Marshall Scholarship

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The official logo of the Marshall Scholarship is a blended image of the UK and US flags.
A portrait of George C. Marshall, for whom the scholarships are named

The Marshall Scholarship is a postgraduate scholarship available to American students.[1] Along with the Rhodes Scholarship, it is widely considered one of the most prestigious scholarships in the world.[2][3][4] In addition to pure academic pursuits, the program aims to provide future leaders of America with insight into the "British ideals and way of life" and to strengthen the "Special Relationship" that exists between the United States and the United Kingdom.

The Marshall Scholarship was created by the Parliament of the United Kingdom when the Marshall Aid Commemoration Act was passed in 1953,[5] serving as a living gift to the United States of America in recognition of the post-World War II European Recovery Plan, commonly known as the Marshall Plan. It was created as a coeducational alternative to the Rhodes Scholarship, which until 1977 excluded women and requires scholars to study at Oxford University. Unlike the Rhodes, Marshall Scholars can study at any British university[6] and must be American citizens (in comparison, approximately 80 Rhodes Scholarships are given annually to citizens of over a dozen countries). The first class of Marshall Scholars, who began academic study in the fall of 1954, consisted of eight men and four women selected from a pool of 700 applicants. Currently, there are over 1800 Marshall Scholar alumni.[7]

Up to 40 Scholars are selected each year (31 in 2015 [8]), out of a pool of approximately 1,000 applicants who have been endorsed by their Universities to apply.[9] The majority of Scholars choose to attend either Oxford, Cambridge, University College, London (UCL), Imperial College London, London School of Economics, King's College London,or one of the other major London institutions,[10] but Scholars have attended a wide range of universities throughout the UK, many of which are ranked[11][12] among the best in the world. In 2013, there were 73 Marshall Scholars in residence at British universities[13] including those who were selected for the classes of 2010, 2011, and 2012. During this time, there were 24 Scholars at University of Oxford, 23 at the University of London (including 7 at the London School of Economics), 12 at the University of Cambridge, and 6 at Imperial College London. Of these scholars, 53 were studying Arts and Social Sciences while 20 were studying Science, Engineering or Mathematics.[14]

Objectives[edit]

In a letter[15] to the first class of Marshall Scholars, George Marshall echoed his own words in initially presenting his ideas for European recovery by saying,

A close accord between our two countries is essential to the good of mankind in this turbulent world of today, and that is not possible without an intimate understanding of each other. These scholarships point the way to the continuation and growth of the understanding which found its necessity in the terrible struggle of the war years.

The published objectives of the Marshall Scholarships are outlined as follows:

  1. To enable intellectually distinguished young Americans, their country's future leaders, to study in the UK.
  2. To help scholars gain an understanding and appreciation of contemporary Britain.
  3. To contribute to the advancement of knowledge in science, technology, the humanities and social sciences and the creative arts at Britain's centres of academic excellence.
  4. To motivate scholars to act as ambassadors from the USA to the UK and vice versa throughout their lives thus strengthening British American understanding.
  5. To promote the personal and academic fulfilment of each scholar.

History[edit]

Plans to establish "Marshall Scholarships" as a living memorial to George Marshall were announced by British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden on July 31, 1952,[16] and were enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom when the Marshall Aid Commemoration Act was passed in 1953. The act's passage was backed by "leaders of all political hues," with British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin describing the scholarship's establishment as "a great opportunity for Europe." In 1959, when Parliament doubled the number of scholars from 12 to 24, British politician Philip Noel-Baker argued that "Marshall, more than perhaps any other man, destroyed isolation in the United States and built up the conception that only collective security through international institutions can save the world...I think the world has never seen an act of greater national generosity than Marshall aid and the other aid which the United States has given to other continents throughout the last 15 years." By 1960, six years after their establishment, the scholarship was "on its way to becoming as well-known and respected as the fellow phrase, "Rhodes [Scholarship]," and both scholarships attracted roughly 500 to 600 applicants.[17]

The number of scholars was increased to 30 in 1973, 40 in 1991, and between 2004-2007 "up to 44". In 2010, the Commission decided to offer a limited number of one year awards.[18] In the early years of the Marshall Scholarship, it was common for new Scholars to travel together to the UK via cruise ship, but now Scholars are usually flown together to London from Washington, D.C. following a welcome program with top US and UK government and diplomatic officials.

Selection[edit]

Prospective applicants must first be endorsed by their universities to apply. The selection process is then coordinated through the eight major British embassy/consulate regions in the United States (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C.), and as such is a geographic scholarship similar in form to the Rhodes Scholarship. Selection committees in each region, consisting of former Scholars and other distinguished individuals, receive university-endorsed applications (including personal statements and essays) which are used to select a short list of candidates for interviews. Each committee then interviews each of the regional finalists prior to making the final decisions on the year's awards. In 2014, 16% of university-endorsed applicants received an interview.[19]

Although most of the responsibility for selecting the recipients is in the hands of the committees, a few formal guidelines have been outlined in the official selection criteria, most notably:[20]

As future leaders, with a lasting understanding of British society, Marshall Scholars will strengthen the enduring relationship between the British and American peoples, their governments and their institutions. Marshall Scholars are talented, independent and wide-ranging in their interests, and their time as Scholars will enhance their intellectual and personal growth. Their direct engagement with Britain through its best academic programmes will contribute to their ultimate personal success.

and

In appointing Scholars the selectors will look for distinction of intellect and character as evidenced both by their scholastic attainments and by their other activities and achievements. Preference will be given to candidates who display a potential to make a significant contribution to their own society. Selectors will also look for strong motivation and seriousness of purpose, including the presentation of a specific and realistic academic programme.

Between 1954 and 2013, 239 of 1818 scholars received their undergraduate degrees from Harvard University (13%), 126 from Princeton, 108 from Yale, 83 from Stanford, and 60 from MIT. The most successful public university is the US Military Academy at West Point, with 34 scholars, followed by the University of California at Berkeley, with 28 scholars. Of the 548 scholars elected between 2000 and 2013, 30 were from Harvard and Stanford (5%), 26 from Princeton, 21 from Yale, and 17 from MIT, the US Military Academy at West Point, and the US Naval Academy.[21]

Comparison to the Rhodes Scholarship[edit]

Although the Marshall Scholarships share much in common with the Rhodes Scholarships (restricted to the University of Oxford), the major difference is a Marshall Scholar's freedom to attend any UK university, including the ability to attend a different university each year during a Scholar's tenure. In addition, a limited number of one-year Marshall scholarships are available. Also, since its inception, the Marshall Scholarship has been open to both men and women, while the Rhodes Scholarship only became open to women beginning in 1977 following the passage of the British Sex Discrimination Act in 1975.[22]

The Marshall Scholarship draws more university-endorsed applicants than the Rhodes, with 979 applying in 2014[23] compared to 857 for the Rhodes.[24] The Marshall Scholarship is also marginally more selective than the American Rhodes Scholarship, electing 3.4% of university-endorsed applicants in 2014,[25] compared to 3.7% for the Rhodes.[26] In 2015, 3.2% of university-endorsed applicants to the Marshall Scholarship were elected.[27] In addition, the selection processes differ in the difficulty with which it is to secure a final round interview: in 2014, 15.9% of university-endorsed applicants for the Marshall Scholarship received a finalist interview,[28] compared to 24% of Rhodes applicants[29]

In criteria, the Marshall selection committee originally placed a heavier stress on academic achievement, but over time "the Marshall program has become more Rhodes-like, stating that it is seeking persons who also demonstrate leadership potential." In general, "nearly all Rhodes Scholars are willing to admit that, by and large, the Marshalls are superior if one looks just at grade point averages and other signs of academic achievement," but this is a point of both "admiration" and "disdain."[30] Walter Isaacson, describing Rhodes Scholars as "fairly intelligent, well-rounded, honest people who could be counted on to be upstanding citizens," has said that "the real geniuses...were the Marshall Scholars," perhaps because of the expectation that Rhodes Scholars be "all-rounders."[31] In practice, the Marshall and Rhodes have engaged an "informal rivalry," but in career trajectory after the completion of their fellowships, "the line between [the fellowships] is not so evident," with scholars pursuing similar fields with similar success.[32] In general, a higher percentage of Marshall Scholars "go on to careers in academe and research, whereas Rhodes Scholars are more evenly scattered through the full range of professional occupations."[33]

Notable Marshall Scholars[edit]

Marshall Scholars can now be found among prominent CEOs, Supreme Court justices, members of the United States Congress, members of the Presidential Cabinet of the United States, university presidents, Pulitzer Prize–winning authors, and leaders in many academic and professional disciplines. As part of the celebrations for the 50th Anniversary of the Marshall Scholarships,[34] Marshall Medals were awarded to a group of distinguished Americans in recognition of their contributions to US-UK relations, including Justice Stephen Breyer (1959 Marshall Scholar), Dr. Ray Dolby (1957 Marshall Scholar), Thomas L. Friedman (1975 Marshall Scholar), and former President of Duke University Nannerl Keohane (1961 Marshall Scholar).

Name US University UK University Year Awarded Notability
A. Benjamin Spencer Morehouse College London School of Economics 1996 Professor At Washington & Lee University School Of Law
Alfred Guzzetti Harvard University University of London Experimental And Documentary Filmmaker And Harvard University Professor
Amy Finkelstein Harvard University Oxford University 1995 Professor At Mit, Winner Of The Clark Medal For Economics 2012
Andrew Klaber Yale University 2004 Orphans Against Aids Founder And Paulson & Co Investment Professional
Anne Applebaum Yale University London School of Economics 1986 Pulitzer Prize
Anne McClain U.S. Military Academy at West Point University of Bath and University of Bristol 2002 Major, U.S. Army. NASA Astronaut.
Anthony C. E. Quainton Princeton University Oxford University 1955 Former Ambassador To Nicaragua, Kuwait, Peru, And Central African Empire, Director General of the Foreign Service
Benjamin M. Friedman Harvard University Cambridge University 1966 American Political Economist
Bill Buford University of California at Berkeley Cambridge University Founding Editor Of Granta, The New Yorker Staff Writer
Bruce Babbitt University of Notre Dame Newcastle University 1960 Former Governor Of Arizona And U.S. Secretary Of The Interior For President Bill Clinton
Byron Auguste Yale University Oxford University 1989 Deputy Director National Economic Council
Charles King University of Arkansas Oxford University Georgetown University Professor And Author
Cindy Sughrue Boston University University of Sheffield 1985 CEO Of Scottish Ballet
Collin O'Mara Dartmouth College Oxford University 2003 President Of National Wildlife Federation; Former Delaware Secretary Of Natural Resources And Environmental Control
Daniel Benjamin Harvard University Oxford University 1983 Coordinator For Counterterrorism And Ambassador At Large State Department
Daniel Yergin Yale University Cambridge University 1968 Pulitzer Prize-Winning American Author, Speaker, And Economic Researcher. Yergin Is The Co-Founder And Chairman Of Cambridge Energy Research Associates.
David Laibson Harvard University London School of Economics 1988 Professor Of Economics, Harvard University
Derek Kilmer Princeton University Oxford University 1996 U.S. Representative For Washington'S 6Th Congressional District
Douglas A. Melton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Cambridge University 1975 Professor And Chair Of The Harvard University Department Of Stem Cell And Regenerative Biology And Hhmi Investigator
Drew Daniel University of California at Berkeley Oxford University 1993 Member Of Matmos And Professor At Johns Hopkins University
Ed Victor Dartmouth College Cambridge University 1961 Journalist And Literary Agent
Edward Hundert Yale University Oxford University 1978 Educator, Psychiatrist, And Medical Ethicist
George Marcus Yale University 1968 Anthropologist At The University Of California, Irvine And Rice University
Graham Allison Harvard University Oxford University 1962 Foreign Policy Expert And Founding Dean Of Harvard University'S Kennedy School Of Government; Former Undersecretary Of Defense
Harold Koh Harvard University Oxford University 1975 Legal Adviser Of The Department Of State; Former Dean Of The Yale Law School
James F. Gilliam Columbia University Oxford University Biologist And ISI Highly Cited Researcher
James K. Galbraith Harvard University Cambridge University 1974 Economist And Journalist
Jason Bordoff Brown University Oxford University 1995 Former Special Asst To The President, National Security Council
Jeff Modisett University of California, Los Angeles Oxford University 1978 Former Attorney General Of The U.S. State Of Indiana
Jeffrey Gettleman Cornell University Oxford University 1994 Pulitzer Prize Winning Author, East Africa Bureau Chief For Ny Times
Jeffrey Rosen Harvard University Oxford University Author, Law Professor, And Legal Affairs Editor At The New Republic
Jeffrey Rosensweig Yale University Oxford University Author, Director Of Global Perspectives At The Goizueta School Of Business Of Emory University
Jennifer Daskal Brown University Cambridge University 1994 Former Counsel, National Security Division, Department Of Justice
Jenny Harrison University of Alabama University of Warwick 1971 Mathematician And Professor, University Of California, Berkeley
John Jay Iselin Harvard University Cambridge University 1959 Former President Of Cooper Union, Former President Of Wnet
John Spratt Davidson College Oxford University 1964 Congressman For South Carolina'S 5Th Congressional District
Jonathan Galassi Harvard University Cambridge University 1971 President, Farrar Straus And Giroux
Jonathan Orszag Princeton University Oxford University Former Clinton Administration Economic Advisor And Senior Managing Director Of Compass Lexecon
Joshua Oppenheimer Harvard University University of the Arts London Award-Winning Documentary Film Director
Kathleen Sullivan Cornell University Oxford University 1976 Professor And Former Dean Of The Stanford Law School
Katie Beirne Fallon University of Notre Dame Queens University Belfast; London School of Economics 1998 Legislative Affairs Director, White House
Kelly Grovier Poet And Literary Critic For The Observer And The Times Literary Supplement
Kim Campbell United States Air Force Academy Imperial College, London 1997 Usaf Pilot, Awarded Distinguished Flying Cross
Kris Kobach Harvard University Oxford University Secretary Of State Of Kansas (2011
Kurt M. Campbell University of California, San Diego Oxford University 1980 Assistant Secretary Of State For East Asian And Pacific Affairs
Lael Brainard Wesleyan University N/A Under Secretary Of The Treasury For International Affairs
Lewis Sargentich Occidental College Sussex University Professor At Harvard Law School
Mark Filip University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Oxford University 1988 United States Deputy Attorney General
Mark R Bell Senior Fellow at Emory University's Center For Alternative Investments And Investor
Mark Whitaker Harvard University Oxford University 1979 Senior Vice President Of Nbc News, Former Editor Of Newsweek
Marty Kaplan Harvard University Cambridge University Associate Dean For Programs And Planning Of The Usc Annenberg School For Communication And Director Of The Norman Lear Center For The Study Of Entertainment
Mary E. Edgerton Surgical Pathologist And Director Of Biorepository Informatics At The University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center
Matthew Palamountain Cambridge Rufc, Usa Rugby, Acre Education
Matthew Spence Stanford University Oxford University 2000 Deputy Assistant Secretary Of Defense For Middle East Policy, Department Of Defense
Melissa Lane Harvard University Cambridge University 1988 Professor Of Political Theory At Princeton University
Michael Klarman University of Pennsylvania Oxford University Bancroft Prize Winner And Constitutional Law Scholar At Harvard Law School
Michael Otsuka Yale University Oxford University 1986 Professor Of Philosophy, London School Of Economics And Political Science
Nancy Gibbs Yale University Oxford University 1982 Managing Editor Of Time
Nancy Lublin Brown University Oxford University 1993 Creator And Founder, Dress For Success, And Ceo, Do Something
Nannerl Keohane Wellesley College Oxford University 1961 Former President Of Both Duke University (1993–2004) And Wellesley College (1981–1993)
Neil Gorsuch University of California, Los Angeles Oxford University 1992 Federal Judge On The United States Court Of Appeals For The Tenth Circuit.
Nicole Krauss Stanford University Oxford University 1996 Novelist, History Of Love
Odaline de la Martinez Tulane University Royal Academy of Music 1972 Cuban-American Composer And First Woman To Ever Direct A Bbc Prom
Patrick M. Byrne Dartmouth College Cambridge University 1988 Chairman Of The Board And President Of Overstock.Com
Peter Kramer Harvard University University College, London 1970 Author Of Listening To Prozac (1993)
Peter Orszag Princeton University London School of Economics 1991 Director, Omb; Former Director, Congressional Budget Office
Ray Dolby Stanford University Cambridge University 1957 Inventor Of Dolby Sound And Chairman Of Dolby Laboratories
Reid Hoffman Stanford University Oxford University 1990 Founder Of Linkedin
Richard Cordray Michigan State University Oxford University 1981 Directory Of The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
Robert Oden Harvard University Cambridge University Former President Of Carleton College In Northfield, Minnesota And Former President Of Kenyon College In Gambier, Ohio
Roger Tsien Harvard University Cambridge University Winner Of Nobel Prize In Chemistry, 2008
Rosa Brooks Harvard University Oxford University 1991 Counselor To The Under Secretary For Policy, U.S. Department Of Defense; Los Angeles Times Columnist And Georgetown Law Professor
Samuel Rascoff Professor At Nyu School Of Law
Sandra E. Shumway Research Professor, University Of Connecticut; Marine Scientist
Scott MacIntyre Arizona State University Royal Holloway, University of London and the Royal College of Music 2005 Musician And American Idol Season 8 Contestant
Seth Lloyd Harvard University Cambridge University 1982 Quantum Information Scientist
Stephen Breyer Stanford University Oxford University 1959 Associate Justice Of The U.S. Supreme Court Since 1994
Stephen Brusatte University of Chicago University of Bristol 2006 Paleontologist, Co-Creator Of Taxonsearch And Discoverer Of Carcharodontosaurus Iguidensis
Stephen Jennings Co-Ceo, Monitor Group
Steven Strogatz Princeton University Cambridge University 1980 Applied Mathematician (Complex Networks)
Ted Conover Amherst College Cambridge University Author, Essayist And Journalist
Thomas Babe Harvard University Cambridge University 1963 Playwright
Thomas Carothers Harvard University London School of Economics Vice President For Studies At The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace
Thomas Eugene Everhart Harvard University Cambridge University 1955 Physicist And Former President Of The California Institute Of Technology
Thomas Friedman Brandeis University Oxford University 1975 Multiple Pulitzer Prize
Warwick Sabin University of Arkansas Oxford University 1998 Writer, Politician, And Editor Oxford American
William Broyles, Jr. Rice University Oxford University 1966 American Screenwriter
William Joseph Burns La Salle University Oxford University 1978 U.S. Deputy Secretary Of State; Former Undersecretary Of State; Former United States Ambassador To Russia
Zachary D. Kaufman Yale University Oxford University 2000 Legal Academic And Social Entrepreneur
Sewell Chan Harvard University Oxford University 1998 American Journalist; Deputy Opinion Page Editor of the New York Times
Sheryll D. Cashin Vanderbilt University Oxford University 1984 Law Professor, Georgetown University
Jerry A. Hausman Brown University Oxford University 1968 Professor of Economics, MIT. Frisch Medal (1980). John Bates Clark Medal (1985)
Mark Hersam University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Cambridge University 1996 Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University. MacArthur "Genius" Award (2014)
Nancy Cox Iowa State University Cambridge University 1970 Virologist. Director of the Influenza Division at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and director of CDC’s World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza
Bruce Allen Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge University 1980 Director of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics
Robert Lane Greene Tulane University Oxford University 1997 Journalist for the Economist, the New Republic, the New York Times, Slate
William H. Janeway Princeton University Cambridge University 1965 Venture capitalist (former Vice Chairman of Warburg Pincus) and Economist
Jef McAllister Yale University Oxford University 1977 Former London Bureau Chief of TIME
James M. Poterba Harvard University Oxford University 1980 Professor of Economics at MIT, President and CEO of NBER
Josh West Yale University Cambridge University 1999 Professor of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California. Rower in the 2008 Beijing Olympics for Great Britain.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Marshall Scholarships 2012 Competition Statistical Report". Marshall Scholarships. 
  2. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/12/education/other-roads.html
  3. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505145_162-37244301/10-most-prestigious-scholarships-in-america/
  4. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1996/12/15/nyregion/ambassador-names-marshall-scholars.html
  5. ^ http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Eliz2/1-2/39/contents
  6. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/12/education/other-roads.html
  7. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/statistics
  8. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/scholars/winners_announced
  9. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/2014_statistics
  10. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/statistics
  11. ^ http://www.topuniversities.com/university_rankings/results/2008/overall_rankings/top_100_universities/
  12. ^ http://www.arwu.org/rank2008/ARWU2008_A(EN).htm
  13. ^ Marshall Scholarships Annual Reports
  14. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/60thannualreport
  15. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/history/
  16. ^ Britain to Set Up 12 Scholarships for U.S. Students. The Washington Post, August 1, 1952
  17. ^ Stanford, Neal. Marshall Scholars: Terms Compared. The Christian Science Monitor, January 18, 1960.
  18. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/corporateplan2014
  19. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/2014_statistics
  20. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/fellowships/eligible
  21. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/statistics
  22. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/12/education/other-roads.html
  23. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/2014_statistics
  24. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/meet-the-2014-rhodes-scholars/2013/11/26/ea276b1a-5600-11e3-835d-e7173847c7cc_story.html
  25. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/2014_statistics
  26. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/meet-the-2014-rhodes-scholars/2013/11/26/ea276b1a-5600-11e3-835d-e7173847c7cc_story.html
  27. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/stats2015
  28. ^ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/2014_statistics
  29. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/meet-the-2014-rhodes-scholars/2013/11/26/ea276b1a-5600-11e3-835d-e7173847c7cc_story.html
  30. ^ Schaeper, Thomas and Kathleen Schaeper. "Rhodes Scholars: Oxford, and the Creation of an American Elite," 2010. Berghahn Books: New York, p. 293.
  31. ^ Schaeper, Thomas and Kathleen Schaeper. "Rhodes Scholars: Oxford, and the Creation of an American Elite," 2010. Berghahn Books: New York, p. 357.
  32. ^ Schaeper, Thomas and Kathleen Schaeper. "Rhodes Scholars: Oxford, and the Creation of an American Elite," 2010. Berghahn Books: New York, p. 293.
  33. ^ Schaeper, Thomas and Kathleen Schaeper. "Rhodes Scholars: Oxford, and the Creation of an American Elite," 2010. Berghahn Books: New York, p. 357.
  34. ^ http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/news-and-diary/hrh-presents-marshall-medals-senate-house-london

External links[edit]