12 October 1975 |
Los Angeles, California, United States
|Height||5 ft 10 in (178 cm)|
|Weight||68 kg (150 lb; 10 st 10 lb)|
|Sport||Track and field|
|Event(s)||100 meters, 200 meters, long jump|
Marion Lois Jones (born October 12, 1975), also known as Marion Jones-Thompson, is an American former world champion track and field athlete, a former professional basketball player for Tulsa Shock in the WNBA. She won 3 gold medals at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia, but was later stripped of the titles after admitting to steroid use.
At the time of her admission and subsequent guilty plea, Marion Jones was one of the most famous athletes to be linked to the BALCO scandal. The case against BALCO covered more than 20 top level athletes including Jones' ex-husband shot putter C.J. Hunter and 100m sprinter Tim Montgomery, the father of Jones' first child.
- 1 Personal life
- 2 Sports career
- 3 Top Speed film
- 4 Use of illicit performance enhancing drugs
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Jones was born to African-American George Jones and his Belizean wife, Marion, in Los Angeles, California. She holds dual citizenship with the United States and Belize (her mother's home country). Her parents split when she was very young, and Jones' mother remarried a retired postal worker, Ira Toler, three years later. Toler became a stay-at-home dad to Jones and her older half-brother, Albert Kelly, until his sudden death in 1987. Jones turned to sports (running, pickup basketball games, and anything else her brother Albert was doing athletically) as an outlet for her grief, and by the age of 15 she was routinely dominating California high school athletics both on the tracks and the basketball courts.
Jones is a 1997 graduate of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While there, she met and began dating one of the track coaches, shot putter C.J. Hunter. Hunter voluntarily resigned his position at UNC to comply with the requirements of university rules prohibiting coach/athlete dating. Jones and Hunter were married October 3, 1998, and trained for the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics.
In the run-up to the 2000 Olympics, all eyes were on Marion Jones, who had announced at a press conference during her pre-Olympic book-signing tour that she intended to win gold medals in all five of her competition events at Sydney. Lost in the hoopla and the publicity was a low-key announcement that Jones' husband C.J. Hunter had quietly withdrawn from the Shot Put competition due to a knee injury, though he was allowed to keep his coaching credentials and attend the games to support his wife. However, just hours after Marion Jones won her first of the planned five golds, the IOC announced that Hunter had failed no fewer than four pre-Olympic drug tests, testing positive each time for the banned anabolic steroid nandrolone. Hunter was immediately suspended from taking any role at the Sydney games, and he was ordered to surrender his on-field coaching credentials. At a press conference where Hunter broke down in tears as a subdued Marion Jones sat by his side, Hunter denied taking any performance enhancing drugs at all, much less the easily detected nandrolone (which showed up in all four tests in amounts over 1000 times normal levels); Victor Conte of BALCO, who was regularly supplying "nutritional supplements" to Graham's athletes, blamed the test results on "an iron supplement" that contained nandrolone precursors and tied previous positive nandrolone tests from Jamaican sprinter Merlene Ottey and British sprinter Linford Christie to the same supplement. As late as 2004, Hunter was still denying the charges and was attempting to gain access to the results to see if they could be analyzed further. Jones would later write in her autobiography, Marion Jones: Life in the Fast Lane, that Hunter's positive drug tests hurt their marriage and her image as a drug-free athlete. The couple divorced in 2002.
On June 28, 2003, Jones gave birth to a son (Tim Montgomery Jr.) with then-boyfriend Tim Montgomery, a world class sprinter himself. Because of her pregnancy, Jones missed the 2003 World Championships but spent a year preparing for the 2004 Olympics. Montgomery, who did not qualify for the 2004 Olympic Track and Field team due to poor performance, was charged by USADA, as part of the investigation into the BALCO doping scandal, with receiving and using banned performance enhancing drugs and sought a four-year suspension for Montgomery. Montgomery fought the ban but lost the appeal on December 13, 2005, receiving a two-year ban from track and field competition; the Court for Arbitration of Sport (CAS) also stripped Montgomery of all race results, records, medals, etc., from March 31, 2001 onward. Montgomery later announced his retirement. The investigation into Montgomery's illegal substance use once more called into question Marion Jones's own protests about not using steroids and never having been tested positive for steroids, especially in light of former trainer Trevor Graham's increasingly visible role in the BALCO case.
On February 24, 2007, Marion Jones married Barbadian sprinter and 2000 Olympic medalist (bronze, 100 m sprint) Obadele Thompson. Their first child together was born in July 2007. She gave birth to daughter Eva-Marie on June 28, 2009.
Track and field
In high school, Jones won the CIF California State Meet in the 100 m sprint four years in a row, representing Rio Mesa the first two years and Thousand Oaks high schools the last two. She was successfully defended by attorney Johnnie Cochran on charges of doping during her high school track career. She was selected the Gatorade Player of the Year for track and field three years in a row, once at Rio Mesa and twice at Thousand Oaks. Angela Burnham preceded her with the award at Rio Mesa, Kim Mortensen followed her with the award at Thousand Oaks. Those schools joined Jesuit High School (Sacramento) and Long Beach Polytechnic High School in having two athletes win the award.
She was invited to participate in the 1992 Olympic trials, and, after her showing in the 200 meters finals, would have made the team as an alternate in the 4×100 meters relay, but she declined the invitation. After winning further statewide sprint titles, she accepted a full scholarship to the University of North Carolina in basketball, where she helped the team win the NCAA championship in her freshman year. Jones "red shirted" her 1996 basketball season to concentrate on track. After Jones lost her spot on the 1996 Olympic team because of an injury.
She excelled at her first major international competition, winning the 100 m sprint at the 1997 World Championships in Athens, while finishing 10th in the long jump. At the 1999 World Championships, Jones attempted to win four titles, but injured herself in the 200 m after a gold in the 100 m and a long jump bronze.
At the Sydney Olympics Jones finished with three gold medals (100 metre sprint, 200 metre sprint and 4x400 relay) and two bronze medals (long jump and 4x100 relay). However, she was later stripped of these medals after admitting that she had used performance-enhancing drugs. Her ex-husband Hunter, an Olympic shot-putter and confessed steroid user, testified under oath that he had seen her inject drugs into her stomach in the Olympic Village in Sydney, which implicated baseball player Barry Bonds, sprinters Tim Montgomery, Chryste Gaines, Kelli White, and others, many of whom admitted to using illegal drugs while competing. Jones vehemently denied using performance-enhancing drugs until her confession in 2007.
A dominant force in women's sprinting, Jones was upset in the 100 m sprint at the 2001 World Championships, as Ukrainian Zhanna Pintusevich-Block beat her for her first loss in the event in six years; Pintusevich-Block was one of the names revealed by Victor Conte during the BALCO scandals. Jones, however, did claim the gold in both the 200 m and 4x100 m relay.
On her 2004 Olympics experience, Jones said "It's extremely disappointing, words can't put it into perspective." She came in fifth in the Long Jump and competed in the women's 4x100 m relay where they swept past the competition in the preliminaries only to miss a baton pass in the final race. Jones promised that her latest defeat would not be the end of her Olympic efforts, and reasserted in May 2005 that winning a gold medal at the 2008 Olympics remained her "ultimate goal."
May 2006 saw Jones run 11.06 at altitude but into a headwind in her season debut and beat Veronica Campbell and Lauryn Williams in subsequent 100m events. By July 8, 2006, Jones appeared to be in top form; she won the 100 m sprint at Gaz de France with a time of 10.93 seconds. It was her fastest time in almost four years. Three days later, Jones once more improved on her seasonal best time at the Rome IIAF Golden League (10.91 seconds), but lost to Jamaica's Sherone Simpson, who clocked 10.87.
|September 12, 1998||100 m||Johannesburg, South Africa||10.65A|
|August 22, 1999||100 m||Seville, Spain||10.70|
|September 11, 1998||200 m||Johannesburg, South Africa||21.62A|
|August 13, 1997||200 m||Zürich, Switzerland||21.76|
|April 22, 2001||300 m||Walnut, California||35.68|
|April 16, 2000||400 m||Walnut, California||49.59|
|May 31, 1998||Long Jump||Eugene, Oregon||7.31 (23' 11¾")|
|1992||IAAF World Junior Championships||Seoul, South Korea||5th||100 m|
|1997||IAAF World Championships||Athens, Greece||1st||100 m||10.83|
|1998||IAAF World Cup||Johannesburg, South Africa||1st||100 m||10.65A|
|2nd||Long Jump||7.00A (22' 11¾")|
|1999||IAAF World Championships||Sevilla, Spain||1st||100 m||10.70|
|3rd||Long Jump||6.83 (22 ft 5 in)|
|2000||2000 Summer Olympics||Sydney, Australia||dq||100 m||10.75|
|dq||Long Jump||6.92 (22' 8½")|
|2001||IAAF World Championships||Edmonton, Canada||dq||100 m||10.85|
|2002||IAAF World Cup||Madrid, Spain||dq||100 m||10.90|
- The IOC and IAAF stripped Jones of all medals, points and results received after September 1, 2000, after Jones admitted to using steroids prior to the 2000 Summer Olympics.
October 12, 1975 |
Los Angeles, California
|Listed height||5 ft 10 in (1.78 m)|
|Listed weight||150 lb (68 kg)|
|High school||Thousand Oaks
(Thousand Oaks, California)
|College||North Carolina (1993–1997)|
|WNBA draft||2003 / Round: 3 / Pick: 33rd overall|
|Selected by the Phoenix Mercury|
In November 2009, it was reported that Jones was working out for the San Antonio Silver Stars of the WNBA. She had previously played basketball while in college at the University of North Carolina, playing on the team that won a national championship in 1994. Her number 20 jersey had been honored by the school and hangs in Carmichael Auditorium. She had previously been selected in the 3rd round of the 2003 WNBA Draft by the Phoenix Mercury. On March 10, 2010, the Tulsa Shock announced that Jones had signed to play with the team, making the professional minimum (about $35,000) in her first season. Jones made her debut on May 15 when the Tulsa Shock played their inaugural game at the BOK Center against the Minnesota Lynx. In 47 WNBA contests, Jones averaged 2.6 points and 1.3 rebounds per game.
Jones was waived by the Shock on July 21, 2011.
Top Speed film
Marion Jones was showcased in the 2003 film Top Speed. Directed by Greg MacGillivray and shot in IMAX format, it covers details from races to any mistakes she has made within her performances, Marion is profiled amongst other speed specialists including racing driver Lucas Luhr, mountain biker Marla Streb, and Stephen Murkett, one of the designers of the Porsche Cayenne.
Use of illicit performance enhancing drugs
Throughout her entire athletic career—even in high school—Marion Jones had been accused, either outright or by implication, of taking performance enhancing drugs, a common allegation surrounding athletes involved in the sports under the "Track and Field" umbrella. Until 2007, Jones routinely denied—in almost every way possible and in almost any venue where the question arose—ever being involved with performance enhancers in any way, shape, or form. One of Jones's frequent statements in her own defense was that she had never tested positive for performance enhancing substances; in her autobiography, she blamed the 2002 breakup of her marriage to C.J. Hunter in part on the fact that Hunter had tested positive for steroids four times before the 2000 Olympics, tainting her own drug-free image. However, the rumors and accusations that started when Jones missed a random drug test in high school in the early 1990s (Jones claimed she never received the letter notifying her of the required test; attorney Johnnie Cochran successfully got the four-year ban from track and field competition, the penalty for missing a random drug test, overturned) continued to follow her through two Olympiads and several championship meets. Soon, a pattern of Jones choosing to train with both coaches and athletes who were also being dogged by rumors and accusations of performance enhancement drugs began to emerge.
The BALCO investigation
On December 3, 2004, Victor Conte, the founder of BALCO, appeared in an interview with Martin Bashir on ABC's 20/20. In the interview, Conte told a national audience that he had personally given Jones five different illegal performance enhancing drugs before, during and after the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. In the course of investigative research, San Francisco based reporters Lance Williams and Mark Fainaru-Wada reported Jones had received banned drugs from BALCO, citing documentary evidence and testimony from Jones's ex-husband C.J. Hunter, who claims to have seen Jones inject herself in the stomach with the steroids.
According to Hunter's 2004 testimony before a federal grand jury, Jones' use of banned drugs began well before Sydney. Hunter told the investigators that Jones first obtained EPO (Erythropoietin) from Graham, who Hunter said had a Mexican connection for the drug. Later, Hunter said, Graham met Conte, who began providing the coach with BALCO "nutritional supplements", which were actually an experimental class of "designer" steroids said to be undetectable by any drug screening procedures available at the time. Graham then distributed the performance enhancers to Jones and other Sprint Capitol athletes. Still later, Hunter told federal agents, Jones began receiving drugs directly from Conte.
Jones had never failed a drug test using the then-existing testing procedures, and insufficient evidence was found to bring charges regarding other untested performance enhancing drugs.
2006 EPO tests
The Washington Post, citing unidentified sources with knowledge of drug results from the USA Track and Field Championships in Indianapolis, IN, reported that on June 23, 2006, an "A" sample of Marion Jones' urine tested positive for Erythropoietin (EPO), a banned performance-enhancer. Jones withdrew from the Weltklasse Golden League meet in Switzerland, citing "personal reasons", and once more denied using performance-enhancing drugs. She retained lawyer Howard Jacobs, who has represented many athletes in doping cases, including Tim Montgomery and cyclist Floyd Landis. On September 6, 2006, Jones' lawyers announced that her "B" sample had tested negative, which cleared her from the doping allegations.
Admission of lying during BALCO investigation
On October 5, 2007, Jones admitted to lying to federal agents under oath about her use of steroids prior to the 2000 Summer Olympics and pleaded guilty at the US District Court for the Southern District of New York (in White Plains). She confessed to Judge Kenneth Karas that she had made false statements regarding the BALCO case and a check-fraud case. She was released on her own recognizance but was required to surrender both her US and Belizean passports, pending sentencing in January. Although a maximum sentence of five years could be imposed, the prosecution recommended no more than six months as part of Jones' plea bargain.
After her admission, Jones held a press conference, where she finally publicly admitted taking steroids before the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics and acknowledged that she had, in fact, lied when she previously denied steroid use in statements to the press, to various sports agencies, and to two grand juries. One was impaneled to investigate the Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative (BALCO) "designer steroid" ring, and the other was impaneled to investigate a check fraud ring involving many of the same parties from the BALCO case. As a result of these admissions, Jones accepted a two-year suspension from track and field competition issued by the United States Anti-Doping Agency, and announced her retirement from track and field on October 5, 2007. She broke down in tears during the press conference as she tearfully apologized, saying "...with a great amount of shame...I stand before you and tell you that I have betrayed your trust...and you have the right to be angry with me... I have let my country down and I have let myself down."
The US Anti-Doping Agency stated that their sanction "also requires disqualification of all her competitive results obtained after September 1, 2000, and forfeiture of all medals, results, points and prizes". On October 5, 2007, Jones formally pled guilty to lying to federal agents in the BALCO steroid investigation in the US District Court. On January 11, 2008, Jones was sentenced to 6 months in jail. She began her sentence on March 7, 2008, and was released on September 5, 2008.
In the BALCO case, she had denied to federal agents her use of the steroid Tetrahydrogestrinone, known as "The Clear", or "THG", from 1999, but claimed she was given the impression she was taking a flaxseed oil supplement for two years while coach Trevor Graham supplied her with the substance. In a published letter, Jones said she had used steroids until she stopped training with Graham at the end of 2002. She said she lied when federal agents questioned her in 2003 because she panicked when they presented her with a sample of "The Clear".
USOC demands return of Olympic medals
Peter Ueberroth, Chairman of the US Olympic Committee, reacted to the news of Jones' confession and guilty plea on perjury charges by issuing a statement calling on Jones to "immediately step forward and return the Olympic medals she won while competing in violation of the rules". Ueberroth added that her admission "is long overdue and underscores the shame and dishonor that are inherent with cheating." IAAF president Lamine Diack said in a statement that, "Marion Jones will be remembered as one of the biggest frauds in sporting history."
On October 8, 2007, a source confirmed that Marion Jones surrendered her five medals from the 2000 Summer Olympics. On the same day, Peter Ueberroth said that all the relay medals should be returned, and on April 10, 2008, the IOC voted to strip Jones' relay teammates of their medals, as well, though this decision would successfully be appealed by seven of Jones' teammates and overturned in 2010. Jones was ordered by the US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) to forfeit all awards and medals received after September 1, 2000.
Formal IOC disqualification
On December 12, 2007, the International Olympic Committee formally stripped Jones of all five Olympic medals dating back to September 2000, and banned her from attending the 2008 Summer Olympics in any capacity. The IOC action also officially disqualified Jones from her fifth-place finish in the Long Jump at the 2004 Summer Olympics.
Seven years after winning a women's record five Olympic track and field medals and receiving multi-million dollar endorsement deals, Marion Jones was broke. According to the Associated Press, Jones is heavily in debt and fighting off court judgments, according to court records reviewed by the Los Angeles Times. In 2006, a bank foreclosed on her $2.5-million mansion near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, where Michael Jordan was a neighbor. She was also forced to sell two other properties, including her mother's house, to raise money. In her prime, Jones was one of track's first female sports millionaires, typically earning between $70,000 and $80,000 a race, plus at least another $1 million from race bonuses and endorsement deals.
Alleged involvement in check fraud
In July 2006, Jones was linked to a check-counterfeiting scheme that led to criminal charges against her coach and ex-boyfriend Montgomery. Documents showed that a $25,000 check made out to Jones was deposited in her bank account as part of the alleged multimillion-dollar scheme. Prosecutors allege that funds were sent to Jones' track coach, Steve Riddick, in Virginia, then funneled back to New York through a network of "friends, relatives and associates." Riddick was arrested in February on money-laundering charges. According to the indictment and subsequent documents filed with the court, the link to Jones was made through one of Riddick's business partners, Nathaniel Alexander.
On October 5, 2007, Jones pled guilty to making false statements to IRS Special Agent Jeff Novitzky leading the ongoing BALCO investigation in California. Jones claimed she had never taken performance-enhancing drugs. "That was a lie, your honor," she said from the defense table. The federal government, through grand juries, had been investigating steroid abuse since 2003.
Jones also pled guilty to making false statements about her knowledge of a check-cashing scheme to New York US Department of Homeland Security Special Agent Erik Rosenblatt, who has been leading a broad financial investigation that has already convicted the father of Jones's child, former world record holder and "World's Fastest Man" Tim Montgomery, sports agent Charles Wells, and her coach, 1976 Olympic gold medalist Steve Riddick.
On January 11, 2008, Marion Jones was sentenced to six months in jail resulting from her involvement in the check fraud case and her use of performance-enhancing drugs. She was ordered to surrender on March 11 to begin her jail term. Jones reported to the Federal Medical Center, Carswell prison facility in Fort Worth on March 7 and was assigned Federal Bureau of Prisons register no. 84868-054. She was released from prison on September 5.
In legal filings prior to sentencing, lawyers for the defense requested US District Judge Kenneth Karas limit her penalty to probation and community service. Part of their argument was that Ms. Jones had been punished enough by apologizing publicly, retiring from track and field, and relinquishing her five Olympic medals. Lawyers for the prosecution had suggested any sentence between probation and six months would be fair (with the maximum penalty being five years in prison). Judge Karas sought advice as to whether he could go beyond the six-month sentence suggested by the prosecution.
During the sentencing hearing, Judge Karas admonished Jones in the courtroom, stating that she knew what she was doing and would be punished accordingly. "The offences here are serious. They each involve lies made three years apart," said Judge Karas, also adding that Jones' actions were "not a one-off mistake... but a repetition in an attempt to break the law."
- Teammate Kelli White was later found to have used performance-enhancing drugs and the IAAF disqualified the team.
- Associated Press (December 12, 2007). "IOC strips Jones of all 5 Olympic medals". MSNBC.com.
- "Jones Returns 2000 Olympic Medals". Channel4.com. Retrieved October 8, 2007.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Zinser, Lynn (October 5, 2007). "Jones Pleads Guilty to Lying About Drugs". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
- Rowen, Beth; Ross, Shmuel; Olson, Liz (2007). "Marion Jones: Fastest Woman on Earth". InfoPlease Database. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- Hersh, Philip (September 24, 2000). "Jones Relays Thoughts on Chance for 5 Golds". Chicago Tribune. p. 15.
- "IOC chief says Hunter failed four drug tests". ESPN.com. Associated Press. 2000-09-25. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- Webby, Sean (August 28, 2004). "Hunter: 'It's been going on for a long, long time'". Black Athlete Sports Network. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
- Cherry, Gene (March 7, 2007). "Sprinters Jones and Thompson married, says minister". Reuters.
- "CNN Newsroom: Jones Doping Case; Tax Standoff Ends; Myanmar Crackdown". CNN Transcripts. October 5, 2007.
- Michaelis, Vicki (May 17, 2010). "Marion Jones hits ground running, starts fresh in WNBA". USA Today.
- Patrick, Dick (October 5, 2007). "Until now, Jones had been steadfast in doping denials". USA Today.
- Reuters (August 28, 2004). "Friday: Bad day for U.S.; new dawn for China". Sports Illustrated: 2004 Olympic Games (sportsillustrated.com).
- Armour, Nancy (October 8, 2007). "Marion Jones returns her five Olympic medals, accepts 2-year ban". pantagraph.com. Associated Press.
- Blackistone, Kevin (November 30, 2009). "Marion Jones Attempting Comeback as Pro Basketball Player".
- Juozapavicius, Justin (March 10, 2010). "Marion Jones signs with WNBA's Shock". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- Shipley, Amy (May 16, 2010). "Marion Jones returns to sport with the WNBA's Tulsa Shock". The Washington Post. p. D08.
- "Ex-Olympic sprinter Marion Jones cut by Shock". CNN. July 21, 2011.
- Fainaru-Wada, M.; Williams, L. (2006). Game of Shadows. Gotham Books. pp. 234–235.
- Williams, Lance (August 19, 2006). "Sprinter Jones failed drug test". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Zinser, Lynn; Schmidt, Michael S. (October 6, 2007). "Jones Admits to Doping and Enters Guilty Plea". New York Times. p. D1.
- "Disgraced sprinter Jones reports to jail". AFP. March 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
- Associated Press (September 5, 2008). "Marion Jones released from Texas federal prison". ESPN.com.
- Shipley, Amy (October 5, 2007). "Marion Jones Admits to Steroid Use". The Washington Post.
- "IAAF decries Jones' tainted legacy". Associated Press. October 8, 2007.
- "Jones's Teammate Braces for Worst". New York Times. Associated Press. October 13, 2007.
- Associated Press (April 10, 2008). "IOC votes to strip Jones' teammates of medals from 2000 Games". ESPN.com.
- Cohen, Rachel; Graham, Pat; Weber, Paul (2010-07-16). "US relay runners win Olympic medals appeal". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-07.
- Oprah Interviews Marion Jones on YouTube
- "Marion Jones tells Oprah Winfrey: I'd have won without the drugs". The Daily Telegraph. October 30, 2008.
- "Former Olympian, track millionaire Jones now broke". CBS Sports.
- "Bank records link Marion Jones to money scam". NBC Sports. Associated Press. July 16, 2006.
- "Six-month jail sentence for Jones". BBC News. January 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-11.
- "Biography: Marion Jones". Focus on Athletes. International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). Retrieved 2008-01-13.
- "Marion Jones". Athlete Bios. USA Track and Field (USATF). April 30, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-21. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
- "Marion Jones". United States Olympic Committee (USOC). Archived from the original on 2007-12-13. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marion Jones.|
- Marion Jones at WNBA.com
- Marion Jones profile at IAAF
- Marion Jones at the Internet Movie Database
- New York Times Topic: People: Marion Jones
- 10-05-2007 Federal Plea Bargain Agreement
- 12-28-2007 Marion Jones' Legal Filing Requesting Parole
- Complete text, audio, video of Marion Jones-Thompson apology speech
- California State Records before 2000
- "Profiles in Speed: Marion Jones". Top Speed. 2003. Retrieved 2008-01-13.