|— City —|
|City of Markham
The Corporation of the City of Markham
|Markham Civic Centre|
|Nickname(s): The High-Tech Capital|
|Motto: Leading While Remembering|
|Regional Municipality||York Region|
|• Mayor||Frank Scarpitti|
|• Deputy Mayor||Jack Heath|
|• Regional Councillors||Jim Jones, Joe Li, Gordon Landon|
|• Total||212.47 km2 (82.04 sq mi)|
|Elevation||200 m (700 ft)|
|• Total||301,709 (16th)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−4)|
|Forward sortation areas||L6B, L6C, L6E, L6G, L3P, L3R, and L3S|
|Area code(s)||905, 289|
|• Sister city||Wuhan, China|
|• Sister city||Nordlingen, Germany|
Markham (pron.: //), a city in the Regional Municipality of York, lies within the Greater Toronto Area of Southern Ontario, Canada. At the 2011 Canadian census it had a population of 301,709. The city is the fourth largest community within the Greater Toronto Area after Toronto, Mississauga and Brampton. Markham changed its status from town to city on July 1, 2012.
The city gained its name from the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe (in office 1791-1796), who named the area after his friend, William Markham, the Archbishop of York from 1776 to 1807. The first European settlement in Markham occurred when William Berczy, a German artist and developer, led a group of approximately sixty-four German families to North America. While they initially planned to settle in New York, disputes over finances and land tenure there would eventually lead to Berczy to negotiate with Simcoe for 64,000 acres (260 km2) in Markham Township in 1794. Through much of Markham's history the community has been described[by whom?] as an agricultural community. A turn towards a more urbanized community within the township began after World War II when the township had began to feel the effects of urban encroachment from Toronto. The completion of Highway 404 during the mid-1970s further accelerated urban development in Markham.
As of 2013[update] tertiary industry mainly drives Markham. As of 2010[update] "business services" employed the largest proportion of workers in Markham - nearly 22% of its labour force. The city also currently has over 900 technology and life-sciences companies, with IBM as the city's largest employer. A number of multinational companies also have their Canadian headquarters located in Markham, including: Honda Canada, Advanced Micro Devices, American Express, Johnson & Johnson, Apple Inc., Avaya, IBM, Motorola, Oracle, Toshiba. and Honeywell.
Markham was first surveyed as a township in 1793 by William Berczy, who in 1794 led 75 German families including the Ramers, Reesors, Wheters, Burkholders, Bunkers, Wicks and Lewis from Upstate New York to an area of Markham now known as German Mills. Each family was granted 200 acres (0.81 km2) of land; however due lack to roads in the region many opted to settle in York (now Toronto) and Niagara. German Mills later became a ghost town. Between 1803 to 1812, another attempt at settling in the region was made. The largest group of settlers were Pennsylvania Dutch, most of whom were Mennonites. These highly skilled craftsmen and knowledgeable farmers were able to settle the region and founded Reesorville, named after the Mennonite settler Joseph Reesor. In 1825, Reesorville was renamed to Markham having taken the name of the unincorporated village (see Markham Village, Ontario). By 1830, a large influx of Irish, Scottish and English families began immigrating to Upper Canada, many settling in Markham. Markham's early years blended the rigours of the frontier with the development of agriculture-based industries. The many rivers and streams in the township soon supported water-powered saw and gristmills and later wooden mills. With improved transportation routes, such as the construction of Yonge Street in the 1800s, along with the growing population, urbanization increased. In 1842 the township population was 5,698; 29,005 acres (117.38 km2) were under cultivation (second highest in the province), and the township had eleven gristmills and twenty-four sawmills. By 1850, the first form of structured municipal government formed in Markham. By 1857, most of the township had been cleared of timber and was under cultivation. Villages like Thornhill, Unionville, and Markham greatly expanded. In 1851 Markham Village "was a considerable village, containing between eight and nine hundred inhabitants, pleasantly situated on the Rouge River. It contains two grist mills ... a woollen factory, oatmeal mill, barley mill, and distillery, foundry, two tanneries, brewery, etc., a temperance hall and four churches... ." In 1871, with a township population of 8,152, the Toronto and Nipissing Railway built the first rail line to Markham Village and Unionville, which is still used today by the GO Transit commuter services.
In 1972, Markham was incorporated as a town, as its population skyrocketed due to urban sprawl from Toronto. In 1976, Markham's population was approximately 56,000. Since that time, the population has more than quintupled with explosive growth in new subdivisions. Much of Markham's farmland has now disappeared, but is still found north of Major Mackenzie Drive. Controversy over the development of the environmentally sensitive Oak Ridges Moraine will likely curb development north of Major Mackenzie Drive.
As of 2006, Markham comprises six major communities, which include Buttonville, Cornell, Markham Village, Milliken, Thornhill, and Unionville. Since the 1980s, the city has been recognized as a suburb of Toronto. Many high-tech companies have head offices located in Markham for the relative abundance of land, low tax rates and good transportation routes. Broadcom Canada, ATI Technologies (now known as AMD Graphics Product Group), IBM Canada, Apple Computer Canada, Motorola Canada, Honeywell Canada and many other well-known companies have chosen Markham as their home in Canada. Hence, the city has been branding itself as Canada's "High-Tech Capital". An Ontario Historical Plaque was erected in front of the Markham Museum by the province to commemorate the founding of Markham's role in Ontario's heritage.
Town council voted on May 29, 2012, to officially change Markham's legal designation from "town" to "city"; according to councillor Alex Chiu, who introduced the motion, the change of designation merely reflects the fact that many people already think of Markham as a city. Some residents objected to the change because it will involve unknown costs without any demonstrated benefits. The designation officially took effect on July 1.
Markham covers an area of 212.47 km2 (82.04 sq mi) and Markham's City Centre is at Vaughan with the boundary along Yonge Street between Steeles Avenue and Highway 7 and Richmond Hill with the boundary along Highway 7 from Yonge Street to Highway 404 and at Highway 404 from Highway 7 to 19th Avenue and Stouffville Road. In the south, it borders Toronto with the boundary along Steeles Avenue. In the North is borders Whitchurch–Stouffville with the boundary from Highway 404 to York-Durham Line between 19th Avenue and Stouffville Road. In the East it borders Pickering along the York-Durham Line.. It is bounded by 5 municipalities; in the west is
Markham's average altitude is at 200 m (660 ft) and in general consists of gently rolling hills. The city is intersected by two rivers; the Don River and Rouge River, as well as their tributaries. To the north is the Oak Ridges Moraine, which further elevates the elevation towards the north.
Markham borders and shares the same climate as Toronto. On an average day, Markham is generally 1 °C (1.8 °F) cooler than in downtown Toronto. Under the Köppen climate classification, Markham has a humid continental climate (Dfb) with generally cold, damp, and snowy winters, though with occasional mild periods exceeding 5 °C (41 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 37.8 °C (100 °F) on August 8, 2001, and the lowest temperature recorded was −35.2 °C (−31 °F) on January 16, 1994 according to The Weather Network.
|Climate data for Markham (Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport)|
|Record high Humidex||13.2||14.4||29.2||35.7||40.6||44.6||50.9||44.4||43.6||35.0||24.9||20.6||50.9|
|Record high °C (°F)||13.6
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−10.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||66
|Rainfall mm (inches)||29
|Snowfall cm (inches)||40
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||16||13||12||13||12||11||11||10||12||13||15||13||151|
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||6||4||7||11||12||11||11||10||12||11||13||6||114|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||13||10||7||3||0||0||0||0||0||1||5||9||48|
|Source: The Weather Network|
Markham is made up of many original 19th century communities (many of which, despite being technically suburban districts today, are still signed with official 'city limits' signs on major roads) and/or each with a distinctive character:
Thornhill and Unionville are popularly seen as being separate communities. Thornhill actually straddles the Markham-Vaughan municipal boundary (portions of it in both municipalities). Unionville is actually single community with two sub-communities:
- original Unionville lying along Highway 7 and Kennedy Road
- South Unionville is a newer residential community (beginning from the 1990s onwards) south of Highway 7 to Highway 407 and from McCowan to Kennedy Road
- Upper Unionville is a new residential development being built on the northeast corner of 16th Avenue and Kennedy Road
In the 2011 Census, the City of Markham had a population of 301,709 living in 90,534 of its 93,202 total dwellings, a 15.3% change from its 2006 population of 261,573. With a land area of 212.58 km2 (82.08 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,419.27/km2 (3,675.90/sq mi) in 2011.
|Canada 2006 Census||Population||% of Total Population|
|Other visible minority||17,520||6.7|
|Mother Tongue ||Percentage|
|Chinese, not otherwise specified||10.4%|
|Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino)||1.6%|
46.1% of residents stated their religion as Christian, almost evenly split between Roman Catholics and Protestants. Non-Christian religions include Hinduism: 5.7%, Judaism: 5.3%, Islam: 5.3%, Buddhism: 3.4%, Sikhism: 1.1%, and 23% indicated no religion.
City Council 
Markham City Council consists of Frank Scarpitti as mayor, four regional councillors and eight ward councillors each representing one of the city's eight wards. Scarpitti replaced Don Cousens, who was a former Progressive Conservative MPP for Markham and a Presbyterian church minister. The mayor and four regional councillors are elected by the community to represent the City of Markham at the regional level. Councillors are paid by the municipality for their services, but in many municipalities, members of council usually serve part-time and work at other jobs as well. The current members of council were elected by the residents to a four-year term of office, in accordance with standards set by the province. The selection of members for the offices of mayor and regional councillors are made town-wide, while ward councillors are elected by individual ward.
Markham Civic Centre 
The city council is located at the Markham Civic Centre at the intersection of York Regional Road 7 and Warden Avenue. The site of the previous offices on Woodbine Avenue has been redeveloped for commercial uses. The historic town hall on Main Street is now a restored office building. The Mayor's Youth Task Force was created to discuss issues facing young people in the city and to plan and publicize events. Its primary purpose is to encourage youth participation within the community.
The city is permitted to create and enforce by-laws upon residents on various matters affecting the town. The by-laws are generally enforced by City By-Law enforcement officers, but they may involve York Regional Police if violations are deemed too dangerous for the officers to handle. In addition the by-laws can be linked to various provincial acts and enforced by the town. Violation of by-laws is subject to fines of up to $20,000 CAD. The by-laws of Markham include:
- Animal Control (see Dog Owners' Liability Act of Ontario)
- Construction Permits
- Driveway Extensions
- Fencing and Swimming Pools
- Heritage Conservation (see Ontario Heritage Act)
- Home-Based Businesses
- Property Standards
- Registration of Basement Apartments and Second Suites
- Site Alteration
- Waste Collection
- Water Use
City services 
There are no courts in Markham, but the city is served by an Ontario Court of Justice in Newmarket, as well as an Ontario Small Claims court in Richmond Hill. The Ontario Court of Appeal is located in Toronto, while the Supreme Court of Canada is located in Ottawa. Policing is provided by York Regional Police at a station (5 District) at the corner of McCowan Road and Carlton Road and Highway 7. Highway 404, Highway 407 and parts of Highway 48 are patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police. Toronto Police Service is responsible for patrol on Steeles from Yonge Street to the York - Durham Line.
Markham Fire and Emergency Services was established in 1970 as Markham Fire Department and replaced various local volunteer fire units. There are 9 fire stations currently serving Markham. Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport is also served by Markham's Fire service.
The main healthcare facility in the city is Markham Stouffville Hospital, located in the far eastern end. Markham is also home to Shouldice Hospital, one of the world's premier facilities for people suffering from hernias. For those living near Steeles, they sometimes will be able to receive treatment at The Scarborough Hospital Birchmount Campus in Toronto/Scarborough.
Markham currently does not have any universities itself, but Seneca College has campuses at Highways 7 and 404 and at Buttonville Municipal Airport. Most high school graduates continue to post-secondary education in universities across Ontario. There are local transit services that connect to various post-secondary institutions in the Greater Toronto Area.
Markham residential are within driving distance to several universities in the Greater Toronto Area:
- University of Toronto Scarborough campus and downtown St. George campus
- York University in North York, Ontario
- UOIT in Oshawa, Ontario
High schools 
Markham has a number of both public and Catholic high schools. All have consistently scored high on standardized tests and have some of the highest rate of graduates attending universities.
- Public schools
- Catholic schools
In the 19th century Markham had a vibrant, independent community with mills, distilleries and breweries around the Highway 7 and 48 intersection. The Thomas Speight Wagon Works exported products (wagons, horsecars) around the world, and Markham had a reputation as being more active than York (the former name for Toronto) early on. Most of these industries disappeared leaving farming as the main source of business.
Light industries and businesses began to move into Markham in the 1980s attracted by land and lower taxes. Today, it claims to be "Canada's Hi-Tech Capital" with a number of key companies in the area, such as IBM, Motorola, Toshiba, Lucent, Honeywell, Apple, Genesis Microchip, and is home to the head office of graphics card producer ATI (recently merged with AMD).
Until the 1970s, Markham was mostly farmland and marsh, as reflected in events like the Markham Fair. Markham has several theatres, including Backstage at Markham Museum (home to Markham Little Theatre and the Markham Youth Theatre since 2006), Markham Theatre (alternate home to the critically acclaimed Markham Little Theatre).
The Markham Public Library system has 7 branches, with over 600,000 items in its collections.
City issues 
Like most cities and towns in the Greater Toronto Area, Markham has a few issues it must deal with:
Urban growth 
There is a desire by the city to control urban sprawl by requesting higher density for new development. The city plan calls for more growth along Highway 7 and less towards the farmland to the north. A similar development in Cornell promotes the need for services to be closer to residences.
Transit plan 
Linked to the concern of urban growth, Markham through York Region Transit (YRT) has implemented a transit system called Viva to ease the strain on the region's congested roads. Viva is similar to YRT but is used as an express bus service with the ability to change traffic signals to help reduce delays. The YRT is also planning to build a transit terminal somewhere near Cornell soon.
Markham has retained its historic past in part of the town. Here a just few places of interest:
- Frederick Horsman Varley Art Gallery
- Heintzman House - Home of Colonel George Crookshank, Sam Francis and Charles Heintzman of Heintzman & Co., the piano manufacturer.
- Markham Museum
- Markham Village
- Markham Heritage Estates - a unique, specially designed heritage subdivision owned by the City of Markham
- Reesor Farm Market
- Cathedral of the Transfiguration
- Thornhill village
Heritage streets preserve the old town feeling:
There are still farms operating in the northern reaches of the town, but there are a few 'theme' farms in other parts of Markham:
- Galten Farms
- Whittamore's Farm
- Forsythe Family Farms
- Adventure Valley
Markham's heritage railway stations are either an active station or converted to other uses:
- Markham GO Station - built in 1871 by Toronto and Nipissing Railway and last used by CN Rail in 1990s and restored in 2000 as active GO station and community use
- Locust Hill Station - built in 1936 in Locust Hill, Ontario and last used by the CPR in 1969; re-located in 1983 to the grounds of the Markham Museum
- Unionville Station - built in 1871 by the Toronto and Nipissing Railway, later by Via Rail and by GO Transit from 1982 to 1991; it was sold to the city in 1989 and restored as a community centre within the historic Unionville Main Street area
Performing arts 
Markham is home to several locally-oriented performing arts groups:
- Kindred Spirits Orchestra
- Markham Little Theatre
- Markham Youth Theatre
- Unionville Theatre Company
- Markham Concert Band
A key arts venue is the 'Markham Theatre For Performing Arts', at the Markham Civic Centre located at Highway 7 and Warden Avenue.
Annual events 
Events taking place annually include the Taste of Asia Festival, Tony Roman Memorial Hockey Tournament, Markham Youth Week, Unionville Festival, Markham Village Music Festival, Markham Jazz Festival, Milliken Mills Children's Festival, Markham Ribfest & Music Festival, Thornhill Village Festival, Markham Fair, Olde Tyme Christmas Unionville, Markham Santa Claus Parade and Markham Festival of Lights.
Markham is home to several large malls of 100+ stores. These include:
- Market Village (170 stores)
- Markville Shopping Centre (250 stores)
- Pacific Mall (450 mini-shops)
- The Mall at South Unionville Square (300 stores)
There are also a lot of higher-profile malls in nearby Toronto, and elsewhere in York Region. Many shopping centres in Markham are also Asian-oriented. This is a reflection of the large Asian, particularly Chinese Canadian, population found in Markham. They carry a wide variety of traditional Chinese products, apparel, and foods.
On Highway 7, between Woodbine and Warden Avenues, is First Markham Place, containing numerous shops and restaurants; this is several kilometres east of Richmond Hill's Chinese malls. Further east along Highway 7 is an older plaza is at the southwest quadrant with the intersection with Kennedy Road.
Pacific Mall is the most well-known Chinese mall in Markham, located at Kennedy Road and Steeles Avenue East, which, combined with neighbouring Market Village Mall and Splendid China Tower, forms the second largest Chinese shopping area in North America, after the Golden Village in Richmond, British Columbia. In close proximity, at Steeles East and Warden Avenue, there is the New Century Plaza mall and a half-block away there is a plaza of Chinese shops anchored by a T & T Supermarket.
The Mall at South Unionville Square is well located with direct public transit and ready access to Highways 7 and 407, and focuses on the Chinese community. With its T&T Supermarket and Asian themed retail mall, professional offices, commercial retail, restaurants and residential, it provides a venue for living, working, shopping and entertainment.
There are also some smaller shopping centres in Markham, such as:
- Alderland Centre
- Markham Town Square
- Metro Square
- Peachtree Centre
- New Kennedy Square
- The Shops on Steeles and 404
- Thornhill Square
Local media 
- TLM The Local Magazine -local satire & lifestyle magazine
- Markham Economist and Sun - community paper owned by Metroland Media Group
- The Liberal - serving Thornhill and Richmond Hill
- The York Region Business Times - business news
- York Region Media Group - Online news
- North of the City - magazine for York Region
- Rogers Cable 10 - community TV station for York Region, owned by Rogers Media
Major highways passing through Markham include Highway 404 (from Toronto to Newmarket) and Highway 407, a toll highway that passes north of Toronto and connects Markham with Vaughan, Brampton and Burlington.
Highway 407 runs parallel to Highway 7, also known as York Road 7, which is a major east-west artery suffering from congestion due to development along its route. Other major east-west routes include 16th Avenue, Major MacKenzie Drive, and Steeles Avenue which forms Markham's southern boundary with Toronto.
Passenger rail service in Markham is provided by the GO Transit Stouffville line, which is a commuter rail line stretching from Lincolnville to downtown Toronto. The line operates only at rush hour and uses tracks owned by Metrolinx, the provincial transit agency. Five stations on the Stouffville line serve Markham, of which 4 are within the municipal borders.
Public transit 
York Region Transit (YRT) connects Markham with surrounding municipalities in York Region, and was created in 2001 from the merger of Markham Transit, Richmond Hill Transit, Newmarket Transit and Vaughan Transit. YRT to connects to the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) subway system by way of Viva bus rapid transit from Finch station along Yonge Street, and Don Mills station through Unionville and on to Markville Mall.
The TTC also provides service in Markham on several north-south routes, such as Warden Avenue, Birchmount Road, McCowan Road and Markham Road. These routes charge riders a double fare if they are travelling across the Steeles border and most Markham residents choose to travel by car instead of public transportation.
GO Transit provides train service on the old trackbed of the Toronto and Nipissing Railway, which connects Markham with downtown Toronto on the Stouffville commuter rail service. The line has stops at several stations in Markham, namely Unionville GO Station, Centennial GO Station, Markham GO Station, and Mount Joy GO Station. The Richmond Hill commuter rail line provides service to the Langstaff GO Station, which straddles Markham and Richmond Hill but is used primarily by residents of west-central Markham and southern Richmond Hill.
Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport, Canada's 11th busiest airport (Ontario's 4th busiest), caters to general aviation and business commuter traffic to Ottawa and Montreal. Operators at Buttonville include:
- NexJet Aviation Inc
- Executive Edge Air Charter
- Aviation Limited
- Canadian Flyers International
- Flightexec, an executive air charter and air ambulance for Ornge (Ontario Air Ambulance)
- Million Air, an executive air charter
- Toronto Airways Limited, a flight training school
- Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology, a College with Aviation Program based here
- Buttonville Flying Club
- Leggat Aviation Ltd., an authorized Cessna Dealership that specializes in new aircraft sales, full service and parts supply
Notable residents 
- Steve Byers
- Paula Brancati
- Hayden Christensen
- Emmanuelle Chriqui
- Christopher Richards
- Shauna Robertson
- Bill Crothers, track and field athlete, Olympic silver medalist, 1964
- Cody Hodgson, National Hockey League hockey player for the Buffalo Sabres
- Ben Johnson, former Canadian sprinter
- Ken Pereira, Canadian field hockey player, Pan American Games medalist
- Jeff Skinner, NHL hockey player for the Carolina Hurricanes
- Steven Stamkos, NHL hockey player for the Tampa Bay Lightning
- Courtenay Stewart, Canadian synchronized swimmer
- Tammy Sutton-Brown, WNBA basketball player
- Steve Thomas, retired NHL hockey player
- Raffi Torres, NHL hockey player for the Phoenix Coyotes
- Stephen Weiss, NHL hockey player for the Florida Panthers
- Ron Wilson, retired NHL hockey player
- Ethan Werek, hockey player
- Michael Del Zotto, NHL hockey player for the New York Rangers
- Mike Zigomanis, AHL hockey player for the Toronto Marlies
- Cameron Gaunce, NHL hockey player for the Colorado Avalanche
- Brendan Gaunce, NHL hockey player for the Vancouver Canucks
- Ash Buchholz, of the band Ubiquitous Synergy Seeker
- Ben Heppner, Canadian dramatic tenor
- Justin Peroff, drummer for the band Broken Social Scene
- Anna Russell, singer and opera parodist
International relations 
Friendship cities 
Sister cities 
- Cary, North Carolina, United States
- Nördlingen, Bavaria, Germany
- Pearland, Texas, United States
- Huadu, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
- Wuhan, Hubei, China
- Las Piñas City, Metro Manila, Philippines
See also 
- Statistics Canada: 2012
- "Markham to change from town to city". CBC News, May 30, 2012.
- "A history of the town of Markham". City of Markham. The Corporation of the City of Markham. 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-09. "In May of 1794, Berczy negotiated with Simcoe for 64,000 acres in Markham Township, soon to be known as the German Company Lands.The Berczy settlers, joined by several Pennsylvania German families, set out for Upper Canada.Sixty-four families arrived that year [...]"
- "A history of the town of Markham". City of Markham. The Corporation of the City of Markham. 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "Labour Force Profile". Economic Profile Year End 2010. Town of Markham Economic Development Department. 2010. p. 10. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Why is Markham Canadaès High-Tech Capital?". Town of Markham. The Corporation of the Town of Markham. 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Top 10 Employers in Markham". Town of Markham. April 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "AMD Locations". AMD. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Career Opportunities". About American Express. American Express. 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Contacting Apple". Apple Inc. Apple Inc. 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Connect with Avaya". Avaya. Avaya Inc. 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "IBM: Helping Canada and the World Work Better". About IBM. IBM. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Office Locations". About Us. Motorola Solutions, Inc. 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- Contact Oracle
- "Contact Us". Support. Toshiba Canada. 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- For a complete history, cf. Isabel Champion, ed., Markham: 1793-1900 (Markham, ON: Markham Historical Society, 1979).
- See I. Champion, Markham: 1793-1900 (Markham, ON: Markham Historical Society, 1979), p. 248; also Markham Village - A Brief History 1800-1919, Markham Public Library (website).
- For a complete history of Markham's early years, cf. Isabel Champion, ed., Markham: 1793-1900 (Markham, ON: Markham Historical Society, 1979).
- Markham, Canadian Gazatteer (Toronto: Roswell, 1849), 111.
- Cf. C.P. Mulvany, et al, The Township of Markham, History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario (Toronto: C.B. Robinson, 1885), 114ff.
- Cf. the detailed 1878 map, Township of Markham, Illustrated historical atlas of the county of York and the township of West Gwillimbury & town of Bradford in the county of Simcoe, Ont. (Toronto : Miles & Co., 1878).
- C.P. Mulvany, et al., "The Village of Markham," History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario (Toronto: C.B. Robinson, 1885), p. 198.
- C.P. Mulvany, et al., "The Township of Markham," History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario (Toronto: C.B. Robinson, 1885), p. 121.
- "Ontario Plaque". Ontarioplaques.com. 2009-09-22. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- "Statistics: Markham, ON". The Weather Network. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Cf. Isabel Champion, ed., Markham: 1793-1900 (Markham, ON: Markham Historical Society, 1979), pp. 225; 121f.; 148; 227; 338. See also articles on Almira from the Stouffville Tribune.
- "Pickering, Ontario (City) Census Subdivision". Community Profiles, Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada.
- "Census Profile for Markham, Town". statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
- TLM The Local Magazine
- "Total aircraft movements by class of operation — NAV CANADA towers". Statcan.gc.ca. 2010-03-12. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- Toronto Airways Limited
- Seneca College
- "Buttonville Flying Club". Buttonville Flying Club. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- "Leggat Aviation". Leggat Aviation. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- Sister Cities International
- The Official Website of the City of Las Piñas, Metro Manila, Philippines
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Markham|
- City of Markham official website (history included)
- Town of Markham history
- Map of Markham Township in 1878
- Markham Youth Theatre
- VivaNext - Highway 7 rapidways project