way of excessive debt". Front National. 2 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011. [dead link]
  174. ^ (French) "European summit: again 109 billions of euro of public money which will be spent for nothing !". Front National. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011. [dead link]
  175. ^ (French) "15 new billions of French euro to Greece: one must stop squandering the money of French people". Front National. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011. [dead link]
  176. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen denounces the 15 billions of Euro used for Greece (speech at the Pont de la Concorde)". Front National. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011. [dead link]
  177. ^ Gabriele Parussini (6 September 2011). "France's National Front Protests Greek Rescue, French Austerity". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 September 2011. [dead link]
  178. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's media appearances". Front National. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011. [dead link]
  179. ^ a b c "France to ditch NATO, embrace Russia if National Front comes to power". RIA Novosti. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011. 
  180. ^ a b Elena Chernenko (13 October 2011). "France will secede from NATO". RT (TV network). Retrieved 10 November 2011. [dead link]
  181. ^ a b (French) "Afghanistan : Marine Le Pen seeks to leave the US sphere of influence". Marianne. 9 January 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2011. 
  182. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen launches the debate about the future of IMF". Front National. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011. [dead link]
  183. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen replies to IMF after the publication of its yearly report on France". Front National. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011. [dead link]
  184. ^ a b c d e f (French) "Marine Le Pen's open letter to policemen, gendarmes and customs officers concerning the policy of fight against illegal immigration". Nations Presse Info. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  185. ^ (French) "Surge in illegal immigrants : when Europe proves the FN right". Front National. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011. [dead link]
  186. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's press briefing at Lampedusa". Front National. 17 March 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011. [dead link]
  187. ^ "French far-right leader visits Italian migrant island". Agence France-Presse. 14 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  188. ^ "Marine Le Pen says Europe can't handle migrants". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  189. ^ "French far-right leader visits migrant detention center in Italy". International Business Times. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  190. ^ "Le Pen's anti-immigration visit puts heat on Sarkozy". The Australian. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  191. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's press conference in Rome after her stay in Lampedusa". Front National. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  192. ^ (French) "Schengen : Sarkozy admits the extent of the disaster but does not act ! We must leave Schengen Area". Front National. 23 April 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011. [dead link]
  193. ^ (French) "The French-Italian summit of 26 April will be no use if France does not announce that it definitively breaks with Schengen Agreement". Front National. 25 April 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011. [dead link]
  194. ^ (French) "Schengen : a French-Italian summit for anything". Front National. 26 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011. [dead link]
  195. ^ a b c d e f g h (French) "Marine Le Pen : "If I was president..."". Paris-Match (Nations Presse Info). 8 July 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  196. ^ a b c (French) "Interview : Marine Le Pen". Vie Politique. 29 July 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  197. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's press conference : "immigration-the real figures"". Front National. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  198. ^ (French) "Swiss initiative : great victory of the Swiss people against the ruling elite". Front National. 28 November 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2010. [dead link]
  199. ^ (French) "Switzerland UDC version : is it a model for the National Front ?". Radio Suisse Romande (RSR). 29 November 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  200. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen on Radio Cité Genève". Front National. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2010. [dead link]
  201. ^ a b Henry Samuel (26 December 2010). "National Front's Marine Le Pen to prove formidable rival to Nicolas Sarkozy". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 31 December 2010. 
  202. ^ George Parker (4 February 2011). "Cameron promises to isolate hostile Muslims". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  203. ^ Peggy Hollinger (9 February 2011). "Le Pen daughter applauds Cameron". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  204. ^ a b c d e f (French) "Marine Le Pen : "My irreproachable Republic"". Nations Presse Info. 1 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  205. ^ a b (French) "Rachida Dati is wrong : ethnic affirmative action is indeed encouraged in France". Front National. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010. [dead link]
  206. ^ (French) "And if Marine Le Pen was the real brain of the FN ?". Le Vrai Débat. 1 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. [dead link]
  207. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's letter to the French MPs about dual citizenship". Front National. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011. [dead link]
  208. ^ (French) Marine Le Pen (14 July 2011). "The dual citizenship upsets the majority of French people (opinion column)". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  209. ^ a b c (French) "In 2005, Marine Le Pen already spoke about secularism !". Nations Presse Info. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  210. ^ a b c d (French) "Debate about Islam – Marine Le Pen : "we must obtain the separation of the mosque and the state"". Le Point (in French). 18 February 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 
  211. ^ (French) "Swiss initiative : overwhelming majority against the building of minarets !". Front National. 29 November 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2010. [dead link]
  212. ^ (French) "The ruling elite panics". Front National. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2010. [dead link]
  213. ^ "Fury over Swiss ban on new minarets on mosques". Daily Mail (UK). 2 December 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  214. ^ "European politicians react to Swiss minaret ban". Deutsche Welle. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  215. ^ a b c "French fast food chain's decision to go halal sparks criticism for discriminating against non-Muslims". Daily Mail. UK. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  216. ^ a b (French) "Marine Le Pen's official statements about the Roubaix Quick". Front National. February 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  217. ^ "Le Pen says she's no Wilders". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  218. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's statement about abortion in À contre flots (Chapter ten : single mother, p.191-p.194, 2006)". Nations Presse Info. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  219. ^ (French) Louis Aliot (9 July 2010). "Clarification about Marine Le Pen's statements (Lie n°2 about euthanasia)". Nations Presse Info. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  220. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen opens the new programme of France 2 (sequence "pure politics" with Fabien Namias)". Le Journal du Dimanche. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  221. ^ Articles 132–23, 221–3 and 221–4 of the French criminal code, and article 720–4 of the French code of criminal procedure; currently Michel Fourniret and Pierre Bodein are the only two French lifers sentenced to spend at least thirty years behind bars.
  222. ^ (French) "Security, sovereignty : the architects of the collapse do not have to celebrate the Appeal of June 18". Front National. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  223. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen on Radio Cité Genève: debate with Éric Bertinat (Swiss People's Party), member of the Grand Council of Geneva". Front National. 21 September 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010. [dead link]
  224. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen on ACI TV (first West Indian TV in France)". Front National. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010. [dead link]
  225. ^ (French) "Exclusive : how Marine Le Pen chats up the prefects". Marianne. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  226. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's letter to the prefects". Le Point (in French). April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011. [dead link]
  227. ^ "Mayotte votes for full French integration". France 24. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2011. 
  228. ^ (French) "Mayotte, a new Lampedusa ?". Front National. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011. [dead link]
  229. ^ (French) "New Caledonia, this is France !". Front National. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2011. [dead link]
  230. ^ (French) "The Caledonian flag must be the one of France !". Front National. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. [dead link]
  231. ^ "Press conferences on 8 June 2011 (Events)". European Parliament. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011. 
  232. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen meets the leader of the Freedom Party of Austria". Front National. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011. [dead link]
  233. ^ (French) "France should extend a hand to Wallonia". Front National. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011. [dead link]
  234. ^ Kim Willsher (21 July 2011). "Let Belgium's Walloons join France, Front National leader suggests". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  235. ^ "Marine Le Pen suggests half of Belgium should become part of France". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  236. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's statement about the 2011 Norway attacks". Front National. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011. [dead link]
  237. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen in Austria". Front National. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2012. 
  238. ^ (French) "After the Arab spring, the democratic winter ?". Front National. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011. [dead link]
  239. ^ (French) "Libya : the National Front's reservations are confirmed". Front National. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2011. [dead link]
  240. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen expresses herself about Libya". Front National. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2011. [dead link]
  241. ^ (French) "Dispatch of military advisers to Libya : Nicolas Sarkozy sinks France into this new Afghanistan !". Front National. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011. [dead link]
  242. ^ (French) "Death of a terrorist". Front National. 2 May 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011. [dead link]
  243. ^ "Contre la corruption, un nouveau partenariat pour l’Afrique" [Against corruption, a new partnership for Africa]. Frontnational.com (in French). Front National. 12 September 2011. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  244. ^ a b (French) Amadou Diouf (January–February 2011). "Ivorian crisis: exclusive interview with Marine Le Pen (page 6)". Première Ligne (Nations Presse Info). Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  245. ^ a b (French) Amadou Diouf (January–February 2011). "Ivorian crisis: exclusive interview with Marine Le Pen (page 7)". Première Ligne (Nations Presse Info). Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  246. ^ a b (French) "Marine Le Pen's questions to the European Commission". Front National. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2011. [dead link]
  247. ^ "Subject : EU sanctions against Côte d'Ivoire (parliamentary questions)". European Parliament. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  248. ^ "Kagame en France : un double scandale !" [Kagame in France: a double scandal!]. Frontnational.com (in French). Front National. 12 September 2011. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  249. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's candidacy validated by the FN". Le Figaro. AFP. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011. 
  250. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen: presentation of her presidential campaign team". Front National. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  251. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's speech : presentation of her presidential project". Front National. 19 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  252. ^ "French far-right leader Le Pen unveils presidential programme". Monsters and Critics. 19 November 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2012. 
  253. ^ Thibault Leroux (19 November 2011). "Marine Le Pen, France Far-Right Presidential Candidate, Advocates Euro Exit". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 February 2012. 
  254. ^ (French) "Between "good" and "bad" expenditures, Marine Le Pen assesses her project". LCI. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  255. ^ (French) "Assessment of the presidential project". Front National. 12 January 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  256. ^ (French) "Plan of debt paydown of France". Front National. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  257. ^ (French) "Presentation of the presidential project for overseas". Front National. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  258. ^ (French) "Meeting in Metz : Marine Le Pen's closing speech". Front National. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  259. ^ (French) "In Lorraine, Marine Le Pen wants to make listen the voice of "forgotten" people". La Chaîne Info (LCI, The News Channel). 11 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  260. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen's big meeting at the Zenith in Paris". Front National. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  261. ^ (French) "Le Pen wants "show them that they are wrong"". Le Figaro. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  262. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen gets (at last) her 500 endorsements". Le Point. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 
  263. ^ (French) "Endorsements – Marine Le Pen, Act II". Le Point. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 
  264. ^ (French) "2002 French presidential election: national results (first round and run-off)". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  265. ^ a b (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Gard". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  266. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Hénin-Beaumont". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  267. ^ a b c d Hugh Schofield (24 April 2012). "What next for Marine Le Pen's National Front?". BBC News. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  268. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results among the French citizens living abroad". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  269. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Orne". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  270. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Sarthe". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  271. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Picardy". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  272. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Vaucluse". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  273. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Saint Pierre and Miquelon". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  274. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Corsica". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  275. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Champagne-Ardenne". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  276. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  277. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Lorraine". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  278. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Languedoc-Roussillon". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  279. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Nord-Pas-de-Calais". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  280. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Alsace". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  281. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Franche-Comté". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  282. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Burgundy". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  283. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Upper Normandy". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  284. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Aisne". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  285. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Meuse". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  286. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Corse-du-Sud". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  287. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Pas-de-Calais". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  288. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Haute-Marne". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  289. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Aube". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  290. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Haute-Saône". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  291. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Oise". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  292. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in the Collectivity of Saint Martin". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  293. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in New Caledonia". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  294. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Saint Barthélemy". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  295. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in French Guiana". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  296. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Réunion". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  297. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Île-de-France". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  298. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Paris". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  299. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Wallis and Futuna". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  300. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Brittany". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  301. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Pays de la Loire". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  302. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Hauts-de-Seine". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  303. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Mayotte". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  304. ^ (French) "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Martinique". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  305. ^ "France election: Le Pen 'to cast blank vote' in run-off". BBC News. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  306. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: North-West France". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  307. ^ (French) "France: list of the 72 MEPs by constituency (2009–2014)". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  308. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Picardy". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  309. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Aisne". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  310. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Hénin-Beaumont". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  311. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Courcelles-lès-Lens". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  312. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Noyelles-Godault". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  313. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Nord-Pas-de-Calais". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  314. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Pas-de-Calais". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  315. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Oise". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  316. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Somme". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  317. ^ (French) "2009 European election results: Eure". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  318. ^ (French) "2004 European election results: Île-de-France". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  319. ^ (French) "1993 French legislative election results: Paris' 16th constituency". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  320. ^ (French) "2002 French legislative election results: Pas-de-Calais' 13th constituency". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  321. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen : Pas-de-Calais in her sights". Reuters (boursier.com). 6 June 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  322. ^ a b (French) "2007 French legislative election results: Pas-de-Calais' 14th constituency". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  323. ^ a b (French) "Hénin-Beaumont, Marine Le Pen's Vitrolles ?". CEVIPOF. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  324. ^ (French) "Marine Le Pen: support from two Gaullist stalwarts". Yves Daoudal's website. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  325. ^ (French) "2007 French legislative election results: Courcelles-lès-Lens". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  326. ^ (French) "2007 French legislative election results: Noyelles-Godault". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  327. ^ (French) "2007 French legislative election results: Hénin-Beaumont". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  328. ^ (French) "2002 French legislative election results: Pas-de-Calais' 14th constituency". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  329. ^ [3]
  330. ^ [4]
  331. ^ [5]
  332. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/03/us-france-lepen-idUSBREA321BV20140403
  333. ^ http://www.lexpress.fr/actualite/politique/faux-tract-de-jean-luc-melenchon-10-000-euros-d-amende-pour-marine-le-pen_1505798.html
  334. ^ http://nord-pas-de-calais.france3.fr/2014/04/03/faux-tract-de-melenchon-le-pen-condamnee-10000-euros-d-amende-452285.html
  335. ^ (French) "Nord-Pas-de-Calais: list of the FN candidates in 2010". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  336. ^ (French) "Nord-Pas-de-Calais in force: regional programme (2010–2014)". Front National. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010. [dead link]
  337. ^ a b (French) "2010 French regional elections results: Nord-Pas-de-Calais". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  338. ^ a b (French) "2010 French regional elections results: Pas-de-Calais". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  339. ^ a b (French) "2010 French regional elections results: Hénin-Beaumont". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  340. ^ a b (French) "2010 French regional elections results: Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  341. ^ a b (French) "2002 French presidential election results: Pas-de-Calais". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  342. ^ (French) "Nord-Pas-de-Calais: list of the 18 FN regional councillors (2010–2014)". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  343. ^ (French) "2010 French regional elections results: Courcelles-lès-Lens". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  344. ^ (French) "2010 French regional elections results: Vaucluse". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 20 November 2010. 
  345. ^ (French) "2002 French presidential election results: Nord-Pas-de-Calais". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  346. ^ (French) "2004 French regional elections results: Île-de-France". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  347. ^ (French) "Île-de-France: list of the 15 FN regional councillors (2004–2010)". Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  348. ^ (French) "Île-de-France: Marine Le Pen has left the presidency of the FN group". Le Point (in French). 10 February 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  349. ^ (French) "Biography of Steeve Briois". Steeve Briois' website. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  350. ^ (French) "2008 municipal election results in Hénin-Beaumont : first round and run-off". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  351. ^ (French) "Hénin-Beaumont: list of the 5 FN municipal councillors". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  352. ^ (French) "2009 Hénin-Beaumont municipal by-election results : first round and run-off". Minister of the Interior. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  353. ^ Steven Erlanger (6 July 2009). "Left Wins French Local Election With Backing of Center-Right". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2010. 
  354. ^ (French) "Accumulation of mandates : Marine Le Pen leaves the municipal council of Hénin-Beaumont". Le Parisien (AFP). 24 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011. 
  355. ^ (French) "I stay in Hénin-Beaumont !". Nations Presse Info. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011. 
  356. ^ a b "Marine Le Pen MEP_Archives". European Parliament. Retrieved 30 October 2010. 
  357. ^ "Marine Le Pen MEP". European Parliament. Retrieved 30 October 2010. 
  358. ^ Marine Le Pen donne sa vision « alternationaliste » du monde dans un livre à paraître, Abel Mestre, Caroline Monot

External links[edit]

Official
Other
Party political offices
Preceded by
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Leader of the National Front
2011–present
Incumbent