Marleen Gorris (born 9 December 1948, Roermond) is a writer-director from the Netherlands. Gorris is known as an outspoken feminist and supporter of gay and lesbian issues which is reflected in much of her work. In 1995 she won an Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film for Antonia's Line, this made her the first woman to direct a movie that won an Oscar for Best Foreign Film.
Gorris was born in the Limburg region in Roermond in 1948. She was born to Protestant working-class parents in the very Catholic southern part of the Netherlands. Gorris studied drama at home and abroad. She studied Drama at the University of Amsterdam and has an MA in Drama from the University of Birmingham, England. She has a brother, Henk Gorris, who teaches History. She began working as a filmmaker with almost no previous experience in the cinema and made an auspicious writing and directorial debut in 1982 with A Question of Silence. The Dutch government gave her the funding to finance the project.
It was not until the age of 30 that Gorris began writing scripts. Gorris took her first effort to the great Belgian filmmaker Chantal Akerman, hoping to interest her in directing it. Akerman, however, told Gorris that she must make the film herself. The result, A Question of Silence (1982), caused considerable international controversy with its story about three unacquainted women who murder a randomly chosen man, the film was hailed by some as a logical case study of what happens when women are driven to the brink by a male-dominated society, while others decried it as a juvenile revenge fantasy. Gorris was honored in her homeland with the Netherlands' Golden Calf Award and earned a reputation as a subversive new filmmaker. The title A Question of Silence works on several levels. First, it suggests the patriarchal refusal to hear women’s voices: at business meetings, the secretary’s insights are ignored; the waitress routinely endures her male customers’ sexist remarks; and the housewife bears a poignant isolation and melancholy. The title also alludes to the women’s shared silence, suggesting that it can function as a tool of solidarity and empowerment.
Gorris followed up A Question of Silence (1982), with her second film, Broken Mirrors (1984). Set amongst a group of prostitutes in an Amsterdam brothel, the film re-examined some of the themes at play in Gorris' previous feature, particularly in its analysis of the ways in which the patriarchy (literally) starves and strangles women. Viewed as even more radical than Christine M, it was greeted with predictably mixed reactions, although many critics recognized it as a deeply insightful, albeit disturbing, look at the sexual threats (both literal and metaphorical) directed at women in everyday life.
Gorris did not make another film until 1990, when she directed The Last Island (1991). An allegory on the human condition, the film, which told the story of a group of people (two women and five men) and a dog stranded on an island, was dubbed by one critics as "a feminist Lord of the Flies for the '90s." Another indictment of male power - the women are seen as the only balanced, sane people in the group, while the men constantly fall victim to stupidity and violence. The Last Island (1991) furthered Gorris' reputation as an insightful and uncompromising feminist filmmaker.
Gorris had her greatest international success to date in 1995 with Antonia's Line (1995). The story of a fiercely independent woman (Willeke van Ammelrooy) and her descendants, it was not as radical as the director's previous work, although a number of male critics complained that the men in the film were portrayed as either ineffectual idiots or potential rapists. However, critical support for the film was overwhelming, and it was honored with a number of international awards, including a Golden Calf and a Best Foreign Film Oscar.
Her next film, Mrs. Dalloway (1997) was based on the novel by Virginia Woolf. Featuring a script by Eileen Atkins and a cast that included Vanessa Redgrave, Rupert Graves, and Natascha McElhone, the film earned a number of international honors, including an Evening Standard British Film Award.
The Luzhin Defence (2000) is based upon a novel by Vladimir Nabokov. The film tells the story of the love affair between an eccentric chess champion (John Turturro) and a strong-willed society woman (Emily Watson).
Gorris’s 2009 film Within the Whirlwind, is set during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge and based on the chief protagonist Evgenia Ginzburg's highly acclaimed account of her experience of those years. A literature professor, she is falsely convicted of anti-Soviet agitation and sentenced to 10 years hard labor in a Soviet concentration camp. Having lost everything, and no longer wishing to live, she meets Dr. Anton Walter (Ulrich Tukur), a Crimean German political prisoner who is a camp doctor in Kolyma. He recommends her for a position as a nurse in the camp infirmary. They fall in love and, slowly, Evgenia begins to come back to life.
Marleen Gorris is hailed as a feminist filmmaker. She takes on subjects of violence and sexual violence not really addressed by other female filmmakers.
- A Question of Silence (1982)
- Broken Mirrors (1984)
- The Last Island (1991)
- Antonia's Line (1995)
- Mrs. Dalloway (1997)
- The Luzhin Defence (2000)
- Carolina (2003)
- Directed an episode of The L Word (2007)
- Within the Whirlwind (2009)
- Netherlands' Golden Calf Award for A Question of Silence (1982)
- Netherlands' Golden Calf Award for Antonia's Line (1995)
- Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film for Antonia's Line (1995)
- Evening Standard British Film Award for Mrs. Dalloway (1997)
"Biography for Marleen Gorris." IMDb. IMDb.com. <http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0331296/bio>.
"Marleen Gorris- Biography." Yahoo! Movies. <http://movies.yahoo.com/person/marleen-gorris/biography.html>.
"Marleen Gorris - Biography - Movies & TV - NYTimes.com." Movie Reviews, Showtimes and Trailers. <http://movies.nytimes.com/person/92158/Marleen-Gorris/biography>.
Johnson, William. "A Question of Silence." JSTOR. <http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3697389?searchUrl=/action/doBasicSearch?Query=marleen+gorris&acc=on&wc=on>.
- "Biography for Marleen Gorris." IMDb. IMDb.com. <http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0331296/bio>.
- "Marleen Gorris - Biography - Movies & TV - NYTimes.com." Movie Reviews, Showtimes and Trailers. <http://movies.nytimes.com/person/92158/Marleen-Gorris/biography>.
- "Marleen Gorris- Biography." Yahoo! Movies. <http://movies.yahoo.com/person/marleen-gorris/biography.html>.
- "Marleen Gorris Films | Marleen Gorris Filmography | Marleen Gorris Biography | Marleen Gorris Career | Marleen Gorris Awards." Film Director. <http://www.filmdirectorssite.com/marleen-gorris>.
- Maguire, Stephen (28 September 2008). "She's a beauty... and just perfect to play the role of the most amazing MALE doc ever; EXCLUSIVE HEARTACHE BEHIND NATASCHA'S SMILE.". Sunday Mirror. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
- Baumgarten, Marjorie. "Screens: "Antonia's Line Is a Dutch Treat"" Austin News, Events, Restaurants, Music. <http://www.austinchronicle.com/issues/vol15/issue30/screens.gorris.html>.
- "Marleen Gorris Interview." Official Music Videos. <http://www.contactmusic.com/interview/mgorris>.
- Silverstein, Melissa. "Interview with Marleen Gorris and Nancy Larson Director and Writer of Within the Whirlwind." Interview with Marleen Gorris and Nancy Larson Director and Writer of Within the Whirlwind. 4 Feb. 2010. Web. <http://womenandhollywood.com/2010/02/04/interview-with-marleen-gorris-and-nancy-larson-director-and-writer-of-within-the-whirlwind/>.
- Stone, Alan A. "Gorris's Dalloway: An Early Nomination for next Year's Oscars." Boston Review — Home. <http://bostonreview.net/BR23.2/stone.html>.