Mark 48 torpedo
|Mark 48 torpedo|
Technicians perform maintenance on a Mark 48 torpedo in 1982.
|Place of origin||United States of America|
|In service||1972–present (original)
1988–present (ADCAP) 2008-present Mod 7 Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System (CBASS)
|Used by|| United States Navy
Royal Australian Navy
Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Netherlands Navy
|Manufacturer||Gould/Honeywell (original), Hughes Aircraft (ADCAP)|
|Unit cost||$894,000 (USD 1978)
$3,500,000 (ADCAP) (1988)
|Weight||3,434 lb (1,558 kg) (original), 3,695 lb (1,676 kg) (ADCAP)|
|Length||19 ft (5.79 m)|
|Diameter||21 in (533 mm)|
|Effective range||23 miles, 38 km at 55 kn (102 km/h) or 50 km at 40 kn (74 km/h) (estimated), officially "greater than 5 miles"|
|Warhead||high explosive plus unused fuel|
|Warhead weight||650 lb (295 kg)|
|Engine||swash-plate piston engine; pump jet
|Propellant||Otto fuel II|
|Maximum depth||500 fathoms, 800 m (estimated), officially "greater than 1200 ft"|
|Speed||55 kt (estimated), officially "greater than 28 kt"|
|Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System|
The Mark 48 and its improved Advanced Capability (ADCAP) variant are American heavyweight submarine-launched torpedoes. They were designed to sink deep-diving nuclear-powered submarines and high-performance surface ships.
The Mk-48 torpedo was designed at the end of the 1960s to keep up with the advances in Soviet submarine technology. Operational since 1972, it replaced the Mk-37 and Mk-14 torpedoes as the principal weapon of U.S. Navy submarines. With the entry into service of the new Soviet Alfa class submarine in 1972, the decision was made to accelerate the ADCAP program, which would bring significant modifications to the torpedo. Tests were run to ensure that the weapon could keep on with the developments and the weapon was modified with improved acoustics and electronics. The new version of the weapon, also known as Mk-48 Mod 4, was extensively tested and production started in 1985, with entry into service in 1988. From then on, various upgrades have been added to the torpedo. As of 2012[update] Mk-48 Mod 6 was in service; a Mod 7 version was test fired in 2008 in the Rim of Pacific Naval exercises. The inventory of the U.S. Navy is 1,046 Mk-48 torpedoes.
The Mk-48 torpedo is designed to be launched from submarine torpedo tubes. The weapon is carried by all U.S. Navy submarines, including Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines, Seawolf-, Los Angeles-, and Virginia-class attack submarines. It is also used on Canadian, Australian, and Dutch submarines. The Royal Navy elected not to buy the Mark 48, preferring to use the Spearfish instead.
Mk-48 and Mk-48 ADCAP torpedoes can be guided from a submarine by wires attached to the torpedo. They can also use their own active or passive sensors to execute programmed target search, acquisition, and attack procedures. The torpedo is designed to detonate under the keel of a surface ship, breaking the ship's back and destroying its structural integrity. In the event of a miss, it can circle back for another attempt.
Sensors and improvements 
The torpedo's seeker has an active electronically steered "pinger" that helps avoid having to maneuver as it closes with the target. Unconfirmed reports indicate that the torpedo's sensors can monitor surrounding electrical and magnetic fields. This may refer to the electromagnetic coils on the warhead (at least from 1977 to 1981), used to sense the metallic mass of the ship's hull and detonate at the proper stand-off distance.
The torpedo has been the subject of continued improvement over its service lifetime. In the 1990s, a Mod 6 variant of the ADCAP provided much improved noise isolation from the engine, which makes this torpedo more difficult to detect by a potential target.
The Mk48 Mod 7 Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System (CBASS) torpedo is optimized for both the deep and littoral waters and has advanced counter-countermeasure capabilities. The MK48 ADCAP Mod 7 (CBASS) torpedo is the result of a Joint Development Program with the Royal Australian Navy and reached Initial Operational Capability in 2006.
See also 
- Polmar, Norman. "The Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet: Torpedoes". United States Naval Institute Proceedings, November 1978, p.159.
- "MK 48". Federation of American Scientists Military Analysis Network. www.fas.org. Retrieved 2011-04-06.
- Thomas, Vincent C. The Almanac of Seapower 1987 Navy League of the United States (1987) ISBN 0-9610724-8-2 p.190
- "Mk 48 ADCAP". Jane's Naval Forces News. www.janes.com. Retrieved 2011-04-06.
- "US Navy Fact File: Heavyweight Torpedo - Mark 48 ", US Navy, 17 January 2009, Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- "Aussie sub sinks US Warship ", SMH, 25 July 2008
- "BBC Video: Torpedo test sinks US ship". BBC. July 24, 2008. Retrieved 2011-04-06.
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