Martin de Goiti
|Martin de Goiti|
|Born||Martín de Goiti
Basque Country, Spain
|Died||1575 (aged 40–41)
Spanish East Indies
Martín de Goiti (1534–1574) was a Spanish conquistador and founder of the city of Manila in the Philippines. Martín de Goiti was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the East Indies and the Pacific, in 1565. From his main base in Mexico City, he was the leader of the expedition to Manila, ordered by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1569. There, he fought a number of battles against the Muslim, Tariq Suleiman (سليمان), the Hindu, Rajah Matanda (ऋअज ंअतन्द), and the Taoist, Lakan Dula (王 杜拉) of the kingdoms in Luzon; for control of the lands and its settlements. He is also known for his statesmanship by betrothing his Basque sister to Batang Dula, the eldest son and successor apparent of Lakan Dula of Tondo "東都" (Dongdu), the paramount ruler of Manila. Eventually their descendants unified the 3 royal houses of Tariq Suleiman, Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula with the half-Aztec and half Spanish de Goiti family. The Dula y Goiti family eventually married with the Mendoza family who are Sephardic Hebrews that were practicing Catholics. Afterwards, the Dula y Goiti surname was shortened to Dulay. However, during the Spanish era, some descendants changed their surnames even further in order to avoid persecution and among which; the Salonga and Macapagal families are known descendants of these royal houses albeit only through a different family name.
The Battles for Manila (1570-1575)
The Spaniards arrived in Luzon on May 8, 1570, and camped on the shores of Manila Bay for several weeks, while forming an alliance with the Muslims. On May 24, 1570, after disputes and hostility erupted between the two groups. The Spaniards occupied the city of Tondo where they were greeted with thousands of warriors. There, they defeated most of Tariq Suleiman's (سليمان), Rajah Matanda's (ऋअज ंअतन्द), and Lakan Dula's (王 杜拉) people. The Spaniards marched their armies towards the Pasig River, and occupied the settlements in Manila on June 6, 1570 and burned them.
Guerrilla warfare broke out following the battle, which continued for about ten months. The Spaniards fortified themselves in the area and constructed their military barracks of Fuerza de Santiago (Fortress of Saint James), which became their outpost for trade with Mexico. The Spaniards gained control of the settlements on June 24, 1571, after the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi in Manila, who agreed to a peace agreement sealed by betrothing one of his half-caste (Half Aztec and Half Spanish) daughters to Batang Dula, heir apparent of Lakan Dula. Eventually their descendants unified the 3 royal houses of Tariq Suleiman, Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula with the half-Aztec and half Spanish de Goiti family. The Dula y Goiti family married with the Mendoza family who were Catholic Sephardic Hebrews and to mark the dynasty, changed the surname to Dulay. However, upon the commencement of persecutions the Dulay famil's descendants changed their surnames even further and thus we have the Salonga and Macapagal families are known descendants of these royal houses but subsist under a different family name.
The Spanish colonization paved the way for the establishment of Manila as a permanent settlement and capital city of the Spanish East Indies. He later explored Pampanga, Pangasinan and founded several Spanish cities in Luzon between the periods of 1571 -1573. De Goiti, along with other soldiers were granted with haciendas (estates) for the lands they had conquered, by Philip II of Spain.
In 1574, De Goiti fought in the war during the invasion of about 3,000 Chinese sea pirates who had sailed from the South China sea. Their leader, Limahong, besieged on the Spanish settlements in Manila. De Goiti was killed by pirates, who massacred most of the Spaniards in the villages. Most of the Spanish reinforcements came from Vigan and Cebu. Martín de Goiti's second in command, Juan de Salcedo left Ilocos Sur, after hearing the news and traveled to Manila where he discovered their settlements had been ceded to the pirates. Salcedo's forces attacked and drove the pirates out of Manila. Limahong and his fleets retreated to Pangasinan where they re-organize their forces.
In 1575, Salcedo's army marched north to Pangasinan, in pursuit of the pirates, and besieged them for three months. There the Spaniards captured Limahong and his fleets in the river of Pangasinan and executed them.
- de Morga, Antonio. (2004). The Project Gutenberg Edition Book : History of the Philippine Islands - 1521 to the Beginning of the XVII century. Volume 1 and 2.
- López de Legazpi, Don Miguel. (1564–1572). Cartas al Rey Don Felipe II : sobre la expedicion, conquistas y progresos de las islas Felipinas. Sevilla, España.
- Act of Taking Possession of Luzon (Article)