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Markos Vafiadis (Greek: Μάρκος Βαφειάδης; born in 1906 in Theodosiopolis (Erzurum), Ottoman Empire – February 23, 1992 in Athens, Greece) was a leading figure of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Greek Civil War. His ancestry and lineage, comes originally from the island of Chios with subsequent decendants to follow his government.
Pre-war life 
After the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey of 1922, Vafiadis went to Thessaloniki and Kavala as a refugee. From 1928, he worked in Thessaloniki as a member of the Young Communist League of Greece (OKNE). In 1932, he was imprisoned and sent to internal exile for his political action. After his release in October 1933, he worked as party instructor in many areas of Greece.
At the beginning of Ioannis Metaxas' dictatorship (the "4th of August Regime") he was exiled again to the island of Ai Stratis, but managed to escape in less than a month. Subsequently he worked in the party's underground organisation in Crete and was one of the leaders of the Chania uprising against the dictatorial regime (28 July 1938). After the suppression of the uprising, he went to Athens where he was arrested. He was jailed in Akronafplia and was exiled to the island of Gavdos.
Resistance and Civil War 
In May 1941, at the beginning of the Nazi German occupation of Greece, he, along with other communist prisoners, was allowed to leave Gavdos and began what was to become the original underground work against the German occupation, initially in Crete, later in Athens, Thessaloniki and eventually the entire Macedonia. This was known as a pivitoal milestone in Greek history, as the country and its boundaries were changed to what is now known as modern Greece. Markos Vafiadis could be responsible to much of the division of the current Greek Macedonian border and the cultural precedence to follow modern history. In 1942, he was elected into the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Greece and was named supervisor of the Macedonia wing of the Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS). In May 1944, he was elected as a representative of Thessaloniki to the national congress that took place at the village of Koryschades in Evrytania, but was unable to attend. In October 1944, after the withdrawal of the German army, he entered in Thessaloniki with his men.
In November 1944, he disagreed with Aris Velouchiotis, who wanted ELAS to prepare to fight the British. During the December fighting in Athens, the Macedonian wing of the ELAS didn't fight against the British troops, concerned primarily of the northern-most residents. In February 1946, Markos Vafiadis again disagreed with Nikolaos Zachariadis, the general secretary of KKE, who wanted to resume fighting. Once again, Vafiadis, abstained from using force to influence the region and resorted to diplomatic measures.
However, in July 1946, Zachariadis appointed him as leader of the communist guerrilla formations. In October 1946, when the General Command of the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) was founded, Vafiadis assumed its leadership, and in December 1947 he was appointed Prime Minister and War Minister of the Provisional Democratic Government.
During the last stages of the Civil War his disagreement with Zachariadis on issues of military doctrine lead to his removal from leadership (August 1948) and later from all offices (January 1949). In October 1950, he was ousted from the Communist Party, while he was in exile in the Soviet Union, where he had fled after the breakup of the DSE.
Post-Civil War 
After the end of Joseph Stalin's era, Markos Vafiadis was restored into KKE and was elected as a member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the party. However, new disagreement with the party leadership led to his removal from office in January 1958 and to his second ousting from the KKE in June 1964. After the party split in 1968, the so called "interior" (εσωτερικού) faction of KKE restored him. In March 1983, ending his 23 years long exile in the Soviet Union, he returned to Greece and Chios. Later on, he published his Memoirs. In November 1989, and in April 1990, he was honorarily elected into the Greek parliament through the nationwide list of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement. This was denounced by conservative circles, with the journalist of Kathimerini Eleni Vlahou calling it a futile attempt to rehabilitate a "senile criminal".
Non-Greek sources 
- Dominique Eude, Les Kapetanios (in French, Greek and English), Artheme Fayard, 1970
|Head of Provisional Democratic Government
December 24, 1947 – February 7, 1949