|Sex and the law|
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|Sexuality · Criminal justice · Law|
It is a form of partner rape, of domestic violence, and of sexual abuse. It can be equally, if not more, emotionally and physically damaging than rape by a stranger. Once widely condoned or ignored by law, spousal rape is now repudiated by international conventions and increasingly criminalized. Still, in many countries, spousal rape either remains legal, or is illegal but widely tolerated and accepted as a spouse's prerogative.
In 2006, it was estimated that marital rape could be prosecuted in at least 104 countries (in four of these countries, marital rape could be prosecuted only when the spouses were judicially separated), and since 2006 several other countries have outlawed spousal rape. In many countries it is not clear if marital rape may or may not be prosecuted under ordinary rape laws. Several countries in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia made spousal rape illegal before 1970, but other countries in Western Europe and the English-speaking Western World outlawed it much later, mostly in the 1980s and 1990s. Most developing countries outlawed it in the 1990s and 2000s.
Research literature, particularly in the areas of incidence and effects, may extend the use of the term spousal/marital rape to include divorced/legally separated ex-spouses or unmarried cohabiting partners. Current state laws, however, often treat rape by ex-spouses or intimate partners as different than marital rape, and therefore, legally equivalent to rape by a stranger.
Historical context 
The concept of a marital exemption, that is, a legal framework, or, perhaps even more importantly, a social view, stating that a husband cannot be charged with the rape of his wife, must be understood in the historical context of marriage, rape, and of women's position in society. Through much of the history, and still in some countries today, women were considered legal minors belonging at first to their fathers, and then to their husbands. As such, women had very few rights of their own, and the relationship between husband and wife, in terms of authority and balance of power, was mirroring that between father and daughter. The U.S. and English law subscribed until the 20th century to the system of coverture, that is, a legal doctrine under which, upon marriage, a woman's legal rights were subsumed by those of her husband. A situation where married women had very little autonomy persisted even in many Western countries until very recently: for instance, in France, married women obtained the right to work without their husband's permission only in 1965, and in West Germany women obtained this right only in 1977 (by comparison women in East Germany had many more rights). In Spain, during Franco's era, a married woman needed her husband's consent, referred to as the permiso marital, for almost all economic activities, including employment, ownership of property, and even traveling away from home; the permiso marital was abolished in 1975. Women's participation in public life was also very restricted even in industrialized countries: in Switzerland for instance, women gained the right to vote in federal elections only in 1971, and the Swiss canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden became the last Swiss canton to grant women the right to vote on local issues - it did so only in 1991, when it was forced by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland. Marriage was understood as an institution where a husband had control over his wife's life; control over her sexuality was only a part of the greater control that he had in all other areas concerning her. A husband's control over his wife's body could also be seen in the way adultery between a wife and another man was constructed; for example in 1707, English Lord Chief Justice John Holt described the act of a man having sexual relations with another man's wife as "the highest invasion of property". For this reason, in many cultures there was a conflation between the crimes of rape and adultery, since both were seen and understood as a violation of the rights of the husband. Rape as a crime was constructed as a property crime against a father or husband not as a crime against the woman's right to self-determination.
Physical and psychological damage 
Rape by a spouse, partner or ex-partner is more often associated with physical violence. A nine-nation study within the European Union found that current or ex-partners were the perpetrators of around 25% of all sexual assaults, and that violence was more common in assaults by ex-partners (50% of the time) and partners (40%) than in assaults by strangers or recent acquaintances (25%).
Attributing the effects of marital rape in research is problematic as it is nearly impossible to find a large enough sample of spouses to study who have experienced sexual violence but have not also been physically assaulted by their spouse.
While rape by a stranger is highly traumatic, it is typically a one-time event and is clearly understood as rape. In the case of rape by a spouse or long term sexual partner, the history of the relationship affects the victim’s reactions. There is research showing that marital rape can be more emotionally and physically damaging than rape by a stranger. Marital rape may occur as part of an abusive relationship. Trauma from the rape adds to the effect of other abusive acts or abusive and demeaning talk. Furthermore, marital rape is rarely a one-time event, but a repeated if not frequent occurrence. Whether it takes place once or is part of an established pattern of domestic violence, trauma from rape has serious long term consequences for victims regardless of whether the assault is prosecuted or not.
Legal aspect 
Historically, many cultures have had a concept of spouses' conjugal rights to sexual intercourse with each other. This can be seen in Common law, in force in North America and the British Commonwealth, where the very concept of marital rape was treated as an impossibility. This was illustrated most vividly by Sir Matthew Hale, in his 1736 legal treatise, Historia Placitorum Coronæ or History of the Pleas of the Crown, where he wrote that such a rape could not be recognized since the wife "hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband, which she cannot retract."
Formalization of the marital rape exemption in law 
Common law and the United Kingdom 
Hale's statement in History of the Pleas of the Crown was not supported by any judicial authority but was believed to be a logical consequence of the laws of marriage and rape as understood at the time. Marriage gave conjugal rights to a spouse, and marriage could not be revoked except by private Act of Parliament—it therefore seemed to follow that a spouse could not legally revoke consent to sexual intercourse, and if there was consent there was no rape.
The principle was repeated in East's Treatise of the Pleas of the Crown in 1803 and in Archbold’s Pleading and Evidence in Criminal Cases in 1822, but it was not until R v Clarence (1888) 22 QBD 23 that the question of the exemption first arose in an English courtroom. Clarence was determined on a different point, and there was no clear agreement between the nine judges regarding the status of the rule.
Feminist critique in the 19th century 
From the beginnings of the 19th century women's movement, activists challenged the presumed right of men to engage in forced or coerced sex with their wives. In the United States, "the nineteenth-century woman's rights movement fought against a husband's right to control marital intercourse in a campaign that was remarkably developed, prolific, and insistent, given nineteenth-century taboos against the public mention of sex or sexuality." Suffragists including Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone "singled out a woman's right to control marital intercourse as the core component of equality." Nineteenth century feminist demands centered on the right of women to control their bodies and fertility, positioned consent in marital sexual relations as an alternative to contraception and abortion (which many opposed), and also embraced eugenic concerns about excessive procreation. British liberal feminists John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor attacked marital rape as a gross double-standard in law and as central to the subordination of women.
Advocates of free love, including early anarcha-feminists such as Voltairine de Cleyre and Emma Goldman, as well as Victoria Woodhull, Thomas Low Nichols, and Mary S. Gove Nichols, joined a critique of marital rape to advocacy of women's autonomy and sexual pleasure. Moses Harman, a Kansas-based publisher and advocate for women's rights, was jailed twice under the Comstock laws for publishing articles (by a woman who was victimized and a doctor who treated marital rape survivors) decrying marital rape. De Cleyre defended Harman in a well-known article, "Sexual Slavery." She refused to draw any distinction between rape outside of, and within marriage: "And that is rape, where a man forces himself sexually upon a woman whether he is licensed by the marriage law to do it or not."
Bertrand Russell in his book Marriage and Morals deplored the situation of married women, he wrote "Marriage is for woman the commonest mode of livelihood, and the total amount of undesired sex endured by women is probably greater in marriage than in prostitution."
20th and 21st century criminalization 
As the concept of human rights has developed, the belief of a marital right to sexual intercourse has become less widely held. Feminists worked systematically since the 1960s to overturn the marital rape exemption and criminalize marital rape. Increasing criminalization of spousal rape is part of a worldwide reclassification of sexual crimes "from offenses against morality, the family, good customs, honor, or chastity ... to offenses against liberty, self-determination, or physical integrity." In December 1993, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights published the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women. This establishes marital rape as a human rights violation.
Despite these trends and international moves, criminalization has not occurred in all UN member States. Determining the criminal status of marital rape may be challenging, because, while some countries explicitly criminalize the act, and others explicitly exempt spouses, in many countries the ordinary rape laws are silent on the issue, and it remains unclear whether it can be prosecuted or not (these countries depend on case law and judicial precedents). In 1997, UNICEF reported that marital rape was explicitly criminalized in only 17 States. In 2003, UNIFEM estimated that marital rape could be prosecuted in more than 50 States. In 2006, the UN Secretary General found "Marital rape may be prosecuted in at least 104 States. Of these, 32 have made marital rape a specific criminal offence, while the remaining 74 [sic] do not exempt marital rape from general rape provisions. Four States criminalize marital rape only when the spouses are judicially separated."
Countries which were early to criminalize marital rape include the Soviet Union (1922/1960), Poland (1932), Czechoslovakia (1950), some other members of the Communist Bloc, Denmark (1960), Sweden (1965), and Norway (1971). Slovenia, then a republic within federal Yugoslavia, criminalized marital rape in 1977. The Israeli Supreme Court affirmed that marital rape is a crime in a 1980 decision, citing law based on the Talmud. Criminalization in Australia began with the state of New South Wales in 1981, followed by all other states from 1985 to 1992. Several formerly British-ruled countries followed suit: Canada (1983), New Zealand (1985), and Ireland (1990).
Marital rape was criminalized in Austria in 1989 (and in 2004 it became a state offense meaning it can be prosecuted by the state even in the absence of a complaint from the spouse, with procedures being similar to stranger rape). In Switzerland marital rape became a crime in 1992 (and became a state offense in 2004). In Spain, the Supreme Court ruled in 1992 that sex within marriage must be consensual and that sexuality in marriage must be understood in light of the principle of the freedom to make one's own decisions with respect to sexual activity; in doing so it upheld the conviction of a man who had been found guilty of raping his wife by a lower court.
An interesting case in Europe is that of Finland: the country outlawed marital rape only in 1994, after years of debates. The case of domestic violence in Finland has been the subject of much international interest and discussion, because Finland is otherwise considered a country where women have very advanced rights in regard to public life and participation in the public sphere (jobs, opportunities, etc). The country has been made the object of international criticism in regard to its approach towards violence against women. A 2010 Eurobarometer survey on European attitudes on violence against women showed that victim blaming attitudes are much more common in Finland than in other countries: 74% of Finns blamed "the provocative behaviour of women" for violence against women, much higher than in other countries (for instance many countries that are popularly believed to be among the most patriarchal of Europe were significantly less likely to agree with that assertion: only 33% in Spain, 46% in Ireland, 47% in Italy).
Belgium has been very progressive on this issue. In 1979, the Brussels Court of Appeal recognized marital rape and found that a husband who used serious violence to coerce his wife into having sex against her wishes was guilty of the criminal offense of rape. The logic of the court was that, although the husband did have a 'right' to sex with his wife, he could not use violence to claim it, as Belgian laws did not allow people to obtain their rights by violence. In 1989 laws were amended, the definition of rape was broadened, and marital rape is treated the same as other forms of rape.
In France, in 1990, following a case where a man had tortured and raped his wife, the Cour de Cassation authorized prosecution of spouses for rape or sexual assault. In 1992 Cour de Cassation convicted a man of the rape of his wife, stating that the presumption that spouses have consented to sexual acts that occur within marriage is only valid unless the contrary is proven. In 1994, Law 94-89 criminalized marital rape; a second law, passed 4 April 2006, makes rape by a partner (including in unmarried couples, married couples, and in civil unions) an aggravating circumstance in prosecuting rape.
Germany outlawed spousal rape only in 1997, which is later than other developed countries. Female ministers and women's rights activists lobbied for this law for over 25 years. Before, marital rape could only be prosecuted as "Causing bodily harm" (Section 223 of the German Criminal Code), Insult (Section 185 of the German Criminal Code) and "Using threats or force to cause a person to do, suffer or omit an act" (Nötigung, Section 240 of the German Criminal Code) which carried lower sentences  and were rarely prosecuted.
Greece enacted in 2006 Law 3500/2006, entitled "For combating domestic violence", which entered into force on 24 October 2006 and which punishes marital rape. This legislation also prohibits numerous other forms of violence within marriage and cohabiting relations, and various other forms of abuse of women.
Thailand outlawed marital rape in 2007. The new reforms were enacted amid strong controversy and were opposed by many. One opponent of the law was legal scholar Taweekiet Meenakanit who voiced his opposition to the legal reforms. He also opposed the making of rape a gender neutral offense. Meenakanit claimed that allowing a husband to file a rape charge against his wife is "abnormal logic" and that wives would refuse to divorce or put their husband in jail since many Thai wives are dependent on their husbands.
Malaysia is one of few Muslim countries which bans marital rape. Marital rape is punished with a maximum of 5 years; while stranger rape has a maximum of 30 years. Marital rape was made illegal in 2007.
The Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) considers the forced sex in marriages as a crime only when the wife is below 15. Thus, marital rape is not explicitly criminalized under IPC. The marital rape victims have to take recourse to Section 498-A of the IPC ("perverse sexual conduct by the husband"), or to the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 (PWDVA). The PWDVA, which came into force in 2006, outlaws marital rape. However, it offers only a civil remedy for the offence.
Recent countries to criminalize marital rape include Zimbabwe (2001), Turkey (2005), Cambodia (2005), Liberia (2006), Nepal (2006), Mauritius (2007), Ghana (2007), Malaysia (2007), Thailand (2007), Tunisia (2008), Rwanda (2009),Sierra Leone (2012), South Korea (2013),  and Bolivia (2013).
Human rights observers have criticized a variety of countries—including Poland, and Kazakhstan—for failing to effectively prosecute marital rape once it has been criminalized. South Africa, which criminalized in 1996, saw its first conviction for marital rape in 2012.
United States 
The legal history of marital rape laws in the United States is a long and complex one, that spans over several decades. Prior to the mid-1970s, marital rape was not a crime. Many United States rape statutes formerly precluded the prosecution of spouses, including estranged or even legally separated couples. In 1975, South Dakota became the first state to remove this exception. In 1993, North Carolina became the last state to remove the spousal exemption. On July 5, 1993, marital rape became a crime in all 50 states, under at least one section of the sexual offense codes. Nevertheless, in most states there were significant differences between the way marital rape and other forms of rape were treated. Only in 17 states were marital rape and other forms of rape treated the same. In the other states there were various differences, such as shorter penalties, or excluding situations where no violence is used, or shorter reporting periods. (Bergen, 1996; Russell, 1990). The laws have continued to change through the 1990s and 2000s, in order to bring marital rape laws in line with non-marital rape, but even today there remain differences in some states. For more details, see Marital rape (United States law).
Ending the exemption in England and Wales 
The marital rape exemption was abolished in England and Wales in 1991 by the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords, in the case of R v R. been promulgated in 1736 in Matthew Hale’s History of the Pleas of the Crown (see above).
The first attempted prosecution of a husband for the rape of his wife was R v Clarke  2 All ER 448. Rather than try to argue directly against Hale’s logic, the court held that consent in this instance had been revoked by an order of the court for non-cohabitation. It was the first of a number of cases in which the courts found reasons not to apply the exemption, notably R v O’Brien  3 All ER 663 (the obtaining of decree nisi), R v Steele (1976) 65 Cr.App.R. 22 (an undertaking by the husband to the court not to molest the wife) and R v Roberts  Crim LR 188 (the existence of a formal separation agreement).
There are at least four recorded instances of a husband successfully relying on the exemption in England and Wales. The first was R v Miller  2 QB 282, where it was held that the wife had not legally revoked her consent despite having presented a divorce petition. R v Kowalski (1988) 86 Cr. App. R. 339 was followed by R v Sharples  Crim LR 198, and the fourth occurred in 1991 in the case of R v J, a judgment made after the first instance decision of the Crown Court in R v R but before the decision of the House of Lords that was to abolish the exemption. In Miller, Kowalski and R v J the husbands were instead convicted of assault or indecent assault.
R v R in 1991 was the first occasion where the marital rights exemption had been appealed as far as the House of Lords, and it followed the trio of cases since 1988 where the marital rights exemption was upheld. The leading judgment, unanimously approved, was given by Lord Keith of Kinkel. He stated that the contortions being performed in the lower courts in order to avoid applying the marital rights exemption were indicative of the absurdity of the rule, and held, agreeing with earlier judgments in Scotland and in the Court of Appeal in R v R, that “the fiction of implied consent has no useful purpose to serve today in the law of rape” and that the marital rights exemption was a “common law fiction” which had never been a true rule of English law. R’s appeal was accordingly dismissed, and he was convicted of the rape of his wife.
Marriage after rape 
In a variety of cultures, marriage after the fact has been treated historically as a "resolution" to the rape of an unmarried woman. Citing Biblical injunctions (particularly Exodus 22:16–17 and Deuteronomy 22:25–30), Calvinist Geneva permitted a single woman's father to consent to her marriage to her rapist, after which the husband would have no right to divorce; the woman had no explicitly stated separate right to refuse. Among ancient cultures virginity was highly prized, and a woman who had been raped had little chance of marrying. These laws forced the rapist to provide for their victim.
Criminal prosecution for rape ends in the event of marriage in Morocco (by Penal Code Article 475 as of 2012[update]), Algeria, Lebanon (both as of 2010[update]), Jordan (as of 2009[update]), Cameroon (as of 2007[update]), Bolivia (as of 1999[update]).
Such laws were ended in Mexico in 1991, Colombia in 1997, Peru in 1999, Egypt in 1999,Ethiopia in 2005, Brazil in 2005, Uruguay in 2005, Guatemala in 2006, and Costa Rica in 2007.
In 2012, after a Moroccan 16-year-old girl committed suicide after having been forced by her family to marry her rapist, at the suggestion of the prosecutor, and having endured abuse by the rapist after they married, there have been protests from activists against the law which allows the rapist to marry the victim in order to escape criminal sanctions, and against this social practice which is common in Morocco.
In 1982 Diana E. H. Russell, a writer and activist, published a study on marital rape. Her study surveyed a total of 930 women from San Francisco, California (50% non-response rate, Asian women were specifically excluded as non-reliable respondents), of whom 644 were married or divorced, or who self-identified as having a husband although not legally married. Six of these women (1%) responded that they had been raped by their husbands. The survey interviewers, however, classified 74 (12%) of the women as having been raped. Of the 286 non-married women in the sample, 228 (80%) were classified by the interviewers as having been raped. Russell found that when repeated instances of rape by husbands and ex-husbands are included, these account for 38% of all rape instances, making it one of the most prevalent types of rape.
David Finkelhor and Kersti Yllo published a study in 1985 on martial rape that drew on a scientifically-selected area probability sample from the metropolitan Boston area of 323 women who were married or previously married who had a child living with them between the ages of six and fourteen. The study found that of the women who were married the instance of sexual relations through physical force or the threat of physical force was 3%.
A 1992 survey by the National Victim Center in Arlington, Virginia states that 10% of all sexual assault cases reported by women involved a husband or ex-husband.
In 1994, Patricia Easteal, then Senior Criminologist at the Australian Institute of Criminology, published the results of survey on sexual assault in many settings. The respondents had been victims of numerous forms of sexual assault. Of these, 10.4% had been raped by husbands or de facto spouses, with a further 2.3% raped by estranged husbands/de factos.
A 1997 study led by Kathleen C. Basile found that 13% of US married women had experienced rape (defined as unwanted sex obtained through the use or threat of force) by their current husband.
In the UK, statistics disseminated by the Rape Crisis Federation yield the information that the most common rapists are husbands, ex-husbands, or partners.
The prevalence of marital rape depends on the particularly legal, national and cultural context. In 1999, the World Health Organization conducted a study on violence against women in Tajikistan, surveying 900 women above the age of 14 in three districts of the country and found that 47% of married women reported having been forced to have sex by their husband. In Turkey 35.6% of women have experienced marital rape sometimes and 16.3% often.
Sustaining factors 
Young women from various settings in South Asia explained in surveys that even if they felt discomfort and didn't want to have sex, they accepted their husbands' wishes and submitted, fearing that otherwise they would be beaten. In many developing countries it is believed—by both men and women—that a husband is entitled to sex any time he demands it, and that if his wife refuses him, he has the right to use force. These women, most of them either illiterate or very poorly educated, are married at very young ages (in Bangladesh, for example, according to statistics from 2005, 45% of women then aged between 25–29 had been married by the age of 15), and depend on their husbands for their entire life. This situation leaves women with very little sexual autonomy. Often, when asked by their husbands to have sex, they are not in a position to refuse: they have to choose between unwanted sex and being subjected to violence; or between unwanted sex and being abandoned by their husbands and ending up living in abject poverty.
Problems in prosecuting spousal rape 
There have been many problems with prosecuting the perpetrators of spousal rape, chief amongst them has been the reluctance of the various legal systems to recognize it as a crime at all. However, criminalization has opened a new set of problems. To take an example in the United Kingdom, such a category of rape was only recognized by a 1991 House of Lords decision known simply as R v R (1991 All ER 481). While most parties agreed with the House of Lords' motive in making the decision, there were many who were of the opinion that the decision involved post facto criminalization, since the House of Lords were imprisoning spouses for doing what was once, according to the law, their right.
The second problem arises on what can be called a procedural level. While the law in theory may hold no distinction between a spouse or any other person, in practice when the case comes to court there will be difficulties in proving that rape in fact took place. This is because in marriage, sexual relations are to be expected, and if the defense claims consent, then the evidential burden is a very difficult burden for the prosecution to discharge.
Another problem results from prevailing social norms that exist in certain cultures. As such, even if these countries enact adequate laws, in practice, these laws are ignored as the act is not socially considered a crime. For example, in many parts of the world, where women have few rights, it is considered unthinkable for a woman to refuse her husband's sexual demands: for instance one survey found that 74% of women in Mali said that a husband is justified to beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him.
Other problems arise from the fact that, even in countries where marital rape is illegal, many people are not aware of the existing laws. In many cultures, traditional ideas about marriage are deeply rooted in the conscious of the population, and few people know that forcing a spouse to have sex is illegal. For instance, a report by Amnesty International showed that although marital rape is illegal in Hungary, in a public opinion poll of nearly 1,200 people in 2006, a total of 62% did not know that marital rape was a crime: over 41% of men and nearly 56% of women thought it was not punishable as a crime in Hungarian law, and nearly 12% did not know.
Countries that have made spousal rape a criminal offence 
Only criminalized when couple is separated 
- Bahamas (Termed "spousal sexual assault" eligible for less jail time than charges of rape; requires permission of Attorney General to prosecute)
- India (according to Indian Penal Code section 376(A) Intercourse by a man with his wife during separation.—Whoever has sexual intercourse with his wife, who is living separately from him under a decree of separation or under any custom or usage without her consent shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years and shall also be liable to fine.)
- Jamaica: (legal separation, proceedings for the dissolution or annullment of the marriage, a protection order; or, if under ordinary circumstances, the husband "knows himself to be suffering from a sexually transmitted infection")
- Singapore (legal separation, divorce, restraining order, or attempt by the assaulted party to receive such legal status)
- Sri Lanka
Treated as a form of noncriminal domestic violence 
Countries that have not made marital rape a criminal offence 
See also 
- Implied consent
- Maouloud Baby v. State of Maryland, court case having to do with the withdrawing of sexual consent
- National Clearinghouse on Marital and Date Rape
- Recognition of marital rape in Pakistani Law
- Types of rape
- Bergen, Raquel Kennedy, "Marital Rape" on the site of the Applied Research Forum, National Electronic Network on Violence Against Women. Article dated March 1999. (Retrieved February 8, 2005.)
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- Easteal, P. Voices of the Survivors, Spinifex Press, North Melbourne, 1994.
- Finkelhor, D. and Yllo, K., License to Rape, The Free Press, New York 1985.
- Gan, K., Sex a conjugal right, on the site of Malaysiakini. Article dated September 2004. (Retrieved April 20, 2005. Original link is dead, substitute link is to the Internet Archive, and is dated October 12, 2004.)
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- The American Bar Association, Facts about Women and the Law. (Retrieved April 20, 2005.)
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- Hidden Hurt
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- Stanton: "'Woman's degradation is in man's idea of his sexual rights,' Stanton wrote to Anthony. 'How this marriage question grows on me. It lies at the very foundation of all progress.'" Stone: "It is clear to me, that [the marriage] question underlies, this whole movement and all our little skirmishing for better laws, and the right to vote, will yet be swallowed up, in the real question, viz, has woman, as wife, a right to herself? It is very little to me to have the right to vote, to own property &c. if I may not keep my body, and its uses, in my absolute right. Not one wife in a thousand can do that now, & so long as she suffers this bondage, all other rights will not help her to her true position." Hasday, Jill Elaine (2000). "Contest and Consent: A Legal History of Marital Rape". California Law Review 88 (5): 1425. doi:10.2307/3481263.
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- Hasday, Jill Elaine (2000). "Contest and Consent: A Legal History of Marital Rape". California Law Review 88 (5): 1444–51. doi:10.2307/3481263.
- Palczewski, Catherine Helen (1995-10-01). "Voltairine de Cleyre: Sexual Slavery and Sexual Pleasure in the Nineteenth Century". NWSA Journal 7 (3): 54–68 . ISSN 1040-0656. JSTOR 4316402.
- Hasday, Jill Elaine (2000). "Contest and Consent: A Legal History of Marital Rape". California Law Review 88 (5): 1482–1505. doi:10.2307/3481263.
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- UNICEF, The Progress of Nations, 1997, 48.
- The first criminal law code in Soviet Russia differed from Tsarist law on rape: "although the Tsarist law explicitly excluded marital rape, the Soviet law code of 1922 did not." Rule, Wilma (1996). Russian women in politics and society. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-313-29363-4. Marital rape was explicitly included in the 1960 code.
- Elman, R Amy (1996). Sexual subordination and state intervention: comparing Sweden and the United States. Berghahn Books. p. 90. ISBN 1-57181-071-4.
- With the new 1974 Yugoslav Constitution each republic adopted their own Criminal Act, but Socialist Republic of Slovenia was the only one to introduce rape of wife in its 1977 Criminal Act; (any) rape is not gender specific since 1995 Criminal Code (Art. 180), current Criminal Code is from 2008 (Art. 170)
- Geis, Gilbert (1977). "Rape-in-marriage: Law and law reform in England, the United States, and Sweden". Adelaide Law Review 6: 284.
- David Kauzlarich, Introduction to Criminology, 2008, p. 79.
- Jennifer Temkin, Rape and the legal process, p. 86.
- "Legislative Influences". Statcan.gc.ca. 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
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- Simon, Rita James (2001-05). A comparative perspective on major social problems. Lexington Books. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7391-0248-0.
- Bensussan, P. (2009). "Marital rape according to French law: Desire, need and consent". Sexologies 18 (3): 182–185. doi:10.1016/j.sexol.2009.04.001. ISSN 1158-1360. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
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- http://www.jurawelt.com/sunrise/media/mediafiles/13792/tenea_juraweltbd52_kieler.pdf p. 24(64)
- The Nation,Anger over proposed change to rape laws, 14 February 2007
- "Criminal recognition to marital rape in India is long overdue". The Times of India. 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- "An offence, of course". Indian Express. 2011-01-15. Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- Peter Foster (2006-10-27). "India outlaws wife-beating and marital rape". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- Kalpana Sharma (2010-11-10). "Contradictions and confusion cloud rape laws. The result is miscarriage of justice". Tehelka. Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- first criminalzed in 2001 -see section 8 of the Sexual Offences Act (2001) ;see also section 68 of Criminal Law Act (Codification and Reform) 2006 - the current legislation- 
- Anti-Discrimination Committee Takes Up Situation of Women in Turkey, UN Information Service, 21 January 2005.
- UN Committee Against Torture (CAT) (20 January 2011). "Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture: Cambodia". CAT/C/KHM/CO/2. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- O'Reilly, Devon. "Women’s Transformations during Conflict". Perspectives on Global Issues; NYU Center for Global Affairs. Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- Bhattarai, Tara (2012-01-18). "Taboos Undercut Nepal's Marital Rape Law | Womens eNews". Womens eNews. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Collen, Lindsey; Kistnasamy, Kisna; Lallah, Rajni (23 April 2007). "Rape and the Sexual Offences Bill: Beyond the illogical, punitive attitude...". l'express. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
- Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences, Yakin Ertürk : addendum: mission to Ghana, 2008.
- MP Teresa Kok, Mixed reaction to marital rape reform, Sassy MP, September 15, 2007.
- AP, "Malaysian jailed for marital rape," Sydney Morning Herald, August 6, 2009.
- "Thailand outlaws marital rape," AFP, June 22, 2007.
- "In its response to questions posed by the United Nations (UN) Committee on Human Rights, the government of Tunisia declared that, under Articles 227 and 227 bis of the penal code, marital rape, like all other forms of rape, is a crime under Tunisian law (Tunisia 25 Feb. 2008; ibid. 1 Oct. 1913, Art. 227). Under Article 227 of the Tunisian penal code, sexual assault accompanied by acts of violence or threats with a weapon is punishable by death, while, for other cases of rape, the prescribed punishment is life imprisonment (Tunisia 1 Oct. 1913). [US State Department] Country Reports for 2008 indicates that 'the government enforced the laws vigorously ... however, there were no reports of prosecution for spousal rape' in 2008 (US 25 Feb. 2009, Sec. 5)." Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Tunisia: Domestic violence, legislation and protection available to victims (2007-2009), 24 November 2009, TUN103273.FE, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4b20f04a3c.html [accessed 3 August 2010]
- "Rwanda: Final steps towards the adoption of a law to combat gender violence". Africa4womensrights.org. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- Robinson, Jessica (March 21, 2013). "New Law Mandates Harsh Penalties and Broad Services to Address Violence Against Woman in Bolivia". Andean Information Network. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Sexual Assault Laws in the CEE/FSU Region". Stopvaw.org. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, "Kazakhstan," in Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in Central and South-Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States (9 November 2000).
- "The Krugersdorp Magistrate's Court sentenced her 48-year-old former husband [Frederik Christiaan Bossert] to an effective 12 years in jail last week for physically abusing and repeatedly raping [Annelise] Kriek during their marriage. Kriek's court action became the first reported case of rape in a marriage since the Domestic Violence Act was introduced in 1996." Chelemu, Khethiwe. "Wife's seven-year wait for justice". Times (Johannesburg). Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- The New York Times, Marital rape: Drive for tougher laws is pressed, 13 May 1987
- "The National Center for Victims of Crime - Library/Document Viewer". Ncvc.org. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- " UKHL 12". BAILII. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
-  1 AC 599,  3 WLR 767,  4 All ER 481, (1991) 135 SJLB 181,  1 FZR 217, (1991) 155 JP 989, (1992) 94 Cr App R 216,  Fam Law 108,  Crim LR 207, (1991) 155 JPN 752, (1991) 141 NLJ 1481,  UKHL 12, (1991) The Times, 24 October 1991, (1991) The Independent, 24 October 1991, (1991) The Guardian, 30 October 1991, HL, affirming  2 WLR 1065,  2 All ER 257, (1991) 135 SJ 384, (1991) 93 Cr App R 1, (1991) 155 JP 373,  Crim LR 475, (1991) 155 JPN 236, (1991) 141 NLJ 383, (1991) The Times, 15 March 1991, (1991) The Independent, 15 March 1991, (1991) The Guardian, 15 March 1991, CA, affirming  1 All ER 747
- Witte, John; Robert M. Kingdon (2005). Sex, marriage, and family life in John Calvin's Geneva. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. pp. 120–22. ISBN 0-8028-4803-6 9780802848031 Check
- Schuetz, Kristen (2012-03-16). "We Are All Amina Filali". Ms. Magazine Blog. Retrieved 2012-03-21.
- Freedom House (2010-03). "Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa 2010"
- Warrick, Catherine. (2009). Law in the service of legitimacy: Gender and politics in Jordan. Farnham, Surrey, England; Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate Pub. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7546-7587-7 0754675874 Check
- Barad, E.; E. Slattery, and the following: Enikő Horváth, Monwabisi Zukani, Desmond Eppel, Monica Kays, Abdoul Konare, Yeora S. Park, Ekaterina Y. Pischalnikova, Nathaniel Stankard and Tally Zingher With the assistance of: Alana F. Montas and Nicole Manara (2007). "Gender-Based Violence Laws in Sub-Saharan Africa". Report prepared for the Committee on African Affairs of the New York City Bar: 30.
- Código Penal of Bolivia, Art. 317.
- "Until 2006, a rapist could be exonerated if he promised to marry his victim, unless she was under twelve years old." Guatemala Human Rights Commission/USA, "For Women's Right to Live: FAQs."
- Russell, Diana E. H., Rape in Marriage. Indiana University Press, New edition, 1990, pp. 57-58, 65-67
- Finkelhor, David, and Yllo, Kersti, License to Rape. New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985, p. 204, p. 205, Table A-2.
- Basile, Kathleen C. (2002-10). "Prevalence of Wife Rape and Other Intimate Partner Sexual Coercion in a Nationally Representative Sample of Women". Violence and Victims 17 (5): 511. doi:10.1891/vivi.17.5.511.33717. ISSN 0886-6708.
- Myhill and Allen, Rape and Sexual Assault of Women: Findings from the British Crime Survey
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- "Amnesty International: Report on Violence Against Women". Religiousconsultation.org. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- "Child Marriage Factsheet: State of World Population 2005". UNFPA. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- "ESR | February 21, 2005 | Spousal rape case sparks old debate". Enterstageright.com. 2005-02-21. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- Report of the Secretary-General, In-depth study on all forms of violence against women, United Nations, UN Doc A/61/122/Add.1, 6 July 2006.
- UN Committee Against Torture (CAT) (20 January 2011). "Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture: Cambodia". CAT/C/KHM/CO/2. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- OMCT, Violence Against Women in Colombia, 2003, p. 175.
- Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Fourth Periodic Report of Cuba, Document number CEDAW/C/CUB/4, 27/09/99.
- Council of Europe, Legislation in the member States of the Council of Europe in the field of violence against women, Strasbourg, 2009. vol. 1:139; v1:156; v2:19; v2:74,78; v2:87
- "In May 2010, the Sexual Offenses Act was signed into law, which makes rape gender-neutral and expands its definition to include spousal rape and coercion and child abuse." Freedom House (2011-11-23). Freedom in the World 2011: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 285. ISBN 9781442209947.
- Spousal rape is a crime, but unlike other rapes is not a "public crime" and thereby requires the survivors to complain for prosecution to occur. OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 119. ISBN 9789264077478.
- "Spousal rape, however, is punishable under Kyrgyz legislation." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 9789264077478.
- Southern Africa: Justice for survivors of marital rape, how far has SADC come?
- "In the sexual offences legislation of Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, and South Africa, rape within marriage is illegal." Stefiszyn, Karen (2008-05-12), A Brief Overview of Recent Developments in Sexual Offences Legislation in Southern Africa, UN. Expert Group Meeting on good practices in legislation on violence against women., p. 4
- OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 237. ISBN 9789264077478.
- Della-Giustina, J. A (2009). "A Cross-cultural, Comparative Analysis of the Domestic Violence Policies of Nicaragua and Russia". Journal of International Women’s Studies 10: 34.
- "…but convictions are rare." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 9789264077478.
- "Marital Rape – Ruling Seen as Move to Protect Spousal Right to Sex – Korea « womensphere". Womensphere.wordpress.com. 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- "Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal in Turkmenistan and punishable by sentences ranging from 3 to 25 years in prison, depending on the extent of the violence. The government generally applies this law." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 9789264077478.
- "Ukrainian legislation prohibits rape, but contains no specific reference to spousal rape. Perpetrators of spousal rape are punished under a law prohibiting forced sexual relations with a materially dependent person." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 9789264077478.
- Law that repeals certain articles that used to protect Marital rape
- OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 119. ISBN 9789264077478.
- "Rape is punishable by law in Uzbekistan and spousal rape is specifically prohibited, but no man has ever been convicted for raping his wife." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 9789264077478.
- see section 68 of Criminal Law Act (Codification and Reform) 2006
- "Sexual Offences Act of the Bahamas". Government of the Bahamas.
- Equality Now (2010). "Words and Deeds: Holding Governments Accountable in the Beijing +15 Review Process". Retrieved 2011-03-07
- Goonesekere, Savitri (2004). Violence, law and women's rights in South Asia. SAGE. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0-7619-9796-2.
- Fernando, Vijita (2008-10-14). "Sri Lanka: Island Dilemma: Is It Marital Rape or Domestic Violence?". News Blaze. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- Justin Huggler, "India abolishes husbands' 'right' to rape wife," Independent (London), October 27, 2006.
- South Asia Research Institute for Policy and Development, India’s landmark domestic abuse law takes effect, October 26, 2006.
- "Indian Penal Code 375". Vakilno1.com. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) (2011). Reclaiming & Redefining Rights: Thematic Studies Series 1: Sexuality & Rights in Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: ARROW. pp. 22–23.
- "Our breakthrough finally came in September 2004. After years of effort, the parliament passed the law on violence against women in the home (Law No. 23/2004). The new law outlaws four forms of violence – physical, psychological, sexual (including marital rape), and economic neglect. Significantly the law makes ‘criminal’ violence against all members of the household, including husbands, wives, children and extended family members." Ratna Bataramunti "Justice for women? New anti-domestic violence law brings hope for women," Inside Indonesia, July–September 2006.
- "Rape is not a crime in the Afghan Penal Code. Under the code, rapists can only be charged with "forced" zina, or adultery, which sometimes results in women also being prosecuted for zina." Human Rights Watch (2009). "We Have the Promises of the World": Women’s Rights in Afghanistan. Human Rights Watch.
- "The 'Explanation' which forms part of Article 375 of Brunei’s Penal Code (rape) stipulates that 'Sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under thirteen (13) years of age, is not rape.' This amounts to legalisation and legitimization of marital rape, including the rape of children, in flagrant violation of international human rights law." Amnesty International, "Brunei Darussalam: Amnesty International submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review," Sixth session of the UPR Working Group, November–December 2009.
- Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre (ARROW). "China: MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Woman". Retrieved 8 March 2011. "China has no legal provisions for marital rape and the main reason for this is in deference to a prevailing cultural perception that wives are supposed to submit to their husband’s wishes in matters of sexual relations and hence, there is no such concept of ‘rape’ within marriage or ‘rape’ being considered a form of violence within the marriage."
- Peterman, Amber; Tia Palermo, Caryn Bredenkamp (2011-06). "Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo". American Journal of Public Health 101 (6): 1060–1067. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2010.300070. ISSN 00900036. PMID 21566049.
- Warrick, Catherine. (2009). Law in the service of legitimacy: Gender and politics in Jordan. Farnham, Surrey, England; Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate Pub. ISBN 978-0-7546-7587-7 0754675874 Check
- Fareda Banda, Project on a Mechanism to Address Laws that Discriminate Against Women, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights – Women’s Rights and Gender Unit, 6 March 2008, pp. 85-87.
- Klasing, Amanda (24 January 2012). "A chance for Congress to help Haitian women". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 10 May 2012. "The penal code includes penalties for rape but does not address marital rape."
- Westmarland, Nicole; Geetanjali Gangoli (2011-04-06). International Approaches to Rape. The Policy Press. ISBN 978-1-84742-620-8.
- "The law does not recognize spousal rape." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 214. ISBN 9789264077478.
- Musawah (October 2011). Musawah Thematic Report on Article 16: Kuwait and Oman (50th CEDAW Session). Selangor, Malaysia.
- UN Committee on Elimination of Discrimination against Women (24 July 2009). "Lao People’s Democratic Republic boasts new legislation, machinery to improve women’s lot, but expert committee faults rape, domestic violence policies". WOM/1743. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- Amnesty International, "Libya," 2011.
- MALI: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (Instruments and Policies tab), in Women's Network for a Better World, Map of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Africa and Spain.
- " Additionally, spousal rape is not regarded as a criminal act in Mongolia (US 11 Mar. 2010, Sec. 6; UN 7 Nov. 2008, Para. 25). According to the NCAV because law enforcement organizations do not view marital rape as a crime, victims will consequently not ask for help from law enforcement officials (NCAV 2009). Victims also do not report marital rape out of concern for the reputation of their families (ibid.)." Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2010-04-15). "Domestic violence, including legislation, in particular the progress in the implementation of the 2005 law, and availability of state protection and support services (2008 - April 2010) [MNG103387.E]". Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (7 November 2008). "Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Myanmar". CEDAW/C/MMR/CO/3. p. para. 46. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- Human Rights Watch (2007-04-10). Human Rights Watch World Report 2007. Seven Stories Press. pp. 300–301. ISBN 978-1-58322-740-4.
- "2009 Human Rights Report: Saudi Arabia". U.S. State Department. 11 March 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
- "Under Senegalese law, rape is illegal, though spousal rape is not." Newman, Graeme R. (2010). Crime and Punishment Around the World: Africa and the Middle East, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 85. ISBN 9780313351334.
- "Sexual offences". statutes.agc.gov.sg. Attorney-General's Chambers. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- Penal Code Act, 2008 of South Sudan (Page 129)
- UK Home Office (2010-09-03). "Country of Origin Information Report - The Syrian Arab Republic". Retrieved 2011-03-08
- OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 9789264077478.
- "Section 118(2) of the Criminal Offences Act". The Secretary Generals database on violence against women. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- Women & Children Crisis Centre. "Gaps in Tongan Rape Law need to be addressed::". Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- Akumu, Patience (May 26, 2010). "The phenomenon of marital rape". The Observer.
- "A clause outlawing marital rape has been dropped because of cultural considerations." Fidgen, Jo (2009-11-30). "Zambia's celebrity couple reveal wife-beating past". BBC. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- "But Zambia does not have a comprehensive law on sexual violence or a provision for marital rape or psychological abuse in its penal code." Human Rights Watch (2008-12-16). "Zambia: Curbing Sexual and Gender-Based Violence". Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- For a brief overview view of partner rape, see STAR Library - Marital Rape
- Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights, Marital and Intimate Partner Sexual Assault, Stop Violence Against Women.
- Aphrodite Wounded: Partner Rape Facts, Survivor Support and Educational Resources
- Domestic Violence / Marital Rape in Jewish Families
- Global AIDS Programme World AIDS Day 2004. (Retrieved April 20, 2005).
- Real Rape, Real Pain: Help for Women Sexually Assaulted by Male Partners Patricia L. Easteal, Louise McOrmond-Plummer
-  Raped by a Partner Research Report 2008 and  Partner Rape Educational DVD 2009 produced by Women's Health Goulburn North East.