The Marshall Super Lead Model 1959 is a guitar amplifier head made by Marshall. One of the famous Marshall Plexis, it was introduced in 1965 and with its associated 4x12" cabinets gave rise to the "Marshall stack".
The 1959 (Marshall's identifying numbers are not years of manufacture), first produced in 1965 and made until 1981 (when it was replaced by the JCM-800), is an amplifier in Marshall's "Standard" series. One of its raisons d'etre was a request by Pete Townshend, who asked Marshall to make a 100 watt amplifier; Ken Bran and Dudley Craven of Marshall's development team complied. Its output was first channeled into an 8x12" cabinet, but that single, unwieldy cabinet was quickly changed to a set of 4x12" cabinets, creating the "Marshall stack". The amplifier also came as a PA and a bass version.
In 1969, Marshall replaced the Plexiglas panel with one of gold aluminum. There were other modifications: In 1966, the KT66 tubes of the JTM-models were replaced with EL34. After 1976, the plate voltages were lowered slightly for improved reliability. But during the 1970s, Marshall's increasing exports overseas led to a problem: Often the EL34 tubes would break during transportation, to the point where amps began being shipped from the factory with more rugged Tung-Sol 6550 tubes, which are "stiffer and not as harmonically rich" as the EL34 tubes.
The amplifier was reissued for the first time in 1988 (the 1959S), and again from 1991 to 1993 (the 1959X) and from 1993 to 1995 (the 1959 SLP). In 2005, Marshall introduced the 1959 HW (for "hand-wired"), based on the 1967-1969 models, with negative feedback added corresponding to the 1969 model. This amplifier was called "expensive but good". Guitar Player magazine called the 1959 "monumentally huge, frightfully loud, and painfully expensive", and its review of the 1959HW said it was "quick, percussive, articulate", and required a "total commitment to volume".
The 1959 had 100 watts of power, two channels, and four inputs. They were equipped with four KT66 tubes, but models made after 1967 had four EL34 tubes; it had three ECC83 tubes in the pre-amplification stage. A model with tremolo, the 1959T, was available until 1973.
The amplifier had four inputs into two channels. The lead channel has a boosted bright tone, and the rhythm channel has a flat response. Each channel has a high and a low gain input; the low gain input is attenuated by 6 dB. The channels can be linked with a jumper cable.
Notable early users
Besides Pete Townshend of The Who, early users include Eric Clapton, who in 1966, when he founded Cream, traded in his famous Bluesbreaker combo for a 1959 Plexi, and Jimi Hendrix, who used a 1959 with four 4x12" cabinets (his "couple of great refrigerators") at the 1969 Woodstock Festival and established the Marshall as the "definitive rock amp".
Other notable users
- Angus Young
- Eddie Van Halen 
- Billie Joe Armstrong
- Jason White
- Jimi Hendrix
- Graham Coxon
- Jimmy Page
- Johnny Ramone
- Pete Townshend
- Ace Frehley
- Blue Book of Guitar Amplifiers, Zachary R. (2008). Blue Book of Guitar Amplifiers 3. Alfred Music. pp. 335–36. ISBN 978-1-886768-59-8.
- Boehnlein, John (1998). The High Performance Marshall Handbook: A Guide to Great Marshall Amplifier Sounds. Bold Strummer. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-933224-80-3.
- Pittmann, Aspen (2003). The Tube Amp Book. Hal Leonard. pp. 72–74. ISBN 978-0-87930-767-7.
- Millard, A.J. (2004). The electric guitar: a history of an American icon. JHU Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-8018-7862-6.
- Doyle, Michael (1993). The history of Marshall: the illustrated story of "the sound of rock". Hal Leonard. p. 37.
- Molenda, Michael (June 2008). "The Homogenization of Rock Guitar Tone". Guitar Player 42 (6): 76–78.
- Guppy, Nick (3 November 2008). "Bad Cat BC 50". MusicRadar. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "Marshall 1959HW Owner's Manual". Marshall Amplification. pp. 1, 3. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- Balmer, Paul; Hank Marvin (2007). The Fender Stratocaster Handbook: How to Buy, Maintain, Set Up, Troubleshoot, and Modify Your Strat. MBI. pp. 156–57. ISBN 978-0-7603-2983-2.
- Buddingh, Terry (December 2005). "Marshall 1959HW Super Lead 100". Guitar Player 39 (12): 176–78.
- "Marshall 1959HW Owner's Manual". Marshall Amplification. p. 6. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- Gulla, Bob (2008). Guitar Gods: The 25 Players Who Made Rock History. ABC-CLIO. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-313-35806-7.
- Hunter, Dave (Hal Leonard). Guitar rigs: classic guitar & amp combinations. 2005. p. 113. Check date values in:
- Trynka, Paul (1996). Rock Hardware. Hal Leonard. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-87930-428-7.
- Prown, Pete; Lisa Sharken (2003). Gear Secrets of the Guitar Legends: How to Sound Like Your Favorite Players. Hal Leonard. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-87930-751-6.