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The Marree Man, or Stuart's Giant, is a modern geoglyph discovered by air on 26 June 1998. It appears to depict an indigenous Australian man hunting birds or wallabies with a throwing stick. It lies on a plateau at Finnis Springs 60 km west of the township of Marree in central South Australia. It is just outside the 127,000 square kilometres (49,000 sq mi) Woomera Prohibited Area. The figure is 4.2 km (2.6 mi) tall with a perimeter of 15 by 28 kilometres (9.3 mi × 17 mi). Although it is the second largest geoglyph in the world, its origin remains a mystery, with not a single witness to any part of the expansive operation. The name "Stuart's Giant" was given to it in a fax sent to the media anonymously by those believed to have created the figure, after John McDouall Stuart.
Shortly after its discovery, the site was closed by the South Australian government following legal action taken in late July by Native Title Claimants but, as of 2010[update], joy flights were still allowed over the site as Native title falls under federal government jurisdiction.
The lines of the figure were 20–30 cm deep at the time of discovery and up to 35 metres wide.
Selecting a suitable site would have required aerial photography or satellite imagery. Using a computer, the figure could have been superimposed over the photograph and adjusted to fit the geography with the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates mapped out. Some surveying skills would have been needed to plot the outline, and then with the aid of a hand-held global positioning system stakes could have been placed every hundred metres or so.
The image is gradually eroding through natural processes, but because the climate is extremely dry and barren in the region, the image is still visible as of 2013[update]. While there is a layer of white chalk material slightly below the red soil, the figure was not defined to this depth.
Trevor Wright, a charter pilot flying between Marree and Coober Pedy in the remote north of South Australia spotted the figure from the air on 26 June 1998. The discovery of the geoglyph fascinated Australians due to its size and the mystery surrounding how it came to be there. At the time of the discovery there was only one track entering and one track exiting the site and no footprints or tyre marks were discernible.
Shane Anderson from the William Creek Hotel, located 200 km north-west of the town of Marree claimed the hotel received an anonymous fax describing the location of the artwork, but they ignored it, dismissing the fax as a joke.
Anonymous press releases
Several anonymous press releases which appeared following the discovery led to the suggestion that the Marree Man was created by people from the United States. The releases quoted measurements in miles, yards and inches, instead of the metric system usually used in Australia. This would be unusual for an Australian press release, but since the metric system was only introduced in Australia in the early 1970s, older Australians still often quote imperial measurements. The releases also said "your State of SA", "Queensland Barrier Reef" and mentioned Aborigines "from the local Indigenous Territories", terms not used by Australians. The press releases also mentioned the Great Serpent in Ohio, which is not well known outside the US. But it has been conjectured that these features of the press releases may have been red herrings, inserted to provide the illusion of American authorship.
When the site was discovered, several items were found in a small pit: what appeared to be a satellite photo of the figure, a jar containing a small flag of the US, and a note which referred to the Branch Davidians, a religious group infamous for being attacked in the Waco raid in 1993. These were the only man-made items found at the site when it was discovered.
Artist Christopher Headley says that he sent two letters, one to Colonel Tom Meade, the head of the former US-Australian Joint Defense Facility Nurrungar, to ask about the possibility of making a permanent commemoration of the American presence in Australia. This could have inspired the idea of creating a geoglyph among locals.
In January 1999, officials were told about a plaque buried 5 metres south of the nose of the figure, by way of a fax which was received via a hotel in Oxford, England. The fax also said that the plaque was intended to have been dug up by a "prominent US media figure" shortly before the Sydney 2000 Olympics. Similar clues were said to be buried near the Cerne Abbas giant near Dorset and the Long Man of Wilmington, Sussex, in England. The plaque has a 3 centimetres (1.2 in) long by 2 centimetres (0.79 in) wide American flag and an imprint of the Olympic rings. It reads:
In honour of the land they once knew. His attainments in these pursuits are extraordinary; a constant source of wonderment and admiration.
The quote on the plaque buried at the figure comes from a book, "The Red Centre", by H.H. Finlayson, in a section describing the hunting of wallabies with throwing sticks and with photographs of hunters without loin cloths and with other details like the "Marree Man". In the book it can be deduced that the subject is a hunter from the Pitjantjatjara tribe.
Bardius Goldberg, a Northern Territory artist who died in 2002 and lived at Alice Springs, has been suggested as the creator of the work. Goldberg, who was known to be interested in creating a work visible from space, refused to either confirm or deny that he had created the image when questioned. A close friend said Goldberg was given $10,000 at the time of the Marree Man's discovery.
Much of the public and media reaction to the discovery of the figure was positive. The Advertiser, the state's only daily newspaper, called for the figure to be made permanent by excavating the outline down to the white chalk layer.
At the time of discovery, the area was part of a Federal Court legal battle through the National Native Title Tribunal to determine the "traditional owners". The area was claimed by both the Arabunna people and the Dieri Mitha who had been in dispute for several years. The Dieri Mitha publicly complained of harm and exploitation of the Dreamtime, calling for the image to be erased and for the artist to be prosecuted. As Native Title Claimants, the Dieri Mitha took legal action to stop charter flights and vehicles visiting the site, prompting the state government to close the area to the public shortly after discovery. The Arabunna replied to the issue through a solicitor who stated that the area covered points of archaeological interest and that the artist could be prosecuted. In May 2012, the Federal Court handed native title to the Arabunna people.
Authenticity of the figure
While the figure was shown nude, if the picture were copied from a 19th-century photograph it has been said that it may have had a loin cloth. There was also initially some question as to whether the figure is holding a throwing stick or a boomerang, but these issues seem to have been resolved following discovery of the plaque and the origin of the plaque quote and likely source photographs of similar nude hunters. The hand which is not throwing has the correct posture in the normal Aboriginal technique for throwing. The initiation scars placed on the chest have also been said to have been placed perfectly. The figure appears to be an amalgam of the body of a man photographed in the distinctive throwing stance and the head of another man wearing a headband and chignon.
- "WOOMERA PROHIBITED AREA". Four Wheel Drive South Australia. 14 April 2002. Retrieved 05 November 2013.
- "Marree Man Update".
- Push to spruce up mysterious desert artwork - Australian Broadcasting Corporation - Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "Trash City: News you may have missed". February 1999.
- "Marree Man - The Evidence". Archived from the original on 2006-02-26.
- "Marree Man - Australia 1998". Archived from the original on 2005-02-07.
- Corcoran, Dee (23 August 2002). "Marree man still a mystery". Northern Territory News (News Limited). Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- In January 1995 the two groups had fought over the issue, leaving one dead and ten injured. In May 1998, only one month before the discovery of the geoglyph, the National Native Title Tribunal took the issue to the Federal Court. Although a resolution was expected to be reached quickly, the case was eventually to take 14 years before the Federal Court was able make a ruling.
- Leave our land alone The Advertiser July 17, 1998 State Library of South Australia
- Court ruling on Eyre handover The Australian May 22, 2012
- Marree Man is at coordinates Coordinates:
- View in Google Maps: "Google Maps". Maps.google.com. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- Audio Interviews with Brad Thompson, Marree-based pilot: Centenary of Federation - Connecting the Continent
- UFO Updates: Skywatch: New Clues To Marree Man Mystery at the Wayback Machine (archived September 15, 2007)