Marocchinate (pronounced [marokkiˈnate], Italian for "Moroccans' deeds") is a term applied to the mass rape and killings committed during World War II after the Battle of Monte Cassino in Italy. These were committed mainly by the Goumiers, Moroccan colonial troops of the French Expeditionary Corps (FEC), commanded by General Alphonse Juin. Over 60,000 women, between the ages of 11 to 86, were raped. Men who attempted to protect them were also killed.
The monument "Mamma Ciociara" was erected in remembrance of the women who were killed during the Marocchinate.
Goumiers were colonial irregular troops forming the "Goums Marocains", which were approximately company-sized units rather loosely grouped in "Tabors" (battalions) and Groups (regiments). Three of these units ( the 1st, 3rd, 4th Groupements de Tabors) served in the FEC along with the four regular divisions: the 1st Free French Division, the 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division, the 3rd Algerian Infantry Division and the 4th Moroccan Mountain Division. The French: Goums Marocains were commanded by General Augustin Guillaume.
On May 14, 1944, the Goumiers travelled over seemingly impassable terrain in the Aurunci Mountains, outflanked the German defence in the adjacent Liri valley, materially assisting British XIII Corps to break the Gustav Line and advance to the next Wehrmacht prepared defensive position, the Hitler Line.
General Alphonse Juin allegedly declared before the battle, "For fifty hours you will be the absolute masters of what you will find beyond the enemy. Nobody will punish you for what you will do, nobody will ask you about what you will get up to."
Monte Cassino was captured by the Allies on May 18, 1944. The next night, thousands of Goumiers and other colonial troops scoured the slopes of the hills surrounding the town and the villages of Ciociaria (in South Latium). Over 60,000 women, ranging in age from 11 to 86, suffered from violence, when village after village came under control of the Goumiers. Civilian men who tried to protect their wives and daughters were murdered. The number of men killed has been estimated at 800.
The mayor of Esperia, a comune in the Province of Frosinone, reported that in his town, 700 women out of 2,500 inhabitants were raped resulting in many deaths. According to some sources, a total of more than 7,000 civilians, including children, were raped by Goumiers.
In 1957, the Italian writer Alberto Moravia wrote the novel La Ciociara based on the mass rape. It is the drama of a mother and her daughter, both raped by the Goumiers. The novel was made into a movie, Two Women, directed by Vittorio de Sica and starring Sophia Loren. In 1960, Loren won the Academy Award for Best Actress. This was the first time an actress won an Academy award for a non-English-speaking role.
- French: Corps Expéditionaire Français (CEF) or Corps Expéditionaire Français en Italie (CEFI)
- (Italian) "Crimini di Guerra in Ciociaria" [War Crimes in Ciociaria]. Dal Volturno a Cassino.
- (Italian) "Seduta Notturna Di Lunedì 7 Aprile 1952" [Sitting by Night: Monday, August 7, 1952]. Chamber of Deputies.
- (Italian) "1952: Il caso delle "marocchinate" al Parlamento". Retrieved 2008-11-22.
- (Italian) Mamma Ciociara
- (Italian) La Mamma Ciociara
- (French) Baris, Tommaso. "Le corps expéditionnaire français en Italie – Violences des " libérateurs " durant l’été 1944" [The French Expeditionary Corps in Italy – Violence of the "liberators" during the summer of 1944].
- (Italian) Baris, Tommaso (2004). Tra due fuochi: Esperienza e memoria della guerra lungo la linea Gustav. Laterza. ISBN 978-88-420-7108-2.
- Bimberg, Edward L. "Augustin-Leon Guillaume's Goums in a Modern War". Weider History Group. It praises the fighting ability in difficult terrain and "Unfortunately for the Goumiers, their military success did not prevent their fearsome reputation from taking its toll as exceptional numbers of Moroccans were executed—many without trial—for allegedly murdering, raping, and pillaging their way across the Italian countryside."
- (French) Comments about the mass rape in Ciociaria, with video from Two Women (the rape by the goumiers)[dead link]
- (Italian) De Luna, Giovanni. "La ciociara e le altre" [La Ciociara and the others]. Archived from the original on 2009-01-13.
- (Italian) Frezza, Daria. "Cassino 1943–44: La memoria".
- Holland, James (2008). Italy's Sorrow – A year of war, 1944–45. London: Harper Press. ISBN 978-0-00-717645-8.
- (Italian) "I marocchini di Juin "riscattano" l'onore della Francia" [Juin's Moroccans "redeem" the honour of Free France]. Dal Volturno a Cassino.
- Johnston, Bruce (11 May 1997). "Italian women win cash for wartime rapes". International News Electronic Telegraph.[dead link]
- (Italian) "Le Marocchinate". Istituto tecnico Luca Pacioli Crema.
- (Italian) No War. "Lo stupro di massa degli alleati" [The mass rape of the Allies]. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09.
- Peterson, Allan (1998). "Pizza Man's Atrocity Hunt". San Diego Reader. (Anecdotal allegations of war crimes committed by Goumiers in Italy)
- (Italian) "Senate of the Italian Republic: project of law for the victims of war rapes". July 25, 1996.
- Weisbord, Robert G.; Honhart, Michael W (Winter 2002). "A Question of Race: Pope Pius XII and the "Coloured Troops" in Italy". The Historian 65 (2): 403–417. doi:10.1111/1540-6563.00026.