The Marlboro Man is a figure used in tobacco advertising campaign for Marlboro cigarettes. In the United States, where the campaign originated, it was used from 1954 to 1999. The Marlboro Man was first conceived by Leo Burnett in 1954. The image involves a rugged cowboy or cowboys, in nature with only a cigarette. The advertisements were originally conceived as a way to popularize filtered cigarettes, which at the time were considered feminine.
The Marlboro advertising campaign, created by Leo Burnett Worldwide, is said to be one of the most brilliant advertisement campaigns of all time. It transformed a feminine campaign, with the slogan "Mild as May", into one that was masculine, in a matter of months. Although there were many Marlboro Men, the cowboy proved to be the most popular. This led to the "Marlboro Cowboy" and "Marlboro Country" campaigns.
Philip Morris & Co. (now Altria) had originally introduced the Marlboro brand as a woman's cigarette in 1924. Starting in the early 1950s, the cigarette industry began to focus on promoting filtered cigarettes, as a response to the emerging scientific data about harmful effects of smoking. Marlboro, as well as other brands, started to be sold with filters. However, filtered cigarettes, Marlboro in particular, were considered to be women’s cigarettes. Advertising executive Leo Burnett was looking for a new image with which to reinvent Philip Morris' Marlboro brand to directly compete with Camel, the industry leader. To this end, he put into play the Marlboro Man. Actors, for the most part, played the role of Marlboro Man. They appeared in a number of different venues from carpenter to cowboy. Sales soared, but the Camel objective remained elusive. Circa 1963, Leo Burnett took the most effective parts of the Marlboro Man campaign and forged a new expression. Among all the professions utilized in the The Marlboro Man campaign, the cowboy stood out as the top performer. Thus, maybe because of intention, or maybe because of circumstance, when the new Marlboro Country theme opened in late 1963, the actors utilized as Marlboro Man were replaced, for the most part, with real working cowboys in this new campaign. One of the first of this new breed of real cowboys was Max Bryan "Turk" Robinson, of Hugo, Oklahoma; Turk says that he was recruited for the role while at a rodeo simply standing around behind the chutes, as was the custom for cowboys who had not yet ridden their event. It took only a few years for the results to register. By 1972, the new Marlboro Man would have had so much market appeal that Marlboro cigarettes were catapulted to the top of the tobacco industry.
Using another approach to expand the Marlboro Man market base, Philip Morris felt the prime market was “post adolescent kids who were just beginning to smoke as a way of declaring their independence from their parents.”  Most filtered cigarette advertising sought to make claims about the technology behind the filter: through the use of complex terminology and scientific claims regarding the filter, the cigarette industry wanted to ease fears about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking through risk reduction. However, Leo Burnett decided to address the growing fears through an entirely different approach: creating ads completely void of health concerns or health claims of the filtered cigarette. Burnett felt that making claims about the effectiveness of filters furthered concerns of the long-term effects of smoking. Thus, refusing to respond to health claims matched the emergent, masculine image of the New Marlboro. Burnett's inspiration for the exceedingly masculine "Marlboro Man" icon came in 1949 from an issue of LIFE magazine, whose photograph (shot by Leonard McCombe) and story of Texas cowboy Clarence Hailey Long caught his attention. The New Marlboro also included images of other masculine occupations such as sea captains, athletes, and gunsmiths. However, after 1963, the focus narrowed to the cowboy, and all things cowboy. Expressed as Marlboro Man and Marlboro Country.
Finding the Marlboro Man
Initially, commercials involving the Marlboro Man featured paid models, such as William Thourlby, pretending to carry out cowboy tasks. However, Burnett felt that the commercials lacked authenticity, as it was pretty apparent that the subjects were not real cowboys and did not have the desired rugged look. One of the finest was a non-smoking rodeo cowboy, Max Bryan "Turk" Robinson, who was recruited at a rodeo. (Turk lives in Hugo, Oklahoma and is alive and well as of March 13, 2013.) Leo Burnett was not satisfied with the cowboy actors found. Broadway and MGM movie actor Christian Haren won the role as the first Marlboro Man in the early 1960s as he looked the part. Burnett then came across Darrell Winfield, who worked on a ranch. Leo Burnett’s creative director was awed when he first saw Winfield: “I had seen cowboys, but I had never seen one that just really, like, he sort of scared the hell out of me (as he was so much a real cowboy).” Winfield’s immediate authenticity led to his 20-year run as the Marlboro Man, which lasted until the late 1980s. Upon Winfield’s retirement, Philip Morris reportedly spent $300 million searching for a new Marlboro Man.
After appearing as the Marlboro Man in 1987 advertising, former rodeo cowboy Brad Johnson landed a lead role in Steven Spielberg's feature film Always (1989), with Holly Hunter and Richard Dreyfuss.
The use of the Marlboro Man campaign had very significant and immediate effects on sales. In 1955, when the Marlboro Man campaign was started, sales were at $5 billion. By 1957, sales were at $20 billion, representing a 300% increase within two years. Philip Morris easily overcame growing health concerns through the Marlboro Man campaign, highlighting the success as well as the tobacco industry’s strong ability to use mass marketing to influence consumers.
The immediate success of the Marlboro Man campaign led to heavy imitation. Old Golds adopted the tagline marking it a cigarette for “independent thinkers". Chesterfield depicted cowboy and other masculine occupations to match their tagline: “Men of America” smoke Chesterfields.
Three men who claimed to have appeared in Marlboro-related advertisements—Wayne McLaren, David McLean, and Dick Hammer—died of lung cancer, thus earning Marlboro cigarettes, specifically Marlboro Reds, the nickname "Cowboy killers". McLaren testified in favor of anti-smoking legislation at the age of 51. During the time of McLaren's anti-smoking activism, Philip Morris denied that McLaren ever appeared in a Marlboro ad, a position it later amended to maintain that while he did appear in ads, he was not the Marlboro Man; Winfield held that title. In response, McLaren produced an affidavit from a talent agency that had represented him and a pay check stub asserting he had been paid for work on a "Marlboro print" job. McLaren died before his 52nd birthday in 1992.
In many countries, the Marlboro Man is an icon of the past due to increasing pressure on tobacco advertising for health reasons, especially where the practice of smoking appears to be celebrated or glorified. The deaths described above may also have made it more difficult to use the campaign without attracting negative comment. The Marlboro Man image continued until recently, at least in countries such as Germany and the Czech Republic. It still continues in Japan (on tobacco vending machines, for example), where smoking is widespread in the male population.
Death In the West
Death In the West, a Thames Television documentary, is an exposé of the cigarette industry that aired on British television in 1976 and exposes the myth of the Marlboro Man. In its March/April 1996 issue, Mother Jones said of Death in the West: "It is one of the most powerful anti-smoking films ever made. You will never see it." The second sentence refers to the fact that Philip Morris sued the filmmakers, and in a 1979 secret settlement all copies were suppressed. However, in 1983, Professor Stanton A. Glantz released the film and San Francisco's then NBC affiliate KRON-TV aired the documentary in 1982. Since then it has been seen around the world,
The California Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation, in cooperation with the Risk and Youth: Smoking Project Lawrence Hall of Science University of California, Berkeley, created a manual to accompany the film, titled "A Curriculum for Death in the West". The first two paragraphs of the Introduction read:
The California Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation is pleased to provide this booklet containing a self-contained curriculum for upper elementary and junior high school students to supplement the viewing of "Death in the West." Considered by many to be the most powerful anti-smoking documentary ever made, "Death in the West" contrasts the advertising image of the "Marlboro Man" with the reality of six American cowboys dying of cigarette-related illnesses. The film, produced in England in 1976 and later suppressed by the Philip Morris Company, makers of Marlboro cigarattes, illustrates the intrinsically false nature of cigarette advertising. It makes the Marlboro Man less attractive.
The "Death in the West" Curriculum is designed to maximize the educational and emotional impact of seeing the documentary. The curriculum is based on a comprehensive smoking prevention program created and tested by the Risk and Youth: Smoking Project of the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley. The activities included here were developed in classrooms throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and adapted specifically for use with the airing of "Death in the West" by KRON-TV of San Francisco.
In popular culture
Artist Richard Prince's series known as the Cowboys (produced from 1980 to 1992 and ongoing) is his most famous group of appropriated rephotographs. Taken from Marlboro cigarette advertisements of the Marlboro Man, they represent an idealized figure of American masculinity while questioning the authenticity of media images.
The Marlboro Man was portrayed by Don Johnson in the film Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man (1991). Although the name "Marlboro Man" was used, like several other products that shared the same name as one of the characters, the company did not sponsor or endorse the film itself.
In the Coen brothers' 1996 movie Fargo (1996), a witness relates that the character played by Peter Stormare resembles the Marlboro man, but she might just be saying that "because he smoked a lot of Marlboros".
In Tony Kushner's play Angels in America (1993), the character Prior despairs of his former lover's current boyfriend, Joe, and Joe's handsome, masculine appearance, declaring: "He's the Marlboro Man, he made me feel beyond Nelly..."
The band Alabama refers to the Marlboro Man in their song "Cheap Seats": "We sit below the Marlboro man, above the right field wall."
A line in Jason Aldean's song "Dirt Road Anthem" mentions the Marlboro Man: "King in the can and the Marlboro Man, Jack 'n Jim were a few good men."
The band Harvey Danger refer to the Marlboro Man in their song "Sad Sweetheart of the Rodeo": "The Marlboro Man died of cancer, and he wasn't a rocket scientist when he was healthy."
In My Name Is Earl, season 1, episode 12 ("O Karma, Where Art Thou?"), Earl is referred to as "Marlboro Man" at a fast food restaurant, where he is working to make up for an item on his list, by his boss (played by Jon Favreau).
In the Seinfeld episode "The Abstinence", Cosmo Kramer sues a tobacco company but settles out of court. His settlement is the placement of his face as that of the Marlboro Man's on a billboard in Times Square.
In The Good Wife season 1, episode 15 ("Bang"), Diane Lockhart (Christine Baranski) remarks about ballistics expert Kurt McVeigh (guest star Gary Cole) when she first meets him, due to his cowboy appearance and manners: "I think I have just been visited by the Marlboro Man..."
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