Mario Buda

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Mario Buda
Mario Buda
Born (1884-01-10)January 10, 1884
Savignano sul Rubicone, Italy
Died June 1, 1963(1963-06-01) (aged 78)
Savignano sul Rubicone, Italy
Nationality Italian
Known for Bomb Creation (Wall Street bombing)

Mario Buda (13 October 1884 - 1 June 1963) was an Italian anarchist, active in the United States from 1917 to 1920.[1] He was a Galleanist, and an Propaganda of the deed anarchist. He is best known as the perpetrator of the Wall Street Bombing, which killed 30 people immediately, and another 8 died later of wounds sustained in the blast. There were 143 seriously injured, and the total number of injured was in the hundreds.[2]

Early life and career[edit]

Buda was born in the city of Savignano sul Rubicone, a region that at the time was a center of anarchism and abroad and is very possible that he became an anarchist in the beginning of his teenage years. He grew restless and in his fifteen years was arrested for robbery and then later, underwent a new conviction for noise pollution in the night.[3] Discharged, he begins work as an apprentice shoemaker, but finding no economic stability in 1907 he decided to emigrate to the United States. Here performs ans countless jobs like gardener, worker in a company telephone end in a hat factory,a mason end others. As in America lives long periods of terrible economic hardship , in 1911 decides to return to Italy. Two years later he went back to the United States , settling in Boston (Massachusetts ) , where he worked as a laborer in the footwear industry.[4]

Life in the United States, and Sacco and Vanzetti meeting[edit]

Buda, meats Nicola Sacco during the strike of 1913 in Hopedale, and three years later, meats Bartolomeo Vanzetti in Plymouth.[5] He attended the anarchist group of the two Italian-Americans and Luigi Galleani,and devotes his free time to the organization of tree Italian anarchist schools of thought, where Italian immigrants are taught the rudiments of anarchism.[6] In 1916 he was arrested in Boston, for taking part in a demonstration against the US intervention in the World War I. During the proceedings against him, he refuses to take the Oath on the bible, and is sentenced to five months in prison. To escape the call of the army after the US entry into the war , in 1917 went with Sacco and Vanzetti and other anarchists in Monterrey (Mexico),where he had formed a vibrant community of Italian anarchists. At that time, Buda makes a living as a laborer in a laundry room sharing his salary together with the other members of the community.[7]

Terrorist activities[edit]

In 1917 In 1917 is meats with ten other anarchists (including his friend Carlo Valdinoci) for an attack to the police station in Milwaukee (24 November) that had caused the death of 10 policemen and 1 civilian.[8] The action was in retaliation against the killing of two anarchist during the anti-military rally held in Milwaukee September 9, 1917.[9] The authorities, however, will never be able to prove the guilt of the accused, because many of them were in prison at time of the bombing. As a response to the repression anarchist, across the country are followed the bombings (June 2, 1919 bombs explode in Paterson, New Jersey, Boston, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Pittsburgh and Washington), although most will not create serious consequences.[10] In this climate, October 16, 1918 was promulgated the New Immigration Act, by which they could be expelled foreigners involved or simply accused of subversive activities. Will be many anarchists repatriated to their country of origin because of this law.[11]

Wall Street bombing[edit]

In September 11, 1920 the anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti, Buda's friends and companions, are charged for robbery in South Braintree, and the climate,already overheated by the promulgation of anti-anarchist laws and the deportation of Luigi Galleani, literally gets fired. Five days later, on September 16, a man travels Wall Street with a capt pulled by a horse, and stops between the headquarters of the bank ''Morgan and Stanley'' and the Stock exchange. At noon the cart, loaded with explosives, exploded through a remote control. The bank and other buildings are literally destroyed. 38 people died and another two hundred are injured. The US authorities respond promptly. The investigation is headed by William J. Flynn, director between 1919 and 1921 of the of Bureau investigation, the forerunner of the FBI. About Flynn, Attorney General Palmer said, "Flynn is a hunter of anarchists ... the greatest expert in anarchist circles of the United States". Is immediately followed the track anarchist and particularly one that leads to the followers of Luigi's Galleani related Subversive Chronicle newspaper. Flynn said that the attack was a response to the arrest of Sacco and Vanzetti. In particular attentions are turning right on Mario Buda, based on the testimony of a blacksmith who had rented the horse then used to pull the wagon explosive. The Buda however manage to lose track, runs away from New York and embarks towards Italy.[12]

The September 16 Wall Street bomb killed 38 people, the city's worst disaster since the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire.

Activity in Italy[edit]

Back in Italy, after some time, Buda is arrested in Savignano, with charges against him of having participated in the clashes between fascists and Anti-fascists in 28 February 1921, during which he had killed a police sergeant. Accused along with 15 other people, will be acquitted for lack of evidence. On 10 August 1922, during the search of his home, police was found numerous letters, received by American anarchists with whom he had kept in touch, including a letter of Nicola Sacco. Between 1925 and 1927 makes the commute to Rimini , where he found work as a shoemaker . Buda makes no secret of his friendship with Sacco and Vanzetti who in the meantime had been sentenced to death . Three days before the execution of the sentence of Sacco and Vanzetti , Buda was arrested and later sentenced to five years of confinement to be served in the island of Lipari, where he meets again Luigi Galleani and meat Umberto Tommasini.[13] In 1932 he moved to Ponza and a little later he set free. After that he moved for two months in Switzerland, returning after in his home in Savignano. The Communist newspaper of France, claims that Mario Buda is a espionage of Mussolini secret police,and that hi comes to France to betray other anarchists in the hands of authorities, but this think, is never proofed because after his returning in Savignano, he never moved from it, where he continued to work on the production and sale of shoes.

Death[edit]

In 1955, Mario Buda allegedly admitted to his nephew that he had built and detonated the Wall Street bomb. He had even remained at the scene after the explosion, but was neither interviewed nor arrested. He fled to his native Italy, where he remained under the pseudonym Mike Boda until his death. He was never brought to trial for his admitted crimes, which also included the detonation of a bomb in Milwaukee which killed 9 police officers in 1917. The Wall Street bombing case was never officially closed.[14]

References[edit]