Marshall County, Oklahoma

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Marshall County, Oklahoma
Map of Oklahoma highlighting Marshall County
Location in the state of Oklahoma
Map of the United States highlighting Oklahoma
Oklahoma's location in the U.S.
Founded 1907
Seat Madill
Largest city Madill
Area
 • Total 427 sq mi (1,106 km2)
 • Land 371 sq mi (961 km2)
 • Water 56 sq mi (145 km2), 13.08%
Population (Est.)
 • (2012) 15,957
 • Density 37/sq mi (14/km²)
Congressional district 2nd
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Website marshall.okcounties.org

Marshall County is a county located on the south central border of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,840.[1] Its county seat is Madill.[2] The county was created at statehood in 1907 from the former Pickens County of the Chickasaw Nation. It was named to honor the maiden name of the mother of George Henshaw, a member of the 1906 Oklahoma Constitutional Convention.[3]

History[edit]

The area covered by Marshall County was part of the territory set aside by the U.S. government for resettlement of the Choctaw tribe and the closely related Chickasaw tribe from their lands in the southeastern United States. The Chickasaws began relocating to this area in 1837. The U.S. Army built Fort Washita in 1842 to protect the new arrivals from raids by other tribes. In 1857, the Chickasaw Nation formally separated from the Choctaw Nation. This area became part of Pickens County in the Chickasaw Nation.[3]

Railroads came to the present-day Marshall County in 1901, when the St. Louis, Oklahoma and Southern Railway (acquired shortly after by the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway), known as the Frisco, constructed a north-south line. The following year, the St. Louis, San Francisco and New Orleans Railroad (formerly the Arkansas and Choctaw Railway) laid tracks from east to west through the area. This line was sold to the Frisco in 1907. The State of Oklahoma relocated part of this line in 1941 to make way for the creation of Lake Texoma.[3]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 427 square miles (1,110 km2), of which 371 square miles (960 km2) is land and 56 square miles (150 km2) (13.08%) is water.[4] The county is the smallest county in Oklahoma by land only size, i.e., not including water. The Red River drains the county and formed the county's southern boundary. Completion of the Denison Dam in 1942 created Lake Texoma which inundated part of Marshall County's land area and forms the current southern boundary and the eastern boundary of the county as well.[3]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Economy[edit]

During the 19th Century, the county's economy was based on agriculture and ranching. Cotton and corn were the most dominant crops. By 1934, oats had become the third-largest crop. After the creation of Lake Texoma, cotton acreage had dropped to about 10 percent of its 1934 level and corn had dropped to less than 2 percent, while peanuts had become the third largest crop. By 2001, wheat had become the largest crop, followed by rye, oats and peanuts.[3]

Oil and gas production began soon after the county was formed at statehood. Pure Oil Company built an oil camp in 1940 that had 43 houses and a 35-bed bunkhouse. Pure closed the camp in 1959, after a 1957 tornado had severely damaged it. At the turn of the 21st century, oil production was about 10 percent of the 1975 quantity, while gas production was about 68 percent of the 1975 quantity.[3]

Other significant business sectors are: wood products, manufacturing (especially livestock trailers) and tourism.[3]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 11,619
1920 14,674 26.3%
1930 11,026 −24.9%
1940 12,384 12.3%
1950 8,177 −34.0%
1960 7,263 −11.2%
1970 7,682 5.8%
1980 10,550 37.3%
1990 10,829 2.6%
2000 13,184 21.7%
2010 15,840 20.1%
Est. 2012 15,957 0.7%
U.S. Decennial Census[5]
2012 Estimate[1]
Map of Marshall County, 1909

As of the census[6] of 2000, there were 13,184 people, 5,371 households, and 3,802 families residing in the county. The population density was 36 people per square mile (14/km²). There were 8,517 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile (9/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 77.99% White, 1.84% Black or African American, 9.10% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 6.17% from other races, and 4.71% from two or more races. 8.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 5,371 households out of which 27.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.20% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 24.10% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, and 19.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.60 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $26,437, and the median income for a family was $31,825. Males had a median income of $25,201 versus $19,932 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,982. About 13.50% of families and 17.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.10% of those under age 18 and 15.30% of those age 65 or over.

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of January 15, 2012[7]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
  Democratic 4,959 66.14%
  Republican 1,805 24.07%
  Unaffiliated 734 9.79%
Total 7,498 100%

Politics[edit]

Presidential election results[8]
Year Republican Democrat
2008 69.42% 3,730 30.58% 1,643
2004 61.70% 3,363 38.30% 2,088
2000 53.90% 2,641 45.10% 2,210

Communities[edit]

Madill has a ZIP code of 73446, which includes nearby Oakland. Kingston has a ZIP code of 73439, which includes New Woodville. Lebanon has a ZIP code of 73440, which services the surrounding area of southwestern Marshall County.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g O'Dell, Larry. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. "Marshall County." Retrieved August 13, 2013.
  4. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  5. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  6. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ http://www.ok.gov/elections/documents/reg_0112.pdf
  8. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved 2011-06-11. 

Coordinates: 34°02′N 96°46′W / 34.03°N 96.77°W / 34.03; -96.77