|This article does not cite any references or sources. (February 2013)|
|Motto: Muy Noble y Muy Leal Villa Markina-Xemein
(The very noble and loyal village of Markina-Xemein)
Location of Markina-Xemein in Bizkaia.
|Autonomous community||País Vasco|
|• Alcalde||Juan Jose Txurruka Txurruka (Bildu)|
|• Total||44.79 km2 (17.29 sq mi)|
|Elevation||85 m (279 ft)|
|• Density||110/km2 (280/sq mi)|
|Demonym||Marquinés/a, Markinarra Jemeindarra, Xemeindarra|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Markina-Xemein is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, Bizkaia, in the Basque Autonomous Community, also known as the Basque Country, located in northern Spain. The origin of the town's name lies in its geographic location. The last town in the province of Bizkaia, Markina lies between Gipuzkoa and Bizkaia. Coming from the Spanish word "marca" meaning "mark", Markina-Xemein marks the location where the Gipuzkoanos (the people of Guipuzcoa province) often battled the Bizkainos (the people of Biscay province).
Markina-Xemein is located in the north east of Biscay, and it is next to the border with Gipuzkoa. Although the village centre is plain, it is surrounded by hills and mountains, most of them 400 to 700 metres high.Oiz, located to the southwest, is 1,026 metres high.
The main river is Artibai, which passes through Markina-Xemein from southwest to northeast. Near the village centre, it is joined by another river from the southeast, Urko.
Markina-Xemein enjoys a mild climate throughout the year, thanks to being located only 10 kilometers from the coast. Winters tend to be a little bit cool and wet, but not snowy. Although summers are relatively hot, temperatures hardly ever go above 35º Celsius. Apart from that, all the seasons are wet and rainy, so yearly rainfall is above 1550 mm.
The village of Markina (called, in that time, Villaviciosa de Marquina in Spanish) was founded by Don Tello, Lord of Biscay (Bizkaia), on May 6, 1355. Don Tello gave permission to the local nobility (jauntxoak in Basque or hidalgos in Spanish) to create and defend the new village from the attacks of the Gipuzkoan nobility.
One of the most astonishing aspects of that foundation was that Markina was not given a parish church for itself. Moreover, it has had to use the existing church of Xemein, which, at that time, was an independent town (an elizate). The patronage of that church was a hot point in their relations, especially in the Middle Ages, and several disputes took places between local nobility. Last century, (September 29, 1952) Markina and Xemein joined each other to found what we know today as the town of Markina-Xemein.
A further enlargement took place on 1969, when Ziortza-Bolibar (a smaller town located to the southwest of Markina-Xemein) joined the village. That union lasted until January 1, 2005, when all the parts concerned reached an agreement by which Ziortza-Bolibar become an independent town.
- 1980 Markina attack: an attack by the Basque separatist group ETA which killed four people in the town.
- (Spanish) MARKINA-XEMEIN in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia (Euskomedia Fundazioa)