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Marjaʿ (Arabic: مرجع) (Plural: marājiʿ), also known as a marjaʿ taqlīdī or marjaʿ dīnī (Arabic: مرجع تقليدي / مرجع ديني), literally means "Source to Imitate/Follow" or "Religious Reference". Marja or Source of Emulation is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics. After the Qur'an and the Prophets and Imams, marājiʿ are the highest authority on religious laws in Usuli Shia Islam.
Currently, marājiʿ are accorded the title Grand Ayatollah (Arabic/Persian: آية الله العظمی Ayatollah al-Uthma), however when referring to one, the use of Ayatollah is not acceptable. Previously, the titles of Allamah and Imam have also been used.
Authority of marājiʿ
The marjaʿiyah of an ayatollah transpires when he becomes a celebrated figure in the hawza and his students and followers trust him in answering their questions, and ask him to publish his juristic book, the risālah ʿamalīyah—a manual of practical rulings arranged according to topics dealing with ritual purity, worship, social issues, business, and political affairs. The risālah contains an ayatollah's fatwas on different topics, according to his knowledge of the most authentic Islamic sources and their application to current life. Traditionally only the most renowned ayatollahs of the given time published a risālah, while today many ayatollahs of varying degrees of illustriousness have published one, while some of the renowned ones have refused to do so.
Where a difference in opinion exists between the marājiʿ, each of them provides their own opinion and the Muqallid will follow his/her own marjaʿ's opinion on that subject. A mujtahid, i.e. someone who has completed advanced training (dars kharij) in the hawza and has acquired the license to engage in ijtihad (ʾijāz al-ʾijtihād) from one or several ayatollahs, is exempted from the requirement to follow a marjaʿ. One should note, however, that ijtihad is not always comprehensive and so a mujtahid may be an expert in one particular area of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) and exercise ijtihad therein, but follow a marjaʿ in other areas of fiqh.
Several senior Grand Ayatollahs constitute the hawza, a religious institution. The hawza of Qom and Najaf are preeminent seminary centers for the training of Shia clergymen. However, there are other smaller hawzas in other cities around the world, such as Karbala in Iraq, and Isfahan and Mashhad in Iran.
There are 64 living Maraji worldwide as 2014, mainly living in Najaf and Qom. The most prominent and popular of these include Ali al-Sistani, Muhammad al-Fayadh, Muhammad Saeed al-Hakim and Bashir al-Najafi in Najaf; and Hossein Vahid Khorasani, Mousa Shubairi Zanjani, Sayyid Sadeq Rohani, Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani, Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili, Naser Makarem Shirazi and Yousef Saanei in Qom.
- List of Maraji
- Big Four (Najaf)
- List of Ayatollahs
- Risalah (fiqh)
- Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom
- Slate Magazine's "So you want to be an Ayatollah", explaining how Shiite clerics earn the title