Marion Butler

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Marion Butler
Marion Butler.jpg
United States Senator
from North Carolina
In office
March 4, 1895 – March 4, 1901
Preceded by Matt W. Ransom
Succeeded by Furnifold M. Simmons
Personal details
Born (1863-05-20)May 20, 1863
Sampson County, North Carolina
Died June 3, 1938(1938-06-03) (aged 75)
Takoma Park, Maryland
Nationality American
Political party Populist (previously a Democrat, later a Republican)
Spouse(s) Florence Faison Butler
Alma mater University of North Carolina
Profession Politician, Farmer, Lawyer, Editor, Publisher

Marion Butler (May 20, 1863 – June 3, 1938) was a Populist U.S. senator from the state of North Carolina between 1895 and 1901 and brother of George Edwin Butler.

Early life[edit]

Butler was born in rural Sampson County, North Carolina during the American Civil War. He was a graduate of the University of North Carolina, where he was a member of the Philanthropic Literary Society. His goal of practicing law was not immediately realized due to his father's death, which forced Butler to take responsibility for managing the family farm in lieu of further education.

Farmers' Alliance and Populism[edit]

As the son of yeoman farmers, Butler grew up in a strong agrarian tradition, and by the age of 25 was elected President of the local Farmers' Alliance.[1]

Still a Democrat at this time, Butler was elected to the North Carolina Senate as an "Alliance Democrat" in 1890. In 1891, at age 28, he was elected President of the State Farmers' Alliance. Due to a general distaste for Democratic nominee Grover Cleveland, and the North Carolina Democratic Party's ruling that no voter could vote on a "split ticket", Butler led a mass exodus of Alliance members and followers to the Populist, or "People's Party" in 1892.[2]

During his tenure with the Populists, Butler was an advocate of "Fusion", meaning outright cooperation with the North Carolina (and national) Republican Party as a means to achieve some of the more important goals of his party. While some Populists disliked what they saw as a compromise made on some of their core beliefs, Butler saw short-term success, as the Populists and Republicans swept North Carolina Elected offices in the Election of 1894.

Senate career[edit]

In 1894, Butler was elected as United States Senator from North Carolina, serving alongside Senator Jeter C. Pritchard.[2] As a United States Senator, Butler continued to advocate for workable reforms from the Populist Party Platform, including the regulation or outright ownership by the United States Government of railroads and telegraphs, as well as for a silver-based currency system.[3]

In 1896, Butler strongly supported William Jennings Bryan, a Democrat, in his quest for the Presidency, while ironically continuing to encourage cooperation between Populists and Republicans in North Carolina. After Bryan's loss, Butler continued to work for reform on the national stage which would benefit farmers, but this work would soon be cut short by the "white supremacy" campaigns of the Democratic Party in North Carolina. Butler lost his bid for re-election in 1900, and would later formally leave the Populist Party in 1904, officially becoming a Republican.[4]

Life After the Senate[edit]

During his time as Senator, Butler received his law degree from the University of North Carolina, and after his electoral defeat in 1904, practiced law in Washington, D.C.[1][3]

The former Senator died in Takoma Park, Maryland in 1938, and was buried at Saint Paul's Episcopal Church in Clinton, North Carolina.[4] A portrait of Marion Butler during his time in the U.S. Senate is included in the collection of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies in their chambers on the campus of the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Legacy[edit]

Butler's legacy is surrounded by considerable debate among scholars of the era. Progressive historians, who tend to look favorably on the goals of the Populist Movement in general have often discarded Butler's fusionism, silver-backed currency and emphasis on white supremacy as being "un-Populist".[5] In refuting this analysis, some historians point to Butler's immense popularity among Populist adherents, and to the fact that Butler held at different times the Presidency of the National Farmers' Alliance and was Chairman of the Populist Party itself.[6]

Regardless of the classification of Butler's beliefs and actions, it is undisputed that his actions and rhetoric were extremely influential in the North Carolina and national Populist movement, especially after the death of Leonidas L. Polk, the movement's elder statesman, in 1892.

References[edit]

  1. William S. Powell, Dictionary of North Carolina Biography (1979)
  2. James L. Hunt, Marion Butler and American Populism (2003)
  3. James M. Beeby, Revolt of the Tar Heels: The North Carolina Populist Movement, 1890-1901 (2008)

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Durden, Robert F. "Marion Butler, 1863-1938". docsouth.unc.edu. Retrieved 2010-01-02. 
  2. ^ a b James L. Hunt, Marion Butler and American Populism (2003)
  3. ^ a b Powell, supra.
  4. ^ a b Hunt, supra.
  5. ^ Hunt, supra pp. 2-4
  6. ^ Hunt, supra pp. 6-7

External links[edit]

United States Senate
Preceded by
Matt W. Ransom
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from North Carolina
March 4, 1895 – March 4, 1901
Served alongside: Jeter C. Pritchard
Succeeded by
Furnifold M. Simmons
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Lee Mantle
Most Senior Living U.S. Senator
(Sitting or Former)

November 18, 1934 – June 3, 1938
Succeeded by
Henry Heitfeld