Marthandavarma (novel)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the historical novel in Malayalam . For other uses, see Marthanda Varma (disambiguation).
Marthandavarma
This is the title page of first edition
Title page of the first edition
Author C.V. Raman Pillai
Original title മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ
Translator B. K. Menon (1936 - English)
O. Krishna Pillai (1954 - Tamil)
R. Leela Devi (1979 - English)
Kunnukuzhy Krishnankutty (1990 - Hindi)
P. Padmanabhan Thambi (2007 - Tamil)
Country India
Language Malayalam
Genre Historical Novel
Historical Romance
Published

Malayalam :

June 11, 1891 (Author)
1911 – 1970 (B. V. Book Depot)
1973 onwards (Sahithya Pravarthaka Sahakarana Sangham)
1983 onwards (Poorna Publications)
1992 onwards (D. C. Books)
1999 (Kerala Sahithya Academy)

English :

1936 (Kamalalaya Book Depot)
1979 (Sterling Publishers)
1998 (Sahitya Akademi)

Tamil :

1954 (Kamalalaya Book Depot)
2007 (Sahitya Akademi)

Hindi :

1990 (Kerala Hindi Prachar Sabha)
Media type Print (Paperback)
ISBN ISBN 8176900001
ISBN 8171301304
Followed by Dharmaraja, Ramarajabahadur
Original text
മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ at Malayalam Wikisource

Marthandavarma ( Malayalamമാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ, Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma [mɑːṟt̪t̪ɑːɳɖaʋaṟmma] ) is a novel by C.V. Raman Pillai published in 1891. It is presented as a historical romance recounting the history of Venad (Travancore) during the final period of Rajah Rama Varma’s reign and subsequently to the accession of Marthanda Varma. The action of story takes place in Kollavarsham 901-906 (Gregorian calendar: 1727-1732). The story revolves around the main protagonists, Ananthapadmanabhan, Subhadra and Mangoikkal Kuruppu who are trying to protect the title character from Padmanabhan Thambi & Ettu Veetil Pillamar who plan to oust him from the throne of Travancore.

This novel initiated the historical romance genre in Malayalam literature by being the first historical novel published in Malayalam language. The story of Travancore was continued in Dharmaraja and Ramarajabahadur. These three novels are together known as CV’s Historical Narratives (Malayalam: സിവിയുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾ).

Marthandavarma is often considered as a classic blend of historical fiction and romance in Malayalam literature.[1][2]

Title[edit]

The title of the novel is a single word Marthandavarma (മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ). There is no space between the words Marthanda and Varma unlike the translated name of historical character Marthanda Varma, the Maharaja of Travancore.[3][4]

The authorship credit is C. V. Ramanpilla (സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള) in Malayalam literals whereas its English counterpart is C. V. Raman Pillai.

Plot Summary[edit]

A young man is found covered in blood and unconscious at Panchavan forest by a group of merchants who get their servants to carry the body of the young man along with them. Parukutty, the lover of the young man, is depressed because she does not believe her loved one is dead even though there has been no sign of him in the two years since he was found; meanwhile, her mother Karthyayani Amma arranges for a new marriage proposal through Sundarayyan for her daughter with Padmanabhan Thambi, the elder son of king Rama Varma. During the two years Padmanabhan Thambi and Sundarayyan conspired against the prince Marthanda Varma; they forged the news that attack on Ananthapadmanabhan at Panchavan forest was planned by the prince due to latter’s discord with the victim in the matter of a prostitute at Nagercoil. Eventually the aging king Rama Varma got sick and was confined to bed; Padmanabhan Thambi, who wants to become the next king, allies with the Ettuveettil Pillas to oust the rightful heir, Marthanda Varma. Association of Thambi with the Pillas caused an aversion among some sections of forces in the kingdom against the prince and royal officials and so, people excluded themselves from paying tax to the kingdom, subsequently the forces and finances at royal side got weaker than to that of the conspirators.

Three days after Sundarayyan brought the proposal at Chembakassery, a worried Marthanda Varma and his aide Parameswaran Pilla, venture out to head to Bhoothapandi, where the forces from Madurai are camped and are not willing to compromise to support the royal side as the payment for them is still pending as per the agreement with the king, Rama Varma. Dalawa Arumukham Pilla personally went there to make the payment, unfortunately as the amount was not sufficient for the full payment, he had to stay there as an assurance. Marthanda Varma worries that Raman Thambi, the second son of king might influence the Madurai forces adversely during latter's visit to Nanchinadu. When the prince and his aide are at Padmanabhapuram, Padmanabhan Thambi reaches there and to evade him, prince and the aide head to Charottu palace through the underground path. The next day morning, while coming to Thambi’s palace Sundarayyan sees Parameswaran Pilla and tips off to Velu Kuruppu, the loyalist fighter who serves Padmanabhan Thambi. Later, prince Marthanda Varma and his aide Pramerswaran Pilla are chased away from Charottu palace by Velu Kuruppu and lancers; however the former duo are helped by a mad Channan to evade the chasers, who puts up a fight with mad Channan only to be defeated by an archer Chulliyil Chatachi Marthandan Pilla, who was indebted to Channan once for saving his life when he was bitten by a snake. The prince Marthanda Varma and his aide take refuge at the house of Mangoikkal Kuruppu; meanwhile, Velu Kuruppu reaches back to his master Padmanabhan Thambi to inform about the fight with mad Channan. Following the order of an angry Thambi to capture the Channan-people, the mad Channan is captured and locked in the dungeon. Meanwhile, Velu Kuruppu, on realizing that Marthandavarma is at Mangoikkal house, deploys his men nearby to the house and rushes back to Thambi to arrange for more lancers and Nair soldiers by late evening to finish off Marthandavarma at Mangoikkal. The mad Channan, in meantime manages to find an underground path from the dungeon to Charottu palace. While Marthanda Varma and Mangoikkal Kuruppu are discussing about arranging additional force, Velu Kuruppu and his men launch attack on Mangoikkal at late evening; meanwhile, mad Channan rushes from Charottu palace to the Channan-people. Mangoikkal Kuruppu and his nephews try to resist the Velu Kuruppu’s men who surround and set the house afire. Mad Channan and his group of Channan accomplices reach at Mangoikkal by then and fight the attackers; mad Channan is able to rescue Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla out of the house before the same is completely on fire. Soon then, fighters from martial arts school of Mangoikkal arrive at the scene and defeat the attackers. On that night Thirumukhathu Pilla visits Padmanabhan Thambi to enquire about the news regarding the murder of his absconding son, Ananthapadmanabhan; soon then, one of the lancers of Velu Kurupp’s team reach there to inform about the defeat at Mangoikkal.

Padmanabhan Thambi and Marthanda Varma are back at their respective houses at Thiruvananthapuram and seven days after incidents at Mangoikkal a message from Thirumukhathu Pilla is delivered at Chembakasserry as a letter about the murder of his son Ananthapadmanabhan, however Parukutty who loves Ananthapadmanabhan rejects the same. The next day, Padmanabhan Thambi and Sundarayyan arrive and stay at Chembakassery. At night, Ananthapadmanabhan who disguised as a dweller of Kasi (Kasivasi) drugs Shanku Assan, the caretaker of armory at Chembakassery, to enter the house. Thambi, who is overwhelmed by the beauty of Parukutty goes to her room to attain her but only to be dragged out by Kasivasi, about which Parukutty gets glimpses of the frantic actions in her half sleep and falls sick. Later Sundarayyan steals the ornaments from there. Thambi and his team leave Chembakassery by next day early morning. Kazhakkoottathu Pilla arrives at Chembakassery to inquire about the illness of Parukutty and takes leave by late evening to the house of Kudamon Pilla only to be followed by Ananathapadmanabhan disguised as a beggar; meanwhile, Sundarayyan leaves from Thambi’s house for the discussions at Kudamon Pilla’s house. A council is formed by Kudamon Pilla, Ramanamadathil Pilla, Venganoor Pilla, Pallichal Pilla, Marthandan Thirumadathil Pilla, Chembazhanthy Pilla, Kulathoor Pilla, Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, who are known as Ettuveettil Pillas and Sundarayyan to support Padmanabhan Thambi as the next king; however Kazhakkoottathu Pilla informs his dislike on the issue and after assuring his support for their actions, he leaves the council at once only to be followed by the beggar. On the way, Kazhakkoottathu Pilla meets Mangoikkal Kuruppu, but the beggar heads back to the house of council to know final decision. Meanwhile, at council, decisions are made to assassinate prince Marthanda Varma and make Thambi as the next king. After the council, Ramanamadathil Pilla meets Subadra, the granddaughter of Kudamon Pilla's maternal aunt. Kazhakkoottathu Pilla tricks Mangoikkal Kuruppu to get the latter under detention. The beggar confronts Sundarayyan, who is on his way back after council, they indulge in a fight when the former tries to snatch the council note from the latter and due to the fight both of them fall into Killiyar, however beggar rescues the drowning Sundarayyan, who does not know how to swim. The next day, Sundarayyan heads to Thambi’s house after awaking at the shore and conveys the council decision to Thambi. Subadra arrives at Chembakassery after learning about the illness of Parukutty; meanwhile Shanku Assan who is worried about previous day’s events go in search of the Kasivasi. Subadra condoles Karthyayani Amma and learns about the Thambi’s stay and the theft happened at the house. Meanwhile, at royal palace a message from Pathan camp informed that a council happened at Kudamon Pilla’s house the other night, as the resolution could not be known, the prince shall be alert at all times. The message also conveyed about the arrival of Mangoikkal Kuruppu. Ramayyan proposes for strict actions against the conspirators; however, prince vouched against it and during the discussion Marthanda Varma realizes that Kalakkutty, on whom the prince entrusted to deliver a message to Thirumakhathu Pilla seeking help, is indeed the maternal uncle-in-law of Sundarayyan. Parameswaran Pilla leaves to locate Mangoikkal Kuruppu and returns soon to state the non-arrival of Kuruppu. The prince says that Ettu Veettil Pillas might have endangered Kuruppu, hearing the same Parameswaran Pilla rushes to Pathan camp. At late evening, Padmanabhan Thambi suggests Sundarayyan to inquire about the Parukutty’s illness; however, Sundarayyan who gets frightened with the thoughts of fight happened last night hides in the house. At night, Subadra reaches there to ask Thambi about his actions at Chembakassery. Thambi mentions that he was confronted by the ghost of Ananthapadmanabhan before he could touch Parukutty and he doesnot know anything about the ornaments; during the conversation Thambi realizes that Subadra knows about the murder of Ananthapadmanabhan by Velu Kuruppu, which he and Sundarayyan were trying to implicate on the prince Marthanada Varma. Thambi tries to stab her with his dagger to which Subadra stands unmoved and seeing her stance, he moves back. When Subadra leaves, Thambi and Sundarayyan decide to kill her, as she knows their secret.

The next day, Sundarayyan reaches at Pathan camp to buy the poison, but Ananthapadmanabhan disguised as Shamsudeen gives only a harmless colored powder. Meanwhile, Subadra persuades Shanku Assan to confirm whether the Kasivasi who entered Chambakassery the other night is still at Pathan camp. On his return from Pathan camp Assan informs her that Sundarayyan was there to buy some poison. At Pathan camp, Hakkim warns Shamsudeen not to get into any danger in search of Mangoikkal Kuruppu. Later Shamsudeen reveals to Zulaikha about his love for Parukutty; realizing the issue, Zulaikha, who also loves him, gives the consent to do, as he wants. Subadra who realizes the poison brought by Sundarayyan is for her, heads back to her house. Sundarayyan who plans to poison Subadra leaves Thambi’s house; meanwhile, prince Marthanda Varma, Parameswaran Pilla disguised as civilians together with Ramayyan venture out to lookout for Mangoikkal Kuruppu. At night, the prince and his aide take shelter behind a tree while Ramayyan goes to Sree Pandarathu house of Kazhakkoottathu Pilla to check the whereabouts of Mangoikkal Krurppu. The prince and his aide notice a person headed to western direction but cannot identify him, after then, prince witnesses Sundarayyan heading to his wife’s house. Meanwhile, Subadra is with Ramanamadathil Pilla, who leaves later after assuring her that he will be back. Ramanamadathil Pilla passes by speaking to himself about the greatness of Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, who captured Mangoikkal Kuruppu, which the prince overhears. Ramayyan returns to the prince informing that he could not check at Sree Panadarathu house due to additional security forces deployed there. Prince sends Rammayyan to the house of Sundarayyan’s wife to know the details of Sundarayyan’s plans; however Ramayyan returns soon as Sundarayyan was talking to his wife behind the doors and the house parameter is been checked by Kodanki. Meanwhile, at Thambi’s house the unidentified man who passed by the prince and his aide earlier, reaches there; seeing him, who happens to be Velu Kuruppu, Thambi becomes happy and keeps him hidden in his house. The prince and his aides realize the abduction of Mangoikkal Kuruppu and decide to look out for him at Chembakassery and Sree Panadarathu house; by then, Sundarayyan and his wife pass by, among which husband goes to Thambi’s house and wife heads to Subadra’s house with some food items that are poisoned by Sundarayyan. The prince and the aides take leave to know the health of the ailing king, when they are moving ahead, the archer Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla chases and shoots arrows towards them, but his arrows aimed at the prince are struck down by mad Channan and then Channan beats down the archer. Sundarayyan’s wife Anantham visits Subadra, who realizes that the stolen ornaments from Chembakassery are at the former’s house and Anantham is unaware about the plans of her husband. Mad Channan, who hides nearby overhears their conversation. Meanwhile, Raman Madathil Pilla reaches at Thambi’s house and later joined by Sundarayyan and discuss about assassinating the prince Marthanda Varma, soon then Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla also arrives there. On the return of Ramanamadathil Pilla, Subadra realizes the plan to assassinate the prince by Velu Kuruppu. She prepares a note and entrusts the note to Shankarachar to deliver the same to the prince. She assembles her other servants and orders ten of them to steal the particulars from the house of Anantham. She orders her another servant Pappu to inform at Thambi’s house that she is dead, by tomorrow, she sends her another servant to Pathan camp. Meanwhile, at king’s palace, prince Marthanda Varma gets relief that the king is feeling a little better after taking the medicine from Hakkim. While returning from there to his palace with Parameswaran Pilla, the prince is about to be stabbed by Velu Kuruppu but only to be stopped by Shankarachar followed by a fight from which Velu Kuruppu runs away after stabbing Shankarachar. Prince and his aide reaches to the dying Shankarachar, who manages to convey about the message note before his final breath. Velu Kuruppu reaches back to Thambi, who summons Ramamanam Madathil Pilla, Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla, Sundarayyan and Kodanki and they decide to move Mangoikkal Kuruppu from Sree Pandarathu house to Chembakassery. Meanwhile, mad Channan leaves from Subadra’s house to Sree Pandarathu house, where he drugs the guards there and gets keys and subsequently finds Mangoikkal Kurupu in the dungeon; but, before they could escape from there, Ramanamadathil Pilla and team reaches there. Velu Kuruppu gets angry by seeing Channan and paces towards him with his sword but gets killed by a gunshot from the latter’s pistol. Kondanki advances towards Channan after the fall of Velu Kurppu, but he too gets shot by pistol and falls to death. An angry Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla draws his bow while Channan takes another pistol from his waist. Ramamanam Madathil Pilla intervenes and informs that they are to be moved to Chembakassery and only to be prosecuted by Thirumikhathu Pilla, to which Channan agrees on condition that he will keep his weapons with himself. Meanwhile, Subadra’s servants return with the items from the house of Anantham. Subadra sends two of her servants to know the whereabouts of Shankarachar, and after a few hours the servants return with the news of deaths happened during that night. Mangoikkal Kuruppu and Channan are moved to Chembakassery and guards from palace who favors Thambi are kept as security force after getting the keys from Shanku Assan. Sundarayyan and others spread the false news that prince Marthanda Varma is behind the murders happened that night and he also tried to assassinate Ramanamadathil Pilla.

Next day early morning, Anantham arrives at Subadra’s house to inform about the theft happened at her house. After Anantham left, a sad Subabra gets some relief when her servant went to Pathan camp came back with the medicine for Parukutty. He also informs that one of the men at the camp resembled her ex-spouse. Meanwhile, Subadra’s servant Pappu cries out at Thambi’s house that Subadra had died. Soon then, one of the servants at Thambi’s house informs that a theft happened at Sundarayyan’s house and Sundarayyan realizes from his wife that Subadra is not dead. Meanwhile, at palace an angry mob of civilians rushed to the palace, but only to be confronted by the ailing king who signals them to leave. Ramanamadathil Pilla reaches to Thambi’s house to share about the revolt at palace and praises the actions of Sundarayyan. Later, Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla and a servant arrive there to convey about the demise of the king Rama Varma. After the funeral rituals of Rama Varma, Marthanda Varma manages to send payment required for the forces from Madurai. On that day, Subadra reaches at Chembakassery by evening with the medicine for Parukutty, who starts recovering from the illness from the next day onwards. Subadra stays at Chembakassery for the next five days.

On the fifith day, prince realizes that the men sent from Kilimanoor under the leadership of Narayanayyan were defeated by Kazhakkoottathu Pilla and his men. Prince orders the employment termination of palace guards who are working for Thambi. Meanwhile, at Chembakassery, Subadra conveys that one of the men in detention is a mad man and at least he could have been released. Parakutty insists on releasing both men from detention, however, Shanku Assan reveals that he doesnot have the keys which are entrusted to the guards. Later Chembakassery Mootha Pilla restores the keys to Shanku Assan as the guards are summoned to palace urgently. Parukutty, who could not sleep with the thoughts of releasing the mad man, conveys her worries to Karthyayani Amma. Meanwhile, Subadra leaves to her house after realizing about the council at her house by Thambi and team. Parukutty compels Shanku Assan to release the two men from detention; when latter provides the keys, she and her mother head themselves to the dungeon. In the dungeon Karthyayayani Amma asks Mangoikkal Kuruppu to move out as per the wishes of her daughter. Mad Channan conveys that he cannot reveal about himself and runs ahead followed by Kuruppu. Parukutty realizes that mad Channan is the one who entered her chamber during the night in which Thambi tried to attain her and he resembled her lover. Meanwhile, Ettuveettil Pillas, Thambi brothers and Sundarayyan decide to execute the assassination of the prince at palace that night. Meanwhile, nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu arrive at palace to support prince, who tells them to come in the morning and coordinate with Ramayyan. Later, the prince, who was asleep is soon awakened with the arrival of Subadra to his room. She conveys that his life is in danger and he shall leave at once from the palace and also to move his nephew and aunt to a safe place. Prince, who was reluctant at first, follows her realizing that she helped him other night. Kudamon Pilla, Padmanabhan Thambi and their team enter the palace to assassinate the prince but find no one. Meanwhile, after sending her servant to another direction Subadra heads to her house together with Marthanada Varma, Parameswaran Pilla and Ramayyan disguised as menials and get spotted by Raman Thambi and his team on the way, but she and the trio evade him easily by Subadra’s prompt response in favor of his actions and due to his aversion towards her. When Subadra and the trio are away from Raman Tambi and his men, she heads to her house alone and comes back with five men, who look like porters to the banyan tree, near where the trio are waiting. She instructs them to cross Venganoor by night and when they are about to leave Thirumukhathu Pilla arrives there and identifies the prince. When Thirumukhathu Pilla asks Subadra why she is helping the one who killed her brother, Ananthapadmanabhan, she assures that Ananthapadmanabhan is not dead and to her persuasion Thirumukhathu Pilla reveals that he is her father. Subadra conveys that Ananthapadmanabhan will be at Pathan camp. Subadra leaves to her house while others head east as Thirumukhathu Pilla knows that Aruveettukar are waiting near the west banks of the river, Karamana. Meanwhile, when the team of attackers led by Thambi and Ettuveettil Pillas cannot find the prince at palace, they decide to lead the forces to Manakkadu, where fighters of Magaoikkal are camped. However, the fighters of Mangoikkal are ready to face the attackers as they were tipped off by Subadra in time. When the attackers led by the Thambi brothers reach Manakkadu, Mangoikkal fighters put up a stiff resistance even though they are less in numbers and before they have been overpowered, Pathan fighters led by Shamsudeen and Beeram Khan arrive there against the Thambi’s forces. While Shamsudeen fights the Padamananabhan Thambi, Beeram Khan, who has a long-standing grudge against Sundarayyan for forging the plans that separated him from his then-spouse Subadra, takes up the fight with him. Sundarayyan brings down the horse of Beeram Khan and the latter is locked under the dead horse, while Sundarayyan advanced towards him; but before Sundarayyan could do anything Beeram Khan springs up from under the body of horse and manages to kill the opponent and leaves the battlefield at once. Padmanabhan Thambi is shot in the hand by Shamsudeen when the former is about to kill Nuradeen and before Ramanamadathil Pilla and Raman Thambi advance towards Shamsudden the whole battlefield is surrounded by the forces led by Thirumukhathu Pilla and the prince Marthanda Varma and subsequently the Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas are arrested.

The next day, prince conducts the post funeral rituals of the king and brings back his nephew, the little prince and aunt who, were safeguarded by Keralavarma Koithampuran at Chembakassery, where a joyful Parakutty awaits her lover Ananathapadnanabhan from the Pathan camp. Soon then, Anananthapadmanabhan reaches Chembakassery and re-unites with Parukutty. A few days later Marthanda Varma arrives at Pathan camp after ascending to the throne. It is revelead that Anathapadmanabhan was attacked at Panchavan forest two years ago by Velu Kuruppu, when the former was heading to aid the prince. He was rescued by the Pathan people, who took him along with him. When the discussion came about Subadra, the king orders Anananthapadmanabhan to move her from the house to safeguard from Kudamon Pilla, who is just released by the king. Subadra is at her house and sad due to the revelation about her ex-spouse. Kudamon Pilla reaches there and catches her by her hair and is about to plunge his sword while Beeram Khan rushes inside crying not to kill her; on hearing the voice of her ex-spouse and seeing him longing for her, she thanks god that she can even die, by that instant sword of Kudamon Pilla falls on her neck and before Kudamon Pilla could slay Beeram Khan, the former is cut into two by Ananthapadmanabhan who just reached there. Marthandavarma on hearing the news about Subadra, swears under his breath that he would seek vengeance on those responsible for the un-warranted deed of blood and heads to her house.

Three years pass by, Mangoikkal house has been rebuilt, Ananthapadmanabhan headed Marthanda Varma’s forces in the battles with Desinganadu and other kingdoms during the period. He stays at Chembakassery with his family including his daughter named Subadra. Marthanda Varma earns the impeccable fame as a protector to the people of kingdom as well as a servant to Sreepadmanabha deity and so, the public rejoice as in a festive mood.

Characters[edit]

Main Characters[edit]

  • Marthanda Varma / Yuvarajavu (Prince) – Marthanda Varma is described as a young man between 20 and 25 years of age with a heroic attire. He is the rightful heir to the throne after the period of king Rama Varma. He is generous towards the conspirators and shows unwillingness to take strict action against them as suggested by Ramayyan. He often disguises himself to evade the attackers. He shows great respect to Subadra's words, pertains to which he releases Kudamon Pilla from detention, once he becomes the king.
  • Ananthapadmanabhan / Mad Channan / The Beggar / The Diglot / Dweller of Kasi / Shamsudeen – Ananthapadmanabhan is described as a young man of 22 years of age and an expert in disguise with superior fighting skills. He is the son of Thurumukhathu Pilla from his father’s relationship with another spouse following the relationship with Kudaman Pilla’s maternal niece. He is the half-brother (younger) of Subadra. He is in love with Parukutty of Chembakassery. He has been attacked and left for dead at Panchavan forest, however after being rescued by Pathan merchants, he disguises himself as Shamsudeen as well as a mad Channan and rescues Marthanda Varma from Mangoikkal and facilitates Hakkim to help the prince. He also introduces Mangoikkal Kuruppu to the Pathan people, and helps latter to learn Hindustani language.
  • Subhadra / Chembakam Akka – Subadra is the daughter of Thirumukhathu Pilla and Kundamon Pilla’s maternal niece. She is the half-sister of Ananthapadmanabhan. Subadra is described as a woman of 25 years of age, who is as beautiful as a fairy. She was married to a relative of Kudamon Pilla, however they got separated after living together for six months as a relationship was forged between her and Padmanabhan Thambi. She is bold and determined to take revenge on those who spoiled her marital life. She helps Marthanda Varma to escape from the plans of conspirators. She is killed by Kudamon Pilla.
  • Shri Rayi Padmanabhan Thampi / Pappu Thampi – Elder son of the king Rama Varma. Thambi is described as a man with well built body and fair complexion, he has an affinity to wear ornaments. He yearns for beautiful woman and has relationships with Sivakami and a parmaour of Ezhamkudi (Seventh house). He wants to become the next king, after the period of his father, Rama Varma. He desires to have Subadra and Parukutty in relationships.
  • Sundrayyan / Pulamadan – Sunadaryyan a man of 40 years, is the son of a Brahmin from Madurai and a Marava lady. He married the niece of Kalakkutty. He is described as main conspirator who contrives to make Thambi as the next king. He arranges the marriage proposal of Thambi to Parukutty. He is killed by Beram Khan at Manakkadu.
  • Parvathi Amma / Parvathi Pilla / Parukutty / Thankam – Daughter of Karthyayani Amma and Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla. She is described as a beauty of 16 years of age with a considerable height. She is slim and fair as Magnolia champaca. She has studied Mathematics, Amarakosha and Sidharoopa. She is exceptionally fluent in reciting Ramayana in her sweet voice. She is in love with Ananthapadmanabhan. Padmanabhan Thambi wanted to have a relationship with her.
  • Velu Kuruppu – An ace fighter, swordsman, lancer, who is an utmost loyalist of Padmanabhan Thambi. He attacked Ananthapadmanabhan at Panchavan forest. He tries to kill Marthanda Varma at Charottu Palace, Mangoikkal house, and on the way to the palace of prince. One of his ears is sliced down by Ananthapadmanabhan, also gets killed by him at dungeon at Sree Pandarathu house.
  • Mangoyikkal Kuruppu / Iraviperuman Kandan Kumaran Kuruppu – Head of Mangoikkal family. He offers shelter for Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla while evading Velu Kuruppu. He arranges for additional forces under his nephews to support Marthanda Varma.
  • Parameswaran Pilla – Attendant and constant companion of the prince Marthanda Varma. When Marthanda Varma becomes the king he is promoted as the personal manager of the king.
  • Shri Raman Thampi – Younger son of the king Rama Varma.
  • Thirumukhathu Pilla – The minister of the Kingdom. He is the father of Subadra and Ananthapadmanabhan.
  • Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla – An ace archer, who serves Thirumukhathu Pilla, but take sides of Ettuveetil Pillas.
  • Anantham – Maternal niece of Kalakkutty and wife of Sundarayyan.
  • Kodanki / Palavesam – Elder brother of Sundarayyan. He is killed by Ananthapadmanabhan.
  • Kaalakutty Pilla – Uncle of Anantham and messenger of prince Marthanda Varma.
  • Ettuveettil Pillas
    • Kudaman Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas. He is the nephew of Subdra's grandmother. He kills Subadra and he is killed by Ananthapadmanabhan.
    • Ramanamadathil Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas. He is described as the one who desires the company of Subadra. He has a wife and a son, whom he visits only on the day of Thiruvonam.
    • Kazhakkoottathu Pilla / Thevan Vikraman – One of Ettuveettil Pillas. Intended to propose marriage with Parukutty, daughter of Ugran Kazhakkoottahtu Pilla, who was his maternal uncle. He led a force to defeat the fighters from Kilimanoor under the leadership of Narayanayyan.
    • Chembazhanthi Pilla / Thevan Nandi – One of Ettuveettil Pillas.
    • Marthandan Thirumadathil Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas.
    • Venganoor Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas. He and his men defeat the men from Mangoikkal supportive to prince Marthanda Varma.
    • Pallichal Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas.
    • Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla (Deceased) – Late husband of Karthyayani Amma and father of Parukutty. He is the maternal uncle of Thevan Vikraman Kazhakkoottathu Pilla.
  • Karthyayani Amma / Karthyayani Pilla – Widowed wife of Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, she is the mother of Parukutty and younger sister of Chembakassery Mootha Pilla.
  • Chembakasserry Mootha Pilla – Elder brother of Karthyayani Amma.
  • Shanku Ashan – Caretaker of armory at Chembakassery. He is born to the previous armory care taker and a lady servant at Chembakassery.
  • Beeram Khan – Maternal nephew of householder, who is a relative of Kudamon Pilla. He married Subadra, with whom he breaks up after believing the false news about her relationships with other men, especially Padmanabhan Thambi. He later gets converted into Islam as Beeram Khan and marries Fathima. When Ananthapadmanabhan is found at Panchavan forest, he persuades to nurse after seeing the former's resemblance to his first wife. He kills Sundarayyan for the deeds, latter did to separate him from Subadra.
  • Fathima – Elder daughter of Hakkim’s younger brother and Ayisha. Sister of Zulaikha and Nuradeen. She married Beeram Khan.
  • Zulaikha – Younger daughter of Hakkim’s younger brother and Ayisha. Sister of Fathima and Nuradeen. She cares for Ananthapadmanabhan as she loves him as Shamsudeen.
  • Nuradeen – Son of Hakkim’s younger brother and Ayisha. Brother of Fathima and Zulaikha. He marries a beautiful lady.
  • Azim Ud-Dowla Khan / Hakkim – A traditional medicine specialist, who is the paternal uncle of Fathima, Nuradeen and Zulaikha. His treatment cures Anathapadmanabhan and also provides medication for king Rama Varma and Parukutty.
  • Usman Khan – Brought up as a son by Hakkim from Childhood.
  • Nephews of Mangoikkal Kruppu
    • The maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu at Mangoikkal house. Some of them are follows:
      • Kochu Velu – Youngest of maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
      • Krishna Kuruppu / Kittan – Eldest of maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
      • Narayanan – One of the maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
      • Kumaran / Komaran – One of the maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
      • Kochu Kuruppu / Kochannan / Cheriya Kuruppu – One of the maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu, who was sent to Padmanabhapuram, on return from there he gets frantic by the seems-to-be-following men of Velu Kurruppu.
    • Two of them are instructed by Mangoikkal Kuruppu to make arrangements for the stay of Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla.
    • Six of them including Krishna Kuruppu and Narayanan resist Velu Kuruppu and attackers at Mangoikkal.
    • Four of them including Krishna Kuruppu head to Thiruvananthapuram to lead the forces from Mangoikkal as a support to Marthanada Varma.
  • Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma – Little prince. He is moved along with his mother to Chembakassery for protection.
  • Unnamed Royal Mother – Mother of the little prince, Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma.
  • Raja Rama Varma – The ailing king, who is the father of Padmanabhan Thambi and Raman Thambi. Prince Marthanda Varma refers him as maternal uncle.
  • Arumukham Pilla (Dalawa) – The prime minister of the kingdom. He goes to Boothapandi to make the payment for the forces from Madurai, unfortunately he had to stay there as an assurance for balance payment.
  • Ramayyan (Rayasakkaran) – The ministrial official, who helps the prince during the search for Mangoikkal Kuruppu. He also manages to pacify the angry civilians, who entered the palace ground, by presenting the ailing king infront of the crowd.
  • Narayanayyan – Royal servant who leads the men sent from Kilimanoor in support of Marthanda Varma.
  • Kilimanoor Koithampuran (Deceased) – The one who gets killed by men of Ramanamadathil Pilla while defending the conspiracy to kill the little prince, Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma.
  • Kerala Varma Koithampuran – The one who arranges additional forces for Marthanda Varma under the leadership of Narayanayyan. He guards the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and his mother at Chembakassery.
  • Aruveettukar – A powerful and rich family and their men, who are supportive to Thirumukhathu Pilla.
  • Servants of Subadra
    • Unnamed Men – Five Nair servants, who accompany Subadra to Chembakassery.
    • Unnamed Women – Four Nair servants, who accompany Subadra to Chembakassery.
    • Shankarachar – Main Nair servant of Subadra. He gets killed while trying to save Marthand Varma from Velu Kuruppu.
    • Unnamed Servant – The Nair friend of Shankarachar and the one who brings twelve servants as ordered by Subadra to the house of Shankarachar.
    • Twelve Servants – The Nair servants brought by the friend of Shankarachar.
      • Pappu – A servant of Subadra. He is sent to Padmanabhan Thambi's house to convey the false news about her death. He is sent to Sree Pandarathu house to know the about mad Channan from the guards there; he is also sent to the house of Subadra to keep watch on the movements.
      • Ten Servants – Servants who steal the particulars from the house of Anantham.
        • Two among them go in search of Shankarachar in the night he is killed.
        • Among them, one is stationed at Valiya Nalukettu, and one is stationed at Chembakassery to keep a watch on the movements.
      • Unnamed Servant – The one who brings the medicine for Parukutty from Pathan camp and reveals about Beeram Khan.
    • Five Servants – Servants who, looked like porters and were brought by Subadra to accompany Marthanda Varma, Parameswaran Pilla and Ramayyan disguised as menials.
  • Group of Civilians – The group of people who rush into the fort and are confronted by the king Rama Varma to disperse. Eight of them are dispersed only when king Rama Varma signaled them to do so.

Other Characters[edit]

  • Kochakkachi – Maternal niece of Mangoikkal Kuruppu, who instructs Kochu Velu to arrange for the morning ablutions of Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla at Mangoikkal house.
  • Unnamed Ladies – The ladies of Mangoikkal house other than Kochakkachi, together with whom all are sent away to avoid any nuisance on the arrangements to safeguard Marthanada Varma and Parameswaran Pilla.
  • Unnamed Eldest Lad – The one who brings the Hakkim’s message note to the palace and deliver it to Parameswaran Pilla.
  • Unnamed Female-Deposer – A prostitute who gives false statement against prince Marthanda Varma on the murder of Ananthapadmanabhan as conspired by Sundarayyan and Padmanabhan Thambi, for whom she is a soubrette.
  • Sivakami – Paramour of Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Woman of Ezhamkudi – Mistress of Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Kamalam – Paramour of Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Unnamed (House-holder) – A Nair relative of Kudamon Pilla and maternal uncle of Beeram Khan.
  • Unnamed (Kottaram Vicharippukaran) – The palace manager of Charottu Palace, he works from his home.
  • Ayisha (Deceased) – Mother of Fathima, Nuradeen and Zulaikha.
  • Unnamed Brother (Deceased) – Hakkim’s younger brother and father of Fathima, Nuradeen and Zulaikha.
  • Unnamed Lady – The beautiful lady who marries Nuradeen.
  • Unnamed Mother (Deceased) – Mother of Subadra from the relationship with Thirumukhathu Pilla. She is the maternal niece of Kudamon Pilla.
  • Unnamed Mother (Deceased) – Mother of Padmanabhan Thambi and spouse of king Rama Varma.
  • Unnamed Sister (Deceased) – Daughter of Thirumukhathu Pilla and the little sister of Ananthapadmanabhan. Padmanabhan Thambi wanted to marry her; which Ananthapadmanabhan opposed as he was against the proposal.
  • Unnamed Mother / Thirumukhathe Akkan – Mother of Ananthapadmanabhan and spouse of Thirumukhathu Pilla.
  • Unnamed (Anjanakkaran) – A clairvoyant who affirms to Thirumukhathu Pilla about the murder of Ananthapadmanabhan by the prince Marthanda Varma through paranormal retrocognition.
  • Unnamed Men (500 Nos) – The supporters of Thirumukhathu Pilla and Aruveettukar, whom they followed to provide support to the prince, Marthanda Varma.
  • Madura Forces – The mercenaries from Madurai camped at Boothapandi, where they detain Dalawa Arumukham Pilla, due to incomplete payment of their arrears.
  • Channars
    • Channars of Palm-plant – The Channar people at the palm-tree plant, where prince Marthanda Varma enquires about any nearby house of Nairs, while escaping from Charottu palace.
    • Channars (50 men) – The Channar people of 50 numbers who got killed by men of Thambi as per his order to nab the mad Channan.
    • Channars – People of Channar clan who assembles after the slaughter of 50 Channars by the men of Thambi. Mad Channan persuades them to aid him in providing defense at Mangoikkal house.
      • Ozhukkan – One of the Channars.
      • Koppilan – One of the Channars.
      • Podiyan – One of the Channars.
      • Nandan – One of the Channars.
      • Rakithan – One of the Channars.
      • Suppiramaniyan – One of the Channars.
      • Ponnan – One of the Channars.
      • Poothathan – One of the Channars.
  • Aiders of Padmanabhan Thambi
    • Lancers of Velu Kuruppu – The 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace. Two of them are killed by the arrows shot by Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla.
      • Kutti Pilla – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
      • Pappanachar – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
      • Chatayan Pilla – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
      • Ooli Nayar – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
      • Parappan Nayar – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
    • Unnamed (Vicharippukaran) – The manager of Padmanabahan Thambi at Padmanabhapuram palace.
    • Unnamed Servants – Servants of Padmanabahan Thambi at Padmanabhapuram palace.
    • Unnamed Servant – The one who informs about the theft happened at the house of Sundarayyan's wife, Anantham.
    • Unnamed Fighters – The lancers who disguised as Mangoikkal men and tried to attack Thirumukhathu Pilla.
    • Unnamed Guards – Royal lancers who support Padmanabhan Thambi and are deployed at Chembakassery under Chembakassery Mootha Pilla, who takes them back to Padmanabhan Tahmbi following the order of Valiya Sarwadhikaryakkar to report back to palace after which, Thambi relieve them from duty.
    • Unnamed (Pattakkar) – The messengers in Pathan outfits who accompany Padamanabhan Thambi at Thiruvananthapuram.
    • Unnamed Accomplices – The accomplices in domestic outfits who accompany Padamanabhan Thambi at Thiruvananthapuram.
    • Unnamed Householders – The householders, who convene at the house of Padmanabhan Thambi for the meeting on the night in which Shankarachar is killed.
    • Unnamed Landlords – The landlords, who convene at the house of Padmanabhan Thambi for the meeting on the night in which Shankarachar is killed.
    • Unnamed (Pattakkaran) – The one who informs Padmanabhan Thambi about the arrival of Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla at Valiya Nalukettu.
    • Unnamed (Pattakkaran) – The one who informs Padmanabhan Thambi about the demise of king, Rama Varma.
    • Unnamed Servants – The servants who provide foot massage and air wampish to Padamanabhan Thambi at his residence in Thiruvanathapuram.
    • Unnamed Guards – The fighters who serve at Padmanabhan Thambi’s residence in Thiruvanathapuram as guards.
    • Lancers and Nairs (200 men) – A group of lancers and Nairs led by Velu Kuruppu in search of Marthanda Varma and finally attacks Mangoikkal house. The remaining 12 lancers of Velu Kuruppu are included.
      • A group of 150 men are deployed at nearby locations of Mangoikkal house by Velu Kuruppu, later led to Mangoikkal
      • A group of 20 men are led on the main path to Mangoikkal.
    • Lancers and Nairs (150 men) – A group of lancers and Nairs send by Padmanabhan Thambi to aid Velu Kruppu for the attack at Mangoikkal
      • One of the lancers reaches back to Thambi to inform about defeat at Mangoikkal.
    • Nanjinadu Fighters – The fighters of 500 numbers including Marava people from Nanchinadu led by Raman Thambi.
  • Fighters from Kilimanoor – The fighters led by Naranayyan and later defeated by Kazhakkoottathu Pilla and his men.
  • Aiders of Ettuveettil Pillas
    • Servants of Ettuveettil Pillas – The servants of Ettuveettil Pillas; who are creating mutiny at palace gate.
    • Unnamed Servant of Kudamon Pilla – The one who arranges the particulars for the oath at council by Ettuveettil Pillas.
    • Unnamed Servants – The servants of Kazhakkoottathu Pilla; who tricks Mangoikkal Kuruppu and later put him under detention.
    • Guards of Kazhakkoottathu Pilla – Guards at Sree Pandarathu house. Ananthapadmanabhan disguised as mad Channan drugs them to get the keys to dungeon inorder to rescue Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
  • Men of Mangoikkal
    • Unnamed Parayan – A Parayan lad who gets caught by Velu Kuruppu, who realizes about Marthanda Varma at Mangoikkal from him.
    • Servant of Mangoikkal Kuruppu – The one who rushes out to Mangoikkal martial arts school on the news about the march of attackers led by Velu Kruppu.
    • Servants of Mangoikkal – Four servants of Mangoikkal summoned on the arrival of disguised prince Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla.
    • Nairs of Mangoikkal – Eight Nairs of Mangoikkal who aid in providing defence against the attack by Velu Kuruppu and his men at Mangoikkal.
    • Parayar Guards – The guards of Parayar clan at Mangoikkal house.
    • Men from Mangoikkal Kalari – The fighters of 200 numbers from the martial arts school of Mangoikkal. They defeat the men of Velu Kuruppu.
    • Fighters of Mangoikkal – Fighters of 300 numbers led by nephews of Mangoikkal, but are defeated by Venganoor Pilla and his men.
      • More than 100 fighters from the above are escaped with nephews and re-enter the capital and camp at Manakkadu.
    • Unnamed Servant – The servant who accompanies Mangoikkal Kuruppu to Thiruvananthapuram.
  • Pathans – The Pathan merchants and their team encamped at Thiruvananthapuram
    • Unnamed Pathan Merchants – The lead Pathan merchants, who earlier halted at Thiruvithamkodu and are now encamped at Manakkadu, other than the Hakkim and team.
    • Servants of Hakkim – The Pathan servants and fighters who serve under Hakkim
      • Two Servants – Two servants who carry away the wounded Ananthapadmanabhan from Panchavan forest as directed by Hakkim.
      • Pathan Fighters – The fighters who are deployed as guards to the stall of merchandise.
        • Twenty of them are led to defend Raman Thambi's men by Shansudeen and Beeram Khan.
  • Aiders at Chembakassery
    • Unnamed (Pattakkar) – Messengers to whom Chembakassery Mootha Pilla entrusts duties on the day before the arrival of Padmanabhan Thambi.
    • Servants at Chembakassery
      • Unnamed Servant of Parukutty – The lady attendant who provides the book and other particulars to Parukutty.
      • Unnamed (Adichuthelikkari) – The lady cleaner on whom Karthyayani Amma prevails persistently to make the surroundings clean.
      • Unnamed Lady Servant – The one who is entrusted to clean the lamps.
      • Tailors / Weavers – The skilled workers who arrange necessary bed sheets and curtains
      • Kitchen Staff – The cooks and assistants to whom Karthyayani Amma insists to cut more vegetables for the preparation of dishes.
    • Unnamed (Vaidyanmar) – Traditional medicine practitioners who come to Chembakasery to provide medication to Parukutty's illness.
  • Subadra – The daughter of Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty, named after her paternal aunt.
  • Members of Palace at Thiruvananthapuram
    • Unnamed (Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar) – The chief minister of the kingdom who orders the recall of palace guards at Chembakassery.
    • Unnamed Sarwadhi (Sawadhikaryakkar) – A district officer under Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar. He suspects about the actions of prince Marthanda Varma at the night in which Shankarachar and Velu Kuruppu are dead.
    • Unnamed (Vaidyanmar) – Traditional medicine practitioners who provide medication for king Rama Varma's illness. One of them is arranged to go to Chemabakassery, as ordered by the prince, Marthanda Varma.
    • Unnamed Scholars – The qualified people including priests, clergies, magicians who do their respective occult practices for extending the lifetime of king Rama Varma.
    • Unnamed Cowards – The people who became courageous to talk about the pros and cons of rule of king Rama Varma
    • Unnamed Special Servants – The special servants of king Rama Varma; they are honest in disclosing the pros and cons of rule of king Rama Varma.
    • Unnamed Servants – King Rama Varma's servants, whose faces are languid due to the increasing illness of the king.
    • Unnamed Disciples – The happy disciples of prince Marthanda Varma as the accession of their master is nearing.
    • Unnamed Ministers – The ministers, who request monetary aid from the aristocratic residents.
    • Unnamed Emissary – The emissary deputed by prince Marthanda Varma to Kilimanoor palace.
    • Unnamed (Thirumulpadanmar) – The Thirumulpad Nair assistants who lead prince Marthanda Varma, while moving inside the palace.
    • Unnamed Messengers – The messengers who are entrusted to inform the middle lords about the illness of king.
    • Unnamed Accomplices – The accomplices of prince Marthanda Varma at Thekkekoyikkal. Two among them run to his aid during the final moments of Shankarachar.
    • Unnamed Chamberlains – The chamberlains at palace, where they are found by Kudamon Pilla, Thambi duo and their men, while searching for Marthanda Varma.
  • General People
    • Unnamed Lords – The lords who visit Padmanabhan Thambi at his house in Thiruvanathapuram, to get favors from Thambi for their ventures.
    • Unnamed Civilians – The people who secure their money and valuables in hidden places.
    • Unnamed Residents – The residents who wish to see the end of fights and mutiny with the accession of Marthanda Varma to the throne.
    • Unnamed People – The people who refrain from paying the taxes, as they believe that a change in the heir lineage is going to happen.
    • Unnamed Residents – The aristocratic residents who are reluctant to provide monetary assistance to the ministers, due to the fear about the wrath of enemies of prince Marthanda Varma.
    • Unnamed Women – The women who are at their respective houses and blame the prince, Marthanda Varma.
    • People of Northern Provinces – The people, who aligns on the side of Ettuveettil Pillas at Chiriyankeezhu, Thiruvananthapuram, Neyyattinkara.
    • People of Central Provinces – The people who are reluctant to support royal houses by providing in counter offence at Iraniyal, Kalkulam, Vilavancode.
    • Unnamed Brahmins – Aged Brahmin people who are expecting favors from royal palace.
    • Unnamed Nairs – Nair people who collect and store sandalwood pieces and clarified butter in stalls near to the palace.
    • Unnamed Women – Matresfamilias who store enough vegetables.
    • Unnamed Children – Children who are worried about losing Vishu and Onam for the next year.
    • Unnamed People – The miserly people who are happy due to the probable savings going to happen with non-celebration of Vishu and Onam.
    • Unnamed People – People who greet Padmanabhan Thambi, while passing by the Padmanabhapuram palace.
    • Unnamed Lady – The lady, who passes by the Padmanabhapuram palace, from where Padmanabhan Thambi fantasizes that she peeks at him flirtatiously.
    • Unnamed People – People who bring bunches of plantain banana to Chembakassery.
  • Unnamed Beauties – The court-mistresses that Sundarayyan suggests bringing from Thanjavur for Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Unnamed Lords – The middle lords, who are related to royal family.
  • Unnamed Wife – The wife of Ramanamadathil Pilla, who visits her on the day of Thiruvonam.
  • Unnamed Son – The son of Ramanamadathil Pilla, who visits him on the day of Thiruvonam.
  • Unnamed (Assan) – The master who taught Mathematics to Parukutty.
  • Unnamed (Pisharody) – The one who taught lyrics to Parukutty.
  • Unnamed (Shasthri) – A Brahmin from a village near Madurai who becomes the father of Sundarayyan and Kodanki from the relationship with a Marava lady.
  • Unnamed Marava Lady – Mother of Sundarayyan and Kodanki in a relation with a Brahmin from a village near Madurai.
  • Unnamed Wife – The wife of Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar, she is in bed rest post the parturition.
  • Unnamed Niece – The niece of Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar, she is in a state of ill health.
  • Unnamed Daughter – The daughter of Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar, she is pregnant.
  • Unnamed Families – The families who were converted to Islam during the conquest of Mughols in Travancore.
  • Unnamed Relatives – The relatives who visit Chembakassery on hearing about the illness of Parukkutty.
  • Unnamed Friends – The family friends, who visit Chembakassery on hearing about the illness of Parukkutty.
  • Unnamed Father (Deceased) – The former care taker of armory at Chembakassery and the late father of Shanku Assan. He wrote the astrological notes on Parukutty, after her birth.
  • Unnamed Mother (Deceased) – The former servant at Chembakassery and the late mother of Shanku Assan.
  • Unnamed (Ayanmar) – The masters to whom the horoscope of Parukutty was shown for the possibility of any alternative to the natal astrological note written by the father of Shanku Assan.
  • People of Nanjinadu
    • Unnamed People of Nanjinadu – The residents of Nanjinadu; who follow the Mudaliyar lords.
    • Mudaliyar Lords
      • Cherakonar – A Mudaliyar lord in Nanjinadu who sides with Padmanabhan Thambi.
      • Mailavanar – A Mudaliyar lord in Nanjinadu who sides with Padmanabhan Thambi.
      • Vanikaraman – A Mudaliyar lord in Nanjinadu who sides with Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Ahor Namboothirippadu – The Akavoor Namboothiri about whom Velu Kuruppu mentions as the one who evoked protection to his armor shield by chanting of seventy million Dhanwantharam.
  • Unnamed Shasthris – The Shasthri Brahmins of Kancheepuram. Hakkim with his excellence in treatment is considered as an incarnation of Vagbhata by them.
  • Arcot Nawab – The Nawab of Arcot who presents Hakkim with wealth and awards.

Character Relations[edit]

Legend
descent
adoption
spouse relation
1, 2 spouse relation order
Matrilineal Nair Family Matrilineally Kudamon Matrilineally Chembakasserry Matrilineally Kazhakkoottam
Mother
Mother Mother
Mother Daughter Daughter
Unnamed House-holder Unnamed Lady Unnamed Lady Kudamon Pilla 1 Unnamed Lady Thirumukhathu Pilla 2 Unnamed Lady Chembakassery Mootha Pilla Karthyayani Amma Ugran Kazhakoottathu Pilla Unnamed Lady
2 Fathima Unnamed Nair / Beeram Khan 1 Subadra Anananthapadmanabhan Unnamed Sister Parukutty Thevan Vikraman
Pathan Father Subadra
Hakkim Son
Zulaikha
Ayisha
Unnamed Lady Nuradeen
Mother
Kalakkutty Pilla Unnamed Lady Madurai Shasthri Marava Lady
Matrilineally Mangoikkal Anantham Sundarayyan Kodanki
Unnamed Ladies Mangoikkal Kuruppu
Krishna Kuruppu Narayanan Kochakkachi Kochannan Komaran Velu
Matrilineally Ramanam Madathil
Mother
Unnamed Lady Ramanamadathil Pilla
Son
Venad / Travancore Matrilineal Royal Family
Unnamed Lady Rama Varma Un-specified
Unnamed Lady Marthanda Varma Padmanabhan Thambi Raman Thambi
Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma

Development[edit]

Background[edit]

C. V. Raman Pillai was introduced to historical fiction through the literatures of Sir Walter Scott and Alexandre Dumas during his college days at Maharaja's College, Thiruvananthapuram. The author did not graduate in first attempt, as he did not complete his examinations, during which he headed for an expedition[A] to end up at Hyderabad, where he stayed with some muslim people, and was suggested to marry a muslim girl after proselytization to Islam; however, he returned home after realizing the worries of dear ones through one of the natives of his hometown whom he met at Hyderabad. The experiences during the expatriation were later put to use in his novel writing. C. V. Raman Pillai rejoined for classes in 1880 and graduated from the University of Madras in 1881 as a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy.[10][11][12]

C. V. Raman Pillai traveled to southern provinces of Travancore with his friend Thanu Pillai, who was then the Tahsildar at Agastheeswaram during 1881–1882, and acquainted with the regional legends that he later adapted to his novel writings. In 1882, he started a weekly[B] only to wind up the operations in a few months due to financial difficulties. During 1883 C. V. Raman Pillai stayed at Kollam for a few days with his friend Thanu Pillai, to whom he wrote letters after his return from Kollam as he was depressed due to the setbacks in life, and Thanu Pillai urged in one of the replies to stop writing philosophy but facts. In 1884, the demise of his patron, Kesavan Thambi brought C. V. Raman Pillai into responsibilities at the house of deceased and during the same year, in the month of Mithunaṁ (June–July), he was appointed under government service as a clerk at the then High Court at Trivandrum. P. K. Parameswaran Nair remarks that C. V. Raman Pillai once mentioned to Kesavan Thambi’s elder son that his patron was the role model to create the character of Thirumukhathu Pilla in Marthandavarma novel.[15][16][17][18][19]

The author married Ms. Paravathy Pilla alias Ponnammapilla Thankachi, due to persuasion from his elder brothers but the relationship[C] did not last for more than a few months. In 1886, he was involved in the monthly periodical, Malayāḷi in which he wrote articles, and in 1887, his first play Candramukhīvilāsaṁ was staged[D] at the Maharajas College. In November, the same year he married Bhageeridhi Amma, who was the younger sister of his former sweetheart, Janaki Amma. C. V. Raman Pillai got a promotion[E] in his job at High Court; and following the second marriage, he moved to the house of Bhageeridhi Amma, the Keezheveedu at Perunthanni. N. Balakrishnan Nair quoted the words of Ms. Mukkalampattu Janaki Amma, who was a friend of Bhageeridhi; which state that the author moved to Keezheveedu with the preparations for Marthandavarma novel.[27][28][29][30][31][32]

Composition[edit]

Mukkalampattu Janaki Amma remembers Bhageeridhi Amma telling her that before starting to write Marthandavarma novel, the author used to read English novels and took notes from them after fully immersed in reading. P. K. Parameswaran Nair states that some days, the reading will go until 03:00 hours. P. K. Parameswaran Nair further states that while scripting Marthandavarma novel, the author used have sleep deprived nights, and his constant betel chewing for every Nāḻika (24 minutes) instigated his writing. During the composition, author’s spouse and Mukkalampattu Janaki Amma were amanuenses, whenever either of them was free, and apart from both women, another neighbor Ms. Thazhamadathu Janaki Amma also did transcription of author’s words comparatively more than other two. According to P. K. Parameswaran Nair, C. V. Raman Pillai was in Madras during the end of 1889 to pursue the proceedings of law exams that he should appear. N. Balakrishnan Nair states that the author went to Madras after getting leave for six months from Kuṁbhaṁ 10, 1065 (February 20, 1890). C. V. Raman Pillai stayed with his group of friends, which included N. Raman Pillai and G. Parameswaran Pillai who where earlier expelled from Travancore. During this period, G. Parameswaran Pillai, who had discussions with barrister Eardley Norton, proposed to bring out a memorandum detailing the grievances of educated natives of Travancore, who are not considered for higher posts in government services at Trivandrum due to recruitment of expatriate Brahmins. The scripting of memorandum was done by the combined efforts of friends including K. P. Sankara Menon based on the ideas proposed by G. Parameswaran Pillai. C. V. Raman Pillai promised to get necessary signatures of supporters for the memorandum.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38]

In January 1890, the Malayalam novel Indulekha was released[F] and became a topic of discussion among the friends-circles in Madras. The instant fame of Indulekha and its author O. Chandumenon swayed C. V. Raman Pillai to complete his novel Marthandavarma. N. Balakrishnan Nair states an account of challenge raised by some Malabarians that whether there were any men in Travancore who could create a literary work as Indulekha, to which C. V. Raman Pillai reciprocated that he will prove it as affirmative. According to P. K. Parameswaran Nair, for almost two months from then, author was involved in the scripting of Marthandavarma. C. V. Raman Pillai, while involved in the discussions of memorandum, mentioned to G. Parameswaran Pillai that with the publication of his novel, Marthandavarma, people would be proud about their early history. Eventually he was not interested to pass the law examinations, as his main intention was to complete Marthandavarma novel and ready the manuscript for printing. C. V. Raman Pillai left for Trivandrum after he was entrusted to translate the memorandum to Malayalam. According N. Balakrishnan Nair, the author rejoined in his job on Ciṅṅaṁ 9, 1066 (August 23, 1890).[38][40][41][42]

C. V. Raman Pillai continued the scripting of Marthandavarma novel at Trivandrum to have a printing draft, and he sent the completed chapters to his friend N. Raman Pillai at Madras, who in turn edited the same and made his own contributions to the manuscript. The author’s earlier experiences of having estranged from home, his life with muslims at Hyderabad, having suggested converting to Islam and marry a muslim girl were adapted to build the characterization of Shamsudeen and the descriptions of Pathan camp in the novel. He created the character of Karthyayani Amma as a reminiscence of his elder sister with the same name, and the attire of Velu Kruppu was based on the outlook of K. C. Kesava Pillai. According to P. K. Parameswaran Nair, the scripting was winded up in six to seven months during when the editing and corrections in the manuscript were done by N. Raman Pillai, who intimated about those to C. V. Raman Pillai through letter transactions before passing the same to printing press.[43][44][45]

Controversy over the period
P. K. Parameswaran Nair states that the consensus about the period of development of Marthandavarma novel is during 1890; however he also claimed that the author started writing Marthandavarma in 1883 and completed in 1885, which contradicts with his own statement that C. V. Raman Pillai thought about writing a novel only at the age of twenty-eight years which is by 1887. P. K. Parameswaran Nair purported his claim by quoting a remark from a private letter reportedly dated Māśi 1, 1059 (February 11, 1884) from P. Govinda Pillai to whom C. V. Raman Pillai supposedly shown the early drafts of the novel. Dr. P. Venugopalan affirms that there is an earlier version of the novel, which N. Raman Pillai refers in his letter to C. V. Raman Pillai regarding the character Subhadra as quoted by P. K. Parameswaran Nair. Dr. P. Venugopalan states that N. Raman Pillai listened to the oration of novel’s earlier manuscript while at Madras. The affirmation about the inclusion of Subhadra in the earlier version of novel brought out another contradiction to the claim of P. K. Parameswaran Nair with his own quotes from the words of C. V. Raman Pillai, which state that the author envisioned the character of Subhadra through his wife, Bhageeridhi Amma, whom he married only in November 1887. One of the later amanuenses of C. V. Raman Pillai, K. R. Prameswaran Pilla quoted the words of the author, which states that he started writing Marthandavarma novel while staying in Madras. N. Balakrishanan Nair notes that, C. V. Raman Pillai made several visits to Madras with the particulars from N. Raman Pillai’s home, while G. Parameswaran Pillai and the latter were in Madras. Dr. George Irumbayam personally queried about the existence of such a letter to P. K. Parameswaran Nair, who reportedly stated that he lost the letter. The claim of P. K. Parameswaran Nair and those who supported the same[G] were concluded as attempts of fans of C. V. Raman Pillai, whom they wanted to cast as the first novelist of Malayalam literature, and Dr. George Irumbayam remarked that the fans went to the extent of not believing the words of the writer in the deliberation of their attempt.[30][48][49][50][51][52]

Printing[edit]

P. K. Parameswaran Nair states that the proceedings with printers at Madras were initiated after the completion of novel writing, which contradicts with his own statement about the completion of printing till 150 pages while quoting a letter from N. Raman Pillai, whose words indicate that the scripting was in progress. K. R. Parameswaran Pilla notes that the printing of the novel was started after the completion of third chapter. The printing was done at Messrs. Addison[H] & Co., Madras, to whom the manuscripts were passed over by N. Raman Pillai. N. Balakrishnan Nair points that C. V. Raman Pillai went to hometown from Madras to arrange the money for printing, and during the time, he sent the manuscripts to N. Raman Pillai.[42][43][56]

C. V. Raman Pillai was involved in the Malayalam translation of the memorandum proposed by G. Prameswaran Pillai titled then as Malayāḷi Memorial followed by the printing and getting the signatures from supporters, and being involved in the activities, he fell short of money as some promised sponsors refracted from providing monetary assistance fearing the adverse reaction from Government. K. P. Shankara Menon and G. Parameswaran Pillai came to Trivandrum by the end of December 1890 for campaigning about the memorandum. C. V. Raman Pillai bore the expenses of their commutations and proceedings, and went on to sell his wife’s necklace to meet the requirements. The memorandum was eventually sent to the king on January 10, 1891 by K. P. Sankara Menon.[57][58][59]

The financial crunch due to the situations put C. V. Raman Pillai in a difficulty that he could not meet the expenses to complete the printing of the remaining chapters as intended; so, he made a concise version and got it printed as part of twenty-sixth chapter, which thus became the final chapter of the novel. P. K. Parameswaran Nair states that there were three more chapters after the twenty-sixth chapter by referring to a letter from N. Raman Pillai, who came to know about the concise narration only after getting the printed copy as he had left to Thiruvananthapuram before the completion of printing, criticized the author regarding the same. According to N. Balakrishnan Nair, the concise version included in twenty-sixth chapter is an abridgement of two intended chapters. C. V. Raman Pillai states in the preamble that he wanted to have an annexure at the end of the novel.[42][60]

Proofreading[edit]

When the printing was over, an advance reading copy was handed over to Kilimanoor Rajaraja Varma for proofreading, who in-turn pointed out the typographical errors which later made into an errata and added to the printing of further copies. During the proofreading, Rajaraja Varma informed C. V. Raman Pillai that some of author’s own way of expressing the Sanskrit words would be objected by Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran, however C. V. Raman Pillai did not allow those to be added to errata pointing that he did not fear criticism from literary autocrats.[43][61]

Publication[edit]

Release[edit]

When printing of further copies with errata was over, C. V. Raman Pillai made a request for permission on April 13, 1891 to submit the first copy at royal palace, and subsequently the book was released on June 11, 1891 after presenting the first copy to Aswathi Thirunal Marthanda Varma, to whom the book is also dedicated to. C. V. Raman Pillai sent two copies to Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran, one for the recipient and another for recipient’s wife, which was acknowledged in the recipients’ letter to the author dated June 24, 1891. N. Balakrishnan Nair states that author gave several copies of book as complimentary ones, out of the total 1000 copies printed. According to P. K. Parameswaran Nair, the publication of Marthandavarma novel was a great event in the history of Malayalam literature. The novel was first of its kind in Malayalam literature, the release of the novel made Malayalam to be the sixth Indian language and first Dravidian language to have a novel in the genre of historical fiction, thus became the first[I] historical novel of South India.[62][63][64]

Revised edition[edit]

In 1911, Kulakkunnathu Raman Menon, who owned of B. V. Book Depot and Kamalalaya Printing Works, Trivandrum, acquired rights of the novel, to publish from his own publishing house. C. V. Raman Pillai did a revision for the new edition, in which he had replaced the edits of N. Raman Pillai in the first edition with his own. The author corrected the flaws in the usages of Sanskrit and Malayalam words, together with the change of phrases that are in line with the then usages of Malayalam. The changes included the removal of a precognitive narration about the death of Padmanabhan Thambi at Nagercoil, removal of reference to an earlier spouse of character Anantham prior to her relationship with Sundarayyan and removal of references to mistresses from Thanjavur. The copyrights of the novel were registered on August 11, 1911, and D. C. Kizhakemuri notes that the copyrights were reserved until December 31, 1972.[62][65][66][67]

Re-prints[edit]

All the reprints of the novel available after 1911 are only of the revised edition. Sahithya Pravarthaka Cooperative Society (SPCS) of Kottayam released their first edition in 1973 through National Book Stall (NBS) and remained as one of the major publishers of the novel over the years. The Little Prince Publications of Kottayam released their 1983 edition with study and graphical representation of character relations by Prof. N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakkuttan Nair. Poorna Publications of Kozhikode brought out their first edition in the same year and subsequent reprints are brought over the years. D. C. Books of Kottayam released centenary edition of the novel as definitive variorum edition with studies by Dr. P. Venugopalan and subsequent reprints were released until 2007. The revised definitive variorum edition including studies by K. Raghavan Pillai and previously published studies by Prof. N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakkuttan Nair was released in 2007 from then all re-prints from D. C Books are of this 2007 version, which was also included in the Si. Vi. Rāmanpiḷḷayuṭe Carithṟakhyāyikakḷ Sampūṟṇaṁ in 2010.[68][69][70]

Translations[edit]

The Marthandavarma novel has been translated into three languages, Tamil, English and Hindi as five different versions, among which two were in Tamil another two, were in English and one incomplete translation was in Hindi.

  • Marthanda Varma (English, 1936) - The first English translation was by B. K. Menon[J]. It was published by Kamalalaya Book Depot at Trivandrum in 1936.[3]
In this translation, the translator B. K. Menon restructured twenty-six chapters of the Malayalam version into a Prologue, Volume One, Volume Two, and a Conclusion among which the chapter one of original is presented as the Prologue, chapters from two to twelve of the original are presented as chapters from 1 to 11 in Volume One, chapters from thirteen to twenty-five of the original are presented as chapters from 12 to 24 in Volume Two and chapter twenty-six is presented as the Conclusion. B. K. Menon attempted the translation with the support of his friend P. Narayanan Nair, the then Manager of Kamalalaya Printing Works and with the objective of introducing the historical romance of Travancore to reading public outside of Kerala and Malayalam speaking people. The first edition of the translation includes two illustrations of which one depicts the events in the prologue and other depicts the meeting of Subadra with Padmanabhan Thambi.[72]
Prema Jayakumar, daughter of B. K. Menon got the rights of the translation through K .N. V. G. Menon, the son of P. Narayanan Nair took the efforts to re-publish the translation and subsequently it was published through Sahitya Akademi at New Delhi in 1998. The new edition with an introduction by K. Ayyappa Paniker excluded the illustrations, the division as per Volume and the dedication to His Most Gracious Highness Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchi Pala Sir Rama Varma Kulasekhara Kiritapati Mannay Sultan Maharajah Ramamraja Bahadur Shamsher Jung G. C. I. E. included in the first edition.[71][73][74]
  • மார்த்தாண்ட வர்மா (Mārttāṇḍa Varmā, Tamil, 1954) - The first translation of the novel in Tamil was by O. Krishna Pillai. It was published by Kamalalaya Book Depot at Trivandrum in 1954.[75]
  • Marthanda Varma (English, 1979) - The second English translation by R. Leela Devi was published by Sterling Publishers at New Delhi in 1979.
In this translation, R. Leela Devi keeps the same structure of chapters of the original Malayalam version, but follows almost the same words as that of B. K. Menon’s translation with some alterations in the text. A reprint by the same publisher was released in 1984.[4]
  • मार्ताण्ड वर्मा (Mārtāṇḍa Varma, Hindi, 1990) - Kunnukuzhy Krishnankutty has done the Hindi translation, which was serialized and left incomplete in the editions of journal Kēraḷ Jyōti from Kerala Hindi Prachar Sabha, Thiruvananthapuram during June 1990 to December 1990.[76]
  • மார்த்தாண்ட வர்ம்மா (Mārttāṇḍa Varmmā, Tamil, 2007) - The second Tamil translation of the novel by P. Padmanabhan Thambi was published by Sahitya Akademi in 2007.[77]

Reception[edit]

The novel received positive to mixed response, being the first historical novel of Malayalam literature and south India, and literary work was hailed as a masterpiece.[46]

Critical reception[edit]

In the review appeared on The Hindu, Madras edition dated December 21, 1891, the novel is mentioned as a respectable specimen what an Indian graduate is capable of accomplishing in the department of fiction. Thanu Pillai rated the novel as a rare and valuable addition to the literature of Malayalam. Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran and Kodungallur Kunjikkuttan Thampuran ranked the novel as better than the heretofore-released novels[K] in Malayalam. Kilimanoor Ravi Varma Koil Thampuran remarked that he couldn’t keep aside the novel once he started reading the book. P. Sundaram Pillai stated that he read the novel with so much pride. The review in The Hindu criticized the free usage of Sanskrit words, which will make novel to be enjoyed by the elite people and not the general readers. Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran criticized the inappropriate usages of Sanskrit words, among which some[L] are remarked as unpardonable blunders.[46][61][64]

General reception[edit]

When the Marthandavarma was released, people of Trivandrum devoured the novel, the release of novel was celebrated like a literary festival and, C. V. Raman Pillai rose to his everlasting fame as a writer of remarkable talents. Though the novel became the topic of discussion in cottages, elite circles, clubs and law courts, the sale of book was very poor. The author did not even get the required revenue to pay the printing costs, and at one point of time, he took one hundred numbers of unsold books as a bundle to his elder brother, who was then the Tehsildar at Muvattupuzha and demanded one hundred rupees. C. V. Raman Pillai had sent unsold copies of the novel to Ayyappan Pillai, the then Education Secretary and to his friend Thanu Pillai, the then Manager of Huzur Court (Court of Appeal) at their respective offices, to have those sold. N. Balakrishnan Nair notes that the remaining copies among the one thousand numbers of first print were damaged due to infestation by termites. The general reading people slowly accepted the novel and, the author went on to release five more editions until 1911.[46][49][78][79][80][81]

Reception of revised edition
The revised edition of the novel published by Kamamlalaya Book Depot received with overwhelming response and became one of the best sellers of the period. N. Balakrishnan Nair notes that the sale of book was similar to that of Adhyatma Ramayana, by 1951 the Kamalalaya released the 25th edition. Dr. P. Venugopalan states that it’s not doubtful that Marthandavarma is the most sold book in Malayalam.[65][82]

Theme[edit]

In the preamble, author states that he made the book with the intention of creating a model of historical romance in Malayalam. The novel is identified as a literary work done in the manner of historical romance, in which historical events of the eighteenth century serve as the skeleton of the story. The novel presents the events during Kollavarsham 901 to 906 (Gregorian Calendar: 1726–1731). The power struggle happened in Venad during 1729 is presented in dramatic style with variety of scenes and incidents often characterized by chivalric romance. The novel is also classified as a political novel as the story is about political struggle and the political interests of the author are shown in allegorical form. N. Balakrishnan Nair states that the novel is a love story built around a serious period in the history of Travancore. Prof. N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakuttan Nair state that the novel comprises three plots, among which the first one is the political theme about the power struggle between Marthanda Varma and opponents, the second is the romance of Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty, and the third is the tragedy of Subadra. Dr. M. G. Sasibhooshan states that the plot consists of four sections, which are the above three together with the adventures of Marthanda Varma, and concordance of these sections made the novel as an exceptional literary work.[83][84][85][86][87][88][89]

Style[edit]

The novel is presented in twenty-six chapters describing the historical events, and each chapter is provided with an epigraph in the form of verses that implies the content of the respective chapter. Prof. N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakuttan Nair point that the major events of the novel take place during Kollavarsham 903–904 (Gregorian Calendar: 1728), within a span of twenty-eight days, among which only eleven days are explicitly presented through the chapters from two to twenty-six. A night during the Kollavarsham 901 is presented in chapter one and a consolidated set of events until Kollavarsham 906 is narrated in the final chapter. The novel switches to earlier periods, 1680s, 1703, 1720 while describing the backgrounds of Sundarayyan and Subadra, marriage and breakup of Subadra, and the relationship of Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty. Prof. Thumpamon Thomas[M] points that the narration is as small water streams that eventually form into a waterfall similar to the strands in a twisted rope made of coir. The historical narrations in the romantic setup are often aided with realistic aspects through the dialogues of characters. The novel imparts a feel of mystery as that in a detective fiction and been noted for having two characters as heroes. The novel is identified as an incident-rich work interlaced with fast-paced events during the period of a well-known historical personality, there by possessing the most required aspect of a historical novel.[91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99]

Allusion to legends, history, politics, geography and real life[edit]

Characters based on legends, history and real life[edit]

  • Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
Further information: Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma, who is distinctively known as Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma, ascend to the throne of Venad in 1729, and thereafter expanded the kingdom to form the state of Travancore. At the age of one, he lost his parents among whom, his father was a Kilimanoor Koithampuran who, died of severe fever and his mother was adapted to Venad royal family during the period of Umayamma Rani from Kolathunadu. The novel does not give any explicit references to the hereditary roots of Marthanda Varma. In the novel, he refers king Rama Varma as his maternal uncle and refers Kilimanoor Koithampuran, who sacrificed his life for saving the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma from the plans of Ramanamadathil Pilla, as elder brother.[100][101][102][103][104][105]
  • Thambi Duo
Thambi duo or Thambimar or Thambi brothers refers to the two sons of king Rama Varma. In the royal edicts, Mathilakam Records[N], the sons of king Rama Varma are mentioned as Kunchu Thambi and Ilaya Thambi[O] for elder and younger brothers respectively. In royal edicts it is also mentioned that, they had a paterfamilias named Kumara Pilla. P. Shangoony Menon[P] stated their names as Papu Thamby and Ramen Thamby in the History of Travancore from the Earliest Times, whereas in The Sketch of Progress of Travancore, Dewan Nanoo Pillay stated that they were commonly known as Coonju Thambimar and their names are Pulpu Thumby and Raman Thumby. In the folk songs and ballads the elder one is mentioned as Valiya Thambi and younger one is Kunju Thambi, and also mentions that their mother’s name as Abhirami or Kittanathalamma[Q] and they have a younger sister named Kochumani Thanka or Kochu Madamma. In the novel the elder brother is Pappu Thambi alias Padmanabhan Thambi, whereas the younger brother is Raman Thambi. In the biography of author, C. V. Raman Pillai, it is mentioned that the caretaker of the author in his childhood, Kesavan Thambi Karyakkar had two sons named Padmanabhan Thambi and Raman Thambi, with whom author had grown up. The novel mentions about Padmanabhan Thambi's mother as deceased during the timeline of the novel and did not link her to Raman Thambi, about whom Padmanabhan Thambi raises the concern of being upset, if he is to claim the throne through lineal descent system implying that Raman Thambi is equally eligible like him for the throne as possibly born to a different mother.[108][109][110][111][112][5]
  • Ananthapadmanabhan
Ananthapadmanabhan
Ananthapadmanabhan was a warrior and expert in martial arts who played a pivotal role in defending the plans of conspirators against Marthanda Varma. According to Prof. N. Krishna Pilla and Prof. Anandakkuttan Nair[R], Ananthapadmanabhan served in the Travancore forces somewhere after Kollavarsham 904 (Gregorian Calendar: 1729) and he was awarded with royal properties in Kollavarsham 920 (1745). According to Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju[S] the award of royal properties was happened in 1748. Ananthapadmanabhan was born as Ananthan Perumal to Thanumalaya Perumal and Lakshmi Devi in Sanror clan, he was affectionately addressed as Padmanabhan by his maternal uncle.[115][88][116][117][118] In the novel, the author did not affirm the caste of Ananthapadmanabhan, by not providing any details of his mother and he is not been referred as a Pillai or Nair throughout the novel, even though he is described as the son of Thirumukhathu Pilla. The name of character’s love interest in the novel, Parukkutty alias Parvathi Amma is in reminiscence of the name of real life of spouse of Ananthan, Parvathi Ammal. Ananthapadmanabhan is been referred as Ananthapadmanabha Pilla in the ballads[T] about Thambi brothers and referred as Ananthan in other ballads such as Aṉantan Pāṭṭŭ and Ōṭṭan Katai. In the novel, alter ego of the character named Shamsudeen dwells with the Pathans at Manacaud. The author of the novel, C. V. Raman Pillai happened to go for an expedition to Hyderabad following a heatbreak due to unfulfilled love. In Hyderabad, the author was staying with some Muslim people and was suggested to get married to a Muslim lady after getting converted to Islam. The characterization of Shamsudeen is in resemblance with the experiences of the author.[119][120][121][122][123][6]
  • Rama Varma
Further information: Rama Varma
Rama Varma was the ruler of Venad during Kollavarsham 899-903. He is a descendant of Kolathunadu kingdom, from where he was adopted to Travancore royal family during the period of Umayamma Rani. He was adopted along with Unni Kerala Varma and other two ladies, among whom one became the mother of Marthanda Varma. P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya state that the four members were provided from Kolathunadu to Travancore family on the request of Umayamma Rani. T. K. Velu Pillai states that they were adopted by Ravi Varma in Kollavarsham 863. Rama Varma is the father of Thambimar and he succeeded his brother and ascend to the throne of Venad in Kollavarsham 899. According to T. K. Velu Pillai[U], Rama Varma was a weak ruler and his reign led to the disorganization of political life in Travancore. He passed away due to short illness in 1729. In the novel he is presented as bedridden due to illness and passes away during course of action of story.[125][126][127][128]
  • Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma
Dharmaraja
Further information: Dharma Raja
Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma also known as Dharmaraja ascend to the throne of Travancore in Kollavarsham 933 succeeding Marthanda Varma. He was born in Kollavarsham 899 as the son of a Kilimanoor Thampuran and Attingal Queen, who was adopted as a princess to Travancore royal family from Kolathunadu during the period of Ravi Varma. The novel presents only in his childhood age.[129][130]
  • Queen of Attingal
Senior Queen of Attingal, who was the mother of Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma. She was adopted to Travancore royal family from Kolathunadu kingdom in Kollavarsham 893 during the period of king Ravi Varma. She gave birth to Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma from the alliance with a lord of Kilmanoor in Kollavarsham 899. In the novel, she is been referred as an unnamed royal mother only along with her son, Rama Varma.[127][128][129]
  • Kilimanoor Thampurans
Kilimanoor Thampurans are the lords of Kilimanoor house, which is situated north to the Thriruvananthapuram. According to V. Nagam Aiya, the house of Kilimanoor has been loyally and honorably connected with Travancore royal family, as the male members of family are chosen for alliance with the queens of Travancore. In the novel two lords of Kilimanoor are mentioned; one referred as Kilimanoor Kerala Varma and another as Kilimanoor Koithampuran among whom, former is the one who sacrifices his life in defending against the plans to endanger the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and the mother, whereas the latter one guards the little prince and mother during the attempt to coup d'état by Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas at Thiruvananthapuram.[100]
  • Ettuveettil Pillas
Further information: Ettuveetil Pillamar
Ettuveetil Pillas
Ettuveettil Pillas or Ettuveettil Pillamar refers to the chiefs of eight noble Nair families in the yesteryear Venad (Travancore). They were one of the main groups who conspired against the accession of Marthanda Varma. In the royal edicts, one of the Ettuveetiil Pillas mentioned in the novel, Kudamon Pilla is referred among one of the groups[V] of conspirators prevailed against Marthanda Varma. According to Dr. P. Venugopalan[W], Ettuveettil Pillas mentioned in the novel are based on the verses from Sree Veera Marthandavarmacharitham Aattakatha, which was published during 1883-1884 by P. Govinda Pillai[X]. In the novel except for Thirumadathil Pilla, all other titles of Ettuveettil Pillas are in reminiscence of the references made in the verses, an extract from which is also given as an epigraph to the eleventh chapter of the novel.[100][128][132][133][134][135][91][92][136] P. Shangoony Menon stated the eight titles[Y] of Ettuveettil Pillas. V. Nagam Aiya states that their titles are the names of the villages[Z] they headed and not their family names. According to P. Shangoony Menon, Madambies or Madampimar, the petty chiefs who were confederates of Ettuveettil Pillas, by whom the former group were influenced to become a powerful combination with the latter group. In the Malayalam translation of History of Travancore from the Earliest Times, C. K. Kareem[AA] claims that Ettuveettil Pillas were gradually grown as Madambies, even though it conflicts with the source material. Dewan Nanoo Pillay refers that Madampimars and Ettuveettil Pillas were the hereditary enemies of Marthanda Varma. T. K. Velu Pillai calims that Ettuveettil Pillas are mistaken for the Madathil Pillas, who were entrusted to manage the properties of six madams or areas; and that the chiefs or leaders were Ettuveettil Madambimar and not Ettuveettil Pillamar. He also claims that Kulathur Pilla and Kazhakkoottathu Pilla were mentioned as Pillas of six houses including the name of a Tamilian in the royal edicts, even though there are no such explicit informations in the referred royal edicts, Mathilakam Records - M. Doc. CXXX. Dr. Ibrahim Kunju cites the references of conspiracy by Pillas in the British records, Letters to Tellicherry[AB]. In the novel, Ettuveettil Pillas play as main supporters of Padmanabhan Thambi by framing and executing lethal plans against Marthanda Varma, and one of the Pillas, Kudamon Pilla is killed by Ananthapadmanabhan.[108][110][139][140][141][142][143][144][145]
  • Arukkoottathil Pillas
Arukkoottathil Pillas or Arukoottathil Pillamar refer to members of wealthy noble families prevailed in the yesteryear Travancore. In the royal edicts, it is mentioned that, a set of six members of them are found among the conspirators during the period of Marthanda Varma. In the novel, they are presented as a Thambi clan, Aruveettukar, who stood along with Thirumukhathu Pilla.[144][146]
  • Ramayyan
Ramayyan
Further information: Ramayyan Dalawa
Ramayyan or Rama Iyen, better known as Ramayyan Dalawa was the prime minister of Travancore during Kollavarsham 912-931, the period in which the most successful conquests under Marthanda Varma were accomplished. He joined the Travancore ministerial service as a Kuṭṭi Paṭṭar (minor Brahmin assistant), later got promoted as under secretary (Rayasom) and then state secretary following the accession of Marthanda Varma, who made him Dalawa after the demise of Thanu Pillai. In the novel, he is presented as a supporter and adviser to Marthanda Varma, whom he accompanies during the final coup by Thambi brothers. It is also mentioned in the novel that Ramayyan was promoted for Rayasom work by king Rama Varma.[133][147][148][149]
  • Narayanayyan
Narayanayyan or Naraayana Iyen was the assistant of Ramayyan, while the latter was state secretary. He assisted Ramanyyan in the deputation to explain and convince Azhagappa Mudaliyar regarding the accession tradition and respective stratum prevailed in Travancore. In the novel he is presented as a royal servant under whom, the forces from Kilimanooor are arranged in support to Marthanda Varma.[109][150]
  • Arumukham Pilla
Arumukham Pilla was the acting Dalawa of Venad during Kollavarsham 901-903, and became Dalawa after the accession of Marthanda Varma, to continue in his post till 909. He was once detained by mercenary forces from Madurai due to incomplete payment of their arrears against their service as additional forces to Travancore. The novel presents only his detention by Madurai forces at Boothapandi.[133][134][151]
  • Others
Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar and Sarwadhi Karyakkar – Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar is the title for administrative head of Travancore and Sarwadhi Karyakkar is the title for a district officer under Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar. During the period of king Rama Varma, Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar was under the direct orders of king. In the novel, Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar is mentioned to have a wife who is on rest, post the delivery of a newborn, a daughter who is pregnant for ten months, and a niece who is ill. Sarwadhi Karyakkar in the novel is one of those people, who suspects about the actions of Marthanda Varma during the night in which, Shankarachar is killed.[100]
Madurai Forces – Madurai forces are the mercenaries sent to Travancore as per the agreement of king Rama Varma and Madurai Nayaks of Thiruchirapalli in Kollavarsham 901. T. K. Velu Pillai argues that, there could not be any such agreement, but agrees with detention of Arumukham Pilla by the mercenaries. In the novel they are presented as camped at Boothapandi, where Dalawa Arumukham Pilla is kept under detention.[100][133][134][151][152]
Mangottu Assan – Mangottu Assan is the head of a family at Mancode and one of the masters of 108 Kalaries (martial arts schools) prevailed in Travancore. In the ballad Ōṭṭan Katai, it is mentioned that his house was burned down by Kunchukkoottam (men of Kunchu Thambi). In the novel, he is presented as Mangoikkal Kuruppu whose house is burned down by the men of Padmanabhan Thambi, as Marthanda Varma took shelter there.[123][153]
Chadachi Marthandan – According to Dr. P. Venugopalan, Chadachi Marthandan is mentioned in the legends as the one who becomes the supporter of Marthanda Varma, even though earlier he was with the conspirators. In the novel he is presented as Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla, who is a servant of Thirumukhathu Pilla and later take sides with the Ettuveettil Pillas.[154]
Subardra, one of the pivotal characters of the novel is based on the character of author’s wife, Bhageerithi Amma. The character of Thirumukhathu Pilla is based on the caretaker and patron of the author, Nangoikkal Kesavan Thambi, who was a Karyakkar (Administrative head of a Taluk) in Travancore. In the novel, there is reference to an Arcot Nawab, who gifted Hakkim for the latter’s medical excellence. There is also reference to a Namboothirippadu of Akavoor Mana, and presented as famous for sorcery meant for protective measures against bad luck and danger. There is also a reference to an unnamed Sultan of Turkey, with whom the character of Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla is been compared with. There is a reference to the look of members of Tiruvallā Pōṯimār (Brahmins of ten houses at Thiruvalla); with which the attire of prince Marthanda Varma at Charottu palace is been compared with.[31][18]

Events based on legends, history and politics[edit]

Treaty with Madura Nayaks[edit]

According to V. Nagam Aiya, during the reign of king Rama Varma besides the troubles caused by confederate chiefs and nobles such as Ettuveetiil Pillas and Madambies, the other petty chieftains were also refracted from contributing to the revenue of the state; and sovereign was unable to defend the atrocities of armed dacoits, as there were not enough money and manpower with the state. In Kollavarsham 901 king Rama Varma, headed to Tiruchirappalli and made a pact with the Madurai Nayaks to supply additional forces to Travancore for a fixed annual payment. T. K. Velu Pillai cites the references of payment to Madurai from Travancore. In the novel, it is presented that king Rama Varma and Thirumukhathu Pilla proceed to Tiruchirappalli in Kollavarsham 901 to arrange additional forces, which later camps at Boothapandi.[100][132][152]

Lethal attempts on Marthanda Varma[edit]

Attempt at a Temple – In the novel, while Rama Varma and Thirumukhathu Pilla headed to Tiruchirappalli, prince Marthanda Varma and Ananthapadmanabhan were staying at Nagercoil, from where latter among the duo at Nagercoil heads to his mother’s house following the news of her illness. While Ananthapadmanabhan was away, the prince was chased away by the men of Padmanabhan Thambi and an attempt on his life was made at Kalliyankattu temple. The incident is further referred as the escape of Marthanda Varma as a Brahmin. Dr. P. Venugopalan cites the references of the incident in the history of Travancore and Marthandamahathmyam Kilippattu. The incident took place at a temple of Shiva near to Kumarakovil (2 miles north to Thakkala), where Marthanda Varma took shelter while evading the attackers. At the temple Marthanda Varma was aided by the temple priest to escape in the outfit of the latter, and the priest was killed by the attackers as he was in the outfit of the former.[155][156]

There are references in the novel about attempts on the life of Marthanda Varma by his enemies as his successful escapes through the groove at Panathara, the Ezhava house at Perunkadavila, and the Nedumangad fort.

Escape at an Ezhava house – According to the legends, after evading the Ettuveettil Pillas and their men at Dhanuvachapuram[AC], Eithukondamkani[AD], and Marayamuttom[AE], when Marthanda Varma was refreshing himself at a river near to Malakulangara[AF] he was spotted by the men of Thambi brothers and in urgency to escape from them, he headed into a nearby Ezhava house, Alayil Puthur Veedu at Perumkadavila, where he was aided by the Kalipanikkathi (Lady Kali) to hide under the rattan enclosures. The men of Thambi brothers were unsuccessful in finding the prince.[157]

Aid by a Channan and Hiding inside a tree – In the novel, it is described that while running away from Velu Kuruppu and his men, Marthanda Varma is helped by a mad Channan to hide inside a tree and the aider misdirects the chasers. According to Dr. P. Venugopalan, the above account of actions is a collaboration of two situations where Marthanda Varma escaped from the enemies. Once, when Marthanda Varma was returning after some confidential visits to Kanyakumari and Suchindram, he was tracked by the men of Ettuveettil Pillas and Thambi brothers. While running away from the chasers, he was suggested by a Channan plougher of the nearby field to hide inside the hollow statue of the elephant at the adjacent temple of Shasthavu. When the chasers reached the cultivation field and questioned the plougher, he misdirected them to the southern provinces. In another occasion, when Marthanda Varma was chased by the enemies, he evaded them by hiding inside the big hole within a jack tree at the Neyyattinkara Sree Krishna Swami Temple. The tree is still preserved at the temple compound and known as Ammacciplāvŭ (Mother jack tree).[155][156]

Lethal attempt on Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma[edit]

The incident is referred as the attempt to murder the little prince, Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and his mother by Ramanamadathil Pilla along with his men in Kollavarsham 903, while the mother-son duo were heading from Trivandrum to Attingal, but only to evade the attempt with the help of Kilimanoor Koithampuran (Lord of Kilimanoor), who led the duo to a nearby safe village and took their place in the palanquin en route, confronted the attackers and eventually got killed, as described in the History of Travancore from the Earliest Times by P. Shangoony Menon. The above account of incident is in conflict with the version described by Pachumuthathu in the Tiruvitāṁkūṟ Caritraṁ[AG], which recounts the same at Budhanoor[AH] in the then district of Chengannur, where ruffians from Kayamkulam did the attack and states that lord of Kilimanoor who defended the attackers was the husband of the Queen. V. Nagam Aiya states the incident inline with the version by P. Shangoony Menon and mentions that lord of Kilimanoor, Kerala Varma Koithampuran as the consort of the Queen. T. K. Velu Pillai supports the version of Pachumuthathu and condemns the version by P. Shangoony Menon; which is cited by Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju, who points out the deliberation of T. K. Velu Pillai in supporting the version of Pachumuthathu by purposefully avoiding the references of incident in the British records, Letters to Tellicherry.[100][126][127][145][152]

Heirship claim by Thambi brothers[edit]

Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju refers to the legend that Thambi brothers made a claim to the throne of Venad during the final period of king Rama Varma as they are the linear descendants, which was against the tradition of collateral descent through maternal nephew followed by the Venad kingdom in selecting the heir to the throne. P. K. Parameswaran Nair[AI] claims that there is a legend in which Rama Varma promises to his spouse, Abhirama to let the children she will bear, to ascend to the throne of Venad; however Dr. P. Venugopalan states that the above account of legend is not valid as Rama Varma was neither the king nor the next heir to the throne during the early days of his relationship with his spouse and he ruled the kingdom only in the last five years of his life. P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya state that Thambi brothers were persuaded by feudatory chiefs and nobles, Ettuveettil Pillas and Madambies to make the claim to the throne. Dewan Nanoo Pillay states that Thambi duo manifested the claim, as they felt degraded from the royal rank after the accession of Marthanda Varma, so Madambies and Ettuveettil Pillas fomented their disaffection. T. K. Velu Pillai states that Thambi brothers attempted to seize the throne for themselves against the custom of Marumakkattāyaṁ (collateral descent through maternal nephews). Even though the above claim and dispute happened after the demise of Rama Varma, in the novel, it is presented that the conspiracy by Thambi brothers were started long before the king was ill and also shows that Padmanabhan Thambi and Sundarayyan lay the plans against Marthanda Varma, to get him deprived from the line of succession. In the novel it is mentioned that Ettuveettil Pillas gave assurance to Padmanabhan Thambi that they will make him king after the period of king Rama Varma. In the novel, it is also referred that Padmanabhan Thambi did not want to emphasize on Makkattāyaṁ (lineal descent through sons) by raising the concern to Sundarayyan that such a succession may bring his younger brother Raman Thambi against him.[109][110][134][150][159][160][161][162]

Treaty of Thambi brothers with foreign forces[edit]

The heirship claim of Thambi brothers against the then existing custom in Venad led them to seek the aid of foreign forces to confront Marthanda Varma. According to P. Shangoony Menon the elder Thambi brother, Papu Thamby headed to Tiruchirapalli in Kollavarsham 905 (1730) to seek aid from Pandyan governor. V. Nagam Aiya states that Thambi brothers together headed to Tiruchirapalli in 1729 to seek the help from Pandyan governor. According Dewan Nanoo Pillai, only one of the Thambi brothers proceeded to Tiruchirapalli in Kollavarsham 905 (1729-1730). T. K. Velu Pillai mentions that Thambi brothers secured the mercenary services of a foreign contingent in Kollavarsham 905. In the novel, it is presented that the younger brother, Raman Thambi heads to Nanjinadu to arrange additional forces in Kollavarsham 903.[109][110][134][150][162]

Council of Ettuveettil Pillas[edit]

Ettuveettil Pillas formed a council at the convention area of an inn at Venganoor, where they held consultation about the plans against the king Marthanda Varma and, the members resolved to assassinate the king on the Aaraattu festival day during his procession. The decision was scripted as palm leaf notes and hidden in the footwears of messengers. According to P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya, the conference happened sometime after Kollavarsham 906. Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju states that above event as happened in Kollavarsham 912. The messengers with the council notes were later detained by the king’s men following the lead by a Paṇṭāraṁ (the keeper of the inn), who spied on the council members and eventually the plan was foiled. In the novel, the council of Ettuveettil Pillas is convened at the maternal house of Kudamon Pilla near to Andiyirakkam. The council passes the resolution to assassinate the prince Marthanda Varma after the demise of king Rama Varma, when the prince will be heading back after the last rites of Rama Varma. A council note of the same is prepared for Padmanabhan Thambi and entrusts the same to Sundarayyan, who on the way back puts up a fight with Ananthapadmanabhan disguised as a beggar as the beggar tried to snatch the council note and, eventually the note is lost in the Killiyar. In the novel the above events are shown as happened in Kollavarsham 903 before the accession of Marthanda Varma.[139][163][164]

Coup attempt by Thambi brothers[edit]

When the foreign contingent arrived under Azhagappa Mudaliyar as an aid to Thambi brothers from Pandyan governor, the Thambi duo joins them at the Nanjinadu camp to mobilize the forces; meanwhile Marthanda Varma tried to arrange necessary counter forces at Kalkulam, however as there were not enough forces to confront the contingent and men of Thambi duo, Marthanda Varma negotiated with the officers of Azhagappa Mudaliyar, lieutenant Kanimiyavu and captain Kapalipara Sokkalingam Pillai, thus secured a safe passage out of Kalkulam fort with an escort to Neyyattinkara, in order to go to Perakathavazhi at Kollam; en route, on realizing that the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and his royal mother at Puthenkotta[AJ] were about to be attacked by a team led by Kudamon Pilla, Karakulathu Pilla and Vanchikoottathu Pilla, Marthanda Varma rushed there and moved the mother-son duo to Attingal and headed to Kollam. Meanwhile, the team led by Azhagappa Mudaliyar and Thambi brothers started from Kalkulam to Thiruvananthapuram, where they tried to take the possession of treasure at Sree Padmanabha Swamy temple, but only to foil the plans by the local inhabitants, to whom the charge was entrusted by Vanchikoottathu Pilla before he moved from there. The protests by local people made the team of Thambi brothers to retract, so Azhagappa Mudaliyar and forces headed to eastern provinces. Mathilakam Records mentions the above account of events as happened in Kollavarsham 905, one year after the demise of king Rama Varma. In the novel, it is presented that the foreign forces, the forces from Nanjinadu are led by Raman Thambi. The men of Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas together plan to siege the palace to slay the prince, however prince Marthanda Varma evade the coup as he is timely tipped by Subadra, who also insists to move the little prince and the mother to a safe place. When the team led by Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas are unsuccessful in locating Marthanda Varma and little prince, they head to Manacaud. The above course of events is shown in the novel as happened five days after the demise of king Rama Varma.[108][139][162]

Accession of Marthanda Varma[edit]

P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya state that Marthanda Varma ascended to the throne in Kollavarsham 904 (1729). Mathilakam Records refers the accession of Marthanda Varma as happened on or before the month of Ani (June–July) in Kollavarsham 904 (1729). T. K. Velu Pillai mentions the commencement of Marthanda Varma’s reign in Kollavarsham 905. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju mentions that the accession was happened in Kollavarsham 905. In the novel, the accession of Marthanda Varma is shown as happened two weeks after the demise of king Rama Varma in Kollavarsham 904.[108][133][134][159][93][165][166]

  • Other events
Illness and demise of king Rama Varma – According to P. Shangoony Menon, king Rama Varma died of short illness in Kollavarsham 903 (1728). V. Nagam Aiya also states that king Rama Varma died in the year 1728. Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju mentions that king Rama Varma passed away in Kollavarsham 904 (January 1729) referring to the Mathilakam Records. In the novel, king Rama Varma is bed ridden due to illness during Kollavarsham 903 and passes away in the course of story. According to Prof. N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakuttan Nair, the demise of king Rama Varma mentioned in the novel falls in the timeline of Kollavarsham 904.[125][127][145][93]
Detention of Arumukham Pilla – Dalawa Arumukham Pilla was once detained by foreign forces camped at Thrikkanamkudi[AK], because the payment for them as per the agreement with the king Rama Varma was in arrears. The required payment was almost done through the merchants at Kottar, however Dalawa was not released and the release was accomplished by the then commander-in-chief, Kumarswami Pillai. According to P. Shangoony Menon and T. K. Velu Pillai, the detention and release was happened post the accession of Marthanda Varma. In the novel, Arumukham Pilla is detained by Madura forces at Boothapandi and possible payments are arranged through loans from Kottar; the events are presented as happened before the accession of Marthanda Varma and the remaining amount required is provided by Subadra to Marthanda Varma to facilitate the release.[133][151]
Conquest of Desiganadu – Marthanda Varma marched to Desinganadu in Kollavarsham 906 because the king of Desinganadu invaded and conquered the eastern portions of Kallada, which was under Venad. In the novel, the conquest of Desinganadu is referred as happened in Kollavarsham 906 with the direct involvement of king Marthanda Varma, to whom Ananthapadmanabhan was the main protector in the conquest.[110][163][167][168][169]
The first edition of the novel mentions that Padmanabhan Thambi is killed by Marthanda Varma’s accomplices in a precognitive narration, which is removed from the further editions. According to P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya, Pappu Thambi was killed at Nagercoil palace by the guards of Marthanda Varma, which the former records as happened in Kollavarsham 908 and the latter mentions that it was happened a few months after the Arattu feestival at Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple in 1732.[170][147][163]
The novel refers the Kalipankulam incident, which according to P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya was that the five princes who were the offspring of Umayamma Rani were murdered by men of confederates (Madampimar). T. K. Velu Pillai points that Umayamma Rani never had any children. In the novel, the tragedy at Kalipankulam is mentioned only as the massacre of five princes without giving any reference to Umayamma Rani, but refers the involvement of Ramanamadathil Pilla in the incident. The novel also refers to the attack of a Mukilan during when, a few families were converted as Mohammedians after circumcision; which implies the conquest of Mukilan (a petty chieftain under Moghul emperor) in Travancore during Kollavarsham 853–855, followed by the circumcision and proselytization of Nair family members to Islam.[140][141][171][172][173]
There is a reference to the tragedy of Iravikutti Pilla, who was the commander-in-chief during the period of Unni Kerala Varma (Kollavarsham 806–823). Iravikutti Pilla was killed by the forces of Thirumalai Nayak in the battle, to which he headed by ignoring the bad omens. In the novel, Kazhakoottathu Pilla refers to the establishment of twenty-four Śāstākkanmāṟ (deities with the divine aspects of Shasthavu) at the downhills in Kerala for protection, which implies the legend about Parashurama, who did the enshrinements of Shasthavu deity at various places in Kerala.[174][175][176]

Architectural and Geographical references[edit]

Kingdom of Venad[edit]

Venad is mentioned as the kingdom in which the events of novel take place; in the novel, the king Rama Varma is referred as the ruler of Venad. The areas of Venad that are mentioned in the novel are as follows:

  • AralvaimozhiAralvaimozhi or Aruvamozhi or Aramboly is referred as Āṟāṁvaḻi, the south-eastern border of Venad, through which the traitorous criminals are exiled from the kingdom.
  • EdavaEdava or Idava is the north-western boundary of Venad, through which Sundarayyan proposes to exile the people of Channar clan.
  • Padmanabhapuram – The novel describes Padmanabhapuram as an earlier capital of Thiruvithamkodu state, and the locality is maintained as a royal adobe.
    • Padmanabhapuram palace – According to M. G. Sasibooshan[AL], only the Darbhakulam mansion and the Kalkulam mansion were existed during the timeline of novel. The novel presents only the residence existed at the place of present southern mansion on the northern side of the contemporary palace. Prince Marthada Varma halts there on his way to Boothapandi and later Padmanabhan Thambi camps there, after which fifty numbers of Channar people were executed at the palace compound.[177]
    • Charottu palace – Charottu palace is a royal residence existed at Charode, which is a locality near to Padmanabhapuram. According to Dr. P. Venugopalan, Charottu palace existed 2 miles (3.218688 km) north to Padmanabhapuram palace. The novel describes the Charottu palace as a small one which consists of a quadrangular homestead (Nalukettu) and a cookhouse (Madapalli) surrounded by a compound wall with doors on the eastern and southern portions. The prince Marthanda Varma and his aide Parameswaran Pilla reside here after evading from Padmanabhan Thambi at Padmanabhapuram palace through the tunnel passage.[178]
    • Dungeon and underground passage – The novel states about the dungeon existed within the Padmanabhapuram palace compound. The dungeon is described to have a room twenty feet below the ground level; where the mad Channan is locked up. The dungeon also leads to an underground tunnel, which further goes down from the floor level of the dungeon and the passage leads to an upward stair that lead to the door to a small room. The door on the roof of the small room opens to a room inside of Charottu palace. Dr. P. Venugopalan states that the closed tunnel passage between Padmanabhapuram palace and Charottu palace had access from the Tāikoṭṭāraṁ (Mother’s mansion) at the former palace, and cites its closed existence.[178]
  • Mangoikkal house – Mangoikkal house in the novel is described to be 2 Nazhika north to Charode, and the road to Padmanabhapuram exists on its northern side. The southern side of the house is a grove, from where at a half Nazhika distance is a thicket, through which mad Channan reaches Mangoikkal house to rescue the prince Marthanda Varma. The novel also mentions that the Mangoikkal kalari (martial arts school of Mangoikkal) is nearby and from where the men came to aid Mangoikkal Kuruppu and his nephews. The house name Mangoikkal is in reminiscence of house of Mangottu Assan at Mancode, a village in Vilavancode taluk of Kanniyakumari district, and the house name of author’s patron Kesavan Thambi Karyakkar, Nangoikkal.[153][179]
  • Veli hill – The novel refers to Veli hill or Vēḷimala as the site on to prince Marthnda Varma stares while being at Charottu palace. Padmanabhan Thambi mentions that he will fix lights on top of the Veli hill. Vēḷimala described in the novel is located in Thovalai taluk and Kalkulam taluk of Kanniyakumari district.
  • Boothapandi – The novel refers to Boothapandi as the place where the mercenary forces from Madurai are camped and at the camp Dalawa Arumukham Pilla is being detained due to the incomplete payment of arrears to the mercenaries.
  • KalkulamKalkulam is referred in novel as one of the places nearer to Padmanabhapuram and the people here are unhappy about the change of the capital to Thiruvananthapuram.
  • Nagercoil – The novel mentions Nagercoil while mentioning about the female deposer from Kottar, and about the location of stay of Marthanda Varma while king Rama Varma heads to Tiruchirappalli in Kollavarsham 901.
    • Nagercoil palace – The novel mentions that prince Marthanda Varma and Ananthapadmanabhan were staying at Nagercoil in Kollovarsham 901, implying their stay at Nagercoil palace, which is an adobe of Venad royal family. The novel also mentions that Padmanabhan Thambi is killed by Marthanda Varma’s accomplices in a precognitive narration, statement about which is available only in the first (1891) edition of the novel. Nagercoil palace is geographically located at 8°10'45.7"N 77°25'27.1"E and being used as a Revenue Division office under the collectorate of Kanyakumari district.
    • KottarKottar is referred in the novel as a locality near to Nagercoil and as the domicile of female deposer, who testified against the prince Marthanda Varma in the inquiry about the missing of Ananthapadmanabhan. The novel also mentions that money for the payment against arrears to the mercenaries from Madurai is facilitated through a loan from the merchants at Kottar.
  • Kalliancaud – The novel refers Kalliancaud or Kalliyankadu as the place to where prince Marthanda Varma is chased away by Velu Kuruppu and team while Ananthapadmanabhan is headed to his mother’s residence in Kollavarsham 901. Kalliancaud is a locality in the Agastheeswaram taluk of Kanyakumari district.
    • Kalliancaud temple – The novel mentions that prince Marthanda Varma is cornered and trapped at Kalliancaud temple or Kaḷḷiyankāṭṭukṣētraṁ, from where, he is later escaped as a Brahmin. The temple is Kalliancaud Sivan Kovil, geographically located at 8°11'52"N 77°23'27"E.
  • Panchavankadu – The novel mentions Panchavankadu or Panchavan forest as the place where Ananthapadmanabhan is attacked and left for dead by Velu Kuruppu and his team. It is only described that the forest area is on the way to Nagercoil from the residence of Ananthapadmanbhan’s mother and is nearer to the place where the Pathans, Hakkim and his group camped in Kollavarsham 901. Prof. N. Krishna Pilla and Prof. V. Anandakuttan Nair state that Panchavankadu and Kalliyankadu are the same.[180]
  • Thiruvithamcode – The novel refers to Tiruvitāṁkōṭŭ as one of the places near to Padmanabhapuram and Tiruvitānkōṭŭ as the earlier capital of Venad kingdom. The second edition of novel (1911) states that Padmanabhapuram was earlier the capital of Tiruvitāṁkōṭŭ state; which, according to Dr. P. Venugopalan is a slip up happened in revising the first edition (1891) of the novel. Thiruvithamkodu was the capital of Venad when the capital was changed from Kollam until the same was changed to Padmanabhapuram. Thiruvithamcode and Thiruvithankodu are panchayat town and revenue village respectively in the Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari district.[178][181]
  • Keralapuram – The novel refers Keralapuram as a locality on the route from Charottu palace to Thiruvananthapuram, that is to be followed by Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla. Keralapuram is a locality in the Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari district.
  • Eraniel – The novel refers to Eraniel as one of the places nearer to Padmanabhapuram and the local residents there are unhappy about the shifting of capital to Thiruvananthapuram.
    • Eraniel palace – The novel implicitly refers Eraniel palace as the place to where Marthanda Varma will be heading to raise the sword after the post-funeral rituals of the then late king. Eraniel palace is geographically located at 8°12'29"N 77°19'4"E.
  • Vilavancode – The novel refers to Vilavancode as one of the places near to Padmanabhapuram and the people there are unhappy about the change of capital to Thiruvananthapuram. Vilavancode is a village in the Vilavancode taluk of Kanyakumari district.
  • PerumkadavilaPerumkadavila is referred as place where at a house prince Marthanda Varma evades the attempt on his life by Velu Kuruppu and team. Perumkadavila is a village in the Neyyattinkara taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  • Neyyattinkara – In the novel, Neyyattinkara is mentioned as Neyyāṯunkara and referred as one of the northern provinces in Venad. Neyyattinkara is a municipality in the Neyyattinkara taluk of Thiruvanathapuram district.
  • VenganoorVenganoor is mentioned as one of places between Thiruvananthapuram and southern provinces of Venad. After arranging five servants to accompany Marthanda Varma, Subadra advices the prince and his accomplices to cross Venganoor by the night itself.
  • Pallichal – The novel refers to Pallichal as one of the places lies in between Thiruvananthapuram and the southern provinces of Venad. Pallichal is a village in the Neyyattinkara taluk of Thiruvanathapuram district.
  • ThiruvananthapuramThiruvananthapuram is referred as the capital of the kingdom during the timeline of the novel. Dr. P. Venugopalan points that this is historically inaccurate as the capital was not changed from Padmanabhapuram to Thiruvananthapuram during the period.[182]
    • Thiruvananthapuram fort – The novel mentions about the Thiruvananthapuram fort while referring to the theft happened at the Chembakassery house. The fort existed during the timeline of the novel was later rebuilt during Kollavarsham 922–928 and eventually demolished post the independence of India; a few remains of which are existed at the east fort in Thiruvananthapuram as property of Archeology department.[183][184]
      • Thiruvananthapuram palace – The palace of reigning king within the fort premises. The novel mentions that the king Rama Varma is bed ridden here.
      • Thekkekoyikkal – Thekkekoyikkal or the southern mansion is the residence of prince Marthanda Varma within the fort premises. In the novel, it is presented that Velu Kuruppu tried to attack Marthada Varma, while the latter is on his way to the mansion, but attempt is foiled by the intervention of Shankarachar.
      • Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple – The novel states that the western side of the Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple are occupied by Brahmins and Nairs only during the timeline of the novel.
      • Mithrananthapuram TempleMithrananthapuram Trimurti Temple or Mitṟāṉantapuraṁ Kṣētraṁ is referred in the novel as on the pathway that leads to Chembakassery house.
      • Ananthankadu – The novel refers to Ananthankadu or Ananthan forest that a few remaining trees of the forest prevails near Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple and are worshiped. Pachu Muthathu mentions the legend about the vaishnavite saint Divakar from Tulunadu who gathered the local Brahmins to plan and build a temple of Vishnu at Ananthankadu after the saint had a divine revelation in 224 AD, which led to the establishment of Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple at the Ananthankadu.[185]
      • Chembakassery house – In the novel, it is mentioned that Chembakassery house existed to the south-western side of the pathway to the Mithranandapuram temple from Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple. P. K. Parameswaran Nair assumes that Chembakassery house was never existed, but Mr. Parthan from Thiruvananthapuram states that the house existed and the author C. V. Raman Pillai was familiar with the same.[186][187]
    • Sreevaraham – Sreevaraham is mentioned as one of the places which is not overlaid with roads. Sreevaraham is a locality in Thiruvananthapuram city near Puthen street and Nandini gardens.
    • PerunthanniPerunthanni is mentioned as one of the places which is not overlaid with roads.
    • Palkulangara – Palkulangara is mentioned as one of the places which is not overlaid with roads. Palkulangara is a locality in Thiruvananthapuram city near Kaithamukku and Pazhavangadi.
    • Valiyanalukettu – Valiyanalukettu or the quadrangular edifice is the residence of Padmanabhan Thambi at Thiruvananthapuram.
    • Chenthikadu – The novel refers to Chenthikadu as the thicket on the north-western side of pathway from Subadra’s house to Valiyanalukettu. C. V. Vyakhyanakosam states Chenthikadu as the forest at Chenthitta, which is a locality between Aryasala and Thampanoor near Sreevaraham in Thiruvananthapuram city.[188]
    • Nedumcaud – The novel refers to Nedumcaud as the thicket on the south-eastern side of pathway from Subadra’s house to Valiyanalukettu. Nedumcaud or Nedungad or Nedumkadu is a loacality between Killipalam and Karamana in Thiruvananthapuram city.
    • Andiyirakkam – In the novel, Andiyirakkam is referred as a locality 1 Nazhika east to Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple. Andiyirakkam is a locality near to Karamana in the Thiruvananthapuram city.
    • Subadra's house – Subadra's house is mentioned to be a few blocks north to the royal passage at Andiyirakkam.
    • Shankarachar's house – Shankarachar's house is located at the western area after the plantain plantations on the western side of the Subadra’s house.
    • Sree Pandarathu Veedu – Sree Pandarathu Veedu or the Sree Pandarathu house is a residence of Kazhakkoottathu Pilla in the Thiruvananthapuram area, where Mangoikkal Kuruppu was detained earlier. The novel presents that the house is in the same vicinity as that of Subadra’s house, from where Ananthapadmanabhan heads to rescue Mangoikkal Kuruppu from the former house.
    • Killi river – In the novel, it is mentioned that the pathway from Subadra’s housee to Valiyanalukettu through the royal street that crosses over the Killi river and on its over-bridge Sundarayyan and Ananthapadmanbhan fight to fall into the river.
    • Karamana river – The novel mentions that the Aruveettukar and men who came in support to Marthanda Varma are camped at the western banks of the Karamana river.
    • Panathura – Panathura is mentioned as Panathara, where the prince Marthanda Varma escapes the attempt on his life by Velu Kuruppu and team. Panathura or Panathara is a costal area between Vazhamuttom and Pachaloor in Thiruvananthapuram district.
    • Aranoor – Aranoor is referred as a cultivation field located between the pathway from Subadra’s house to Valiyanalukettu and Manacaud. Aranoor is a locality on the eastern area between Killipalam and Karamana in the Thiruvananthapuram city.
    • ManacaudManacaud or Manakadu is referred in the novel as the place where Pathan merchants are camped. Fighters of Mangoikkal also camp there, where their final confrontation with Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas take place.
  • ChirayinkeezhuChirayinkeezhu is referred as one of areas between Thiruvananthapuram and the northern provinces of Venad where the rule of Ettuveettil Pillas are in force.
  • ChempazhanthyChempazhanthy is referred as one of the northern provinces of Venad.
  • Kazhakkoottam – In the novel, Kazhakkoottam is referred as one of the northern provinces of Venad.
  • Pallippuram – In the novel, as part of the preparations for the reception of Padmanabhan Thambi at Chembakassery, betel leaves that are tender are brought from Pallippuram.

Allusion to medicine, sociocultural system and lifestyle practices[edit]

  • Medicine practices – The novel presents that practices of Indian traditional medicine and Unani traditional medicine were prevailed in Venad during the timeline of the story.
    • Indian traditional medicine – In the novel, when king Rama Varma was ill, the traditional medicine practitioners at the palace provided the initial treatment. Parukutty is also treated primarily by the traditional medicine practitioners at Chembakassery.
    • Unani traditional medicine – The novel mentions that treatment by Hakkim brought Ananthapadmanabhan back to life. Hakkim also provides medicine for king Rama Varma and Parukutty, among whom the latter gets fully recovered. B. K. Menon states that the traditional medicine practiced by Hakkim is Unani.[191]
    • Narcoanalysis – The novel states that Hakkim tried a kind of narcoanalysis on Ananthapadmanabhan after getting him drugged, to know the whereabouts of the latter however it did not yield any results.
  • Relegious references – The novel refers to the ideology of single god in Islam while describing about Hakkim. In the novel, it is described that Parukutty observes fasting on Mondays, a Hindu religious practice, pertaining to which she also does the Ramayana recitation. In the novel, Hakkim considers prince Marthanda Varma as equal to Mūsa, the Islamic version of Moses, and compares the intellect of Shamsudeen to that of the devil influenced mind of Owa, the Islamic version of Eve. The novel also refers to Quran, from which Hakkim cites one hundred statements while agreeing to head to Tiruvitaṁkōṭu town. Nuradeen remarks that Zulaikha took care of the wounded Shamsudeen as she was following the principles of Mahānibi or the great Nabi, the prophet Mohammed.
  • Proselytism – The novel presents Beeram Khan as a converted Muslim, who was a Nair and ex-spouse of Subadra, about whom he realizes as an uttamastrī (faithful woman); however his intuition does not allow him to break his relationship with Fathima, whom he married after proselytization to Islam, as he became a dependent of the Hakkim's family. In the novel, Hakkim wants Ananthapadmanabhan as Shamsudeen to get converted to Islam and marry Zulaikha, to whom the latter confesses his dislike against proselytization which makes her to love him more than earlier during when, at one point of time Hakkim intended to proselytize Ananthapadmanabhan to Islam with the support of Usman Khan while the latter was unconscious as being drugged, but could not do so because Zulaikha opposed the act.
  • Astrology – In the novel, Parameswaran Pilla jestingly says to Marthanda Varma that they could go to Pazhur, one of the centers of astrological practices in order to identify the unrecognized pedestrian passed by them at night.
    • Praśṉaṁ Vaypŭ – In the novel, Anantham says that praśṉaṁ vaypŭ or prashnam vaypu as peraśanaṁ, which could be either of the acts that Kodanki did for the precognitive results to please Padmanabhan Thambi. Prashnam vaypu is one of the astrological services that prevails in Kerala.
    • Natal astrology – In the novel, Shanku Assan says to Parukutty that chothirisham or jyothisham will not go wrong as his late father while writing natal astrological notes on her, found that she will have difficulties at the age of seventeen due to misalignment of astrological aspects.
  • Superstition – The novel states that superstitious customs prevail among the hindu religion followers in the provinces north to Kanyakumari.
    • The novel lists the below mentioned customs as ignominious demon goddess worships.
      • Ūṭṭŭ – Ūṭṭŭ or Kāḷiyūṭṭŭ or Ootu is a custom in the temples of Kali that involves the offering of particular eatables to the deity.[192][193]
      • Pāṭṭŭ – Pāṭṭŭ or Patu is custom of Kali worship by reciting the songs about the deeds of goddess in a particular rhythm after the divine evocation of the deity to the Kaḷam (An illustration of the deity made on the floor. Kōlaṁ in Tamil) made for the custom, which at times done along with Ūṭṭŭ as ŪṭṭuṁPāṭṭuṁ.[192][193][194]
      • Uruvaṁ Vaypŭ – Uruvaṁ Vaypŭ or Uruvam Vayp is a custom of goddess worship in which a human or divine figurine made of clay is placed near to the shrine.[195]
      • Amman Koṭa – Amman Koṭa or Amman Koda is a custom of goddess worship in which offerings to the deity are made in the form of valuables.[196]
      • Kuruti – Kuruti or Kuruthi is a custom of goddess worship that involves the offering of human or animal blood to the deity.[197]
      • Cāvūṭṭŭ – Cāvūṭṭŭ or Chavootu is a custom in which eatables are offered to the deceased people.[198]
    • Uccinakāḷi Sēva – In the novel, Anantham tells to Subadra that Kodanki could have done Uccinakāḷi Sēva or Uchinakali Seva for precognitive results, for which he received gifts from Padmanabhan Thambi. Uccinakāḷi Sēva is the worship of Ucciṉimākāḷi or Uccimākāḷi, which is the form of Kali at Ujjayini and belief is that, doing the worship before any precognitive practice will yield good results.[199][200]
    • In the novel, when the illness of king Rama Varma became severe even after getting the treatment, prince Marthanda Varma resort to conduct vaḻipāṭukaḷ or vazhipadukal (religious offerings), hōmaṅṅaḷ or homangal (offerings with fire), and donations for the king's good health.
  • Clairvoyance – In the novel, Thirumukhathu Pilla relies on Mashinottam, a clairvoyant practice, to confirm about the rumors about the death of his son, Ananthapadmanabhan. Mashinottam or Maṣinōṭṭaṁ is an Indian clairvoyant service that prevails in Kerala.
  • Paranormal retrocognition – The novel presents that Thirumukhathu Pilla goes for paranormal retrocognition through a clairvoyant practice, Mashinottam to verify whether prince Marthanda Varma was involved in the assumed murder of his son, Ananthapadmanbhan, however he is given with wrong results.
  • Sorcery – In the novel, Velu Kuruppu mentions about the sorcery done by a namboothiripad of Akavoor family by evoking protection on his armor shield by the incantation of seventy million Dhanwantharam, a set of hymns offered to Dhanvantari in order to safeguard from any ill luck.
  • Occultism – The novel states that when the ailing king Rama Varma is not getting better with the ongoing treatment by traditional medicine practitioners, the people at palace opts to conduct occult acts by clergies, priests and magicians to extend the lifetime of the king.
  • Miscegenation – The novel presents the miscegenation between a Shasthri (an aryan race) and a lady of Marvar caste (a dravidian race); whom are the parents of Sundarayyan and Kondanki. The novel also presents the interracial relationship between Beeram Khan and Fathima among whom, the former is a nair convert to muslim and latter is a pathan lady. In the novel, Hakkim wants Shamsudeen to marry Zulaikha, the sister of Fathima after the Islamization of the former, who is Ananthapadmanabhan in disguise whose caste or race is not ascertained in the novel by not providing any details about his mother.
  • Racism – In the novel, Sundarayyan makes a racist remark against channar people that they are nīcappayakal (cruel ones) and suggests to Padmanabhan Thambi to exile them. Padmanabhan Thambi also makes a racist remark that he stepped on nīcaraktaṁ (cruel blood), when he accidentally steps into the ground covered with the blood of channars, who were executed earlier following his order. Anantham, while talking to Subadra, addresses Kondanki as pāṇṭimūtēvi, which means a slattern from the land of Pandyas. Shanku Assan addresses Sundarayyan as cutta maṟavan (a pure Maravar), kōmaṭṭi (a man of Komati caste), cuṭala māṭan (a demon who dwells on the cremation of corpses), cankuṁ punkumillātta paṭṭan (a man of Pattar clan without pharynx or anything similar), and kākka koṟavan (a black man of Kuravar clan, who eat crow meat) in racist manners. Shanku Assan addresses Kāśivāsi or the dweller of Kasi, as pīppannimāṭan (a demon like a boar that eats feces) and cāmbapaṟayan (a man of Sambava Parayar caste) in racist manners. Shanku Assan makes a racist remark about the people at pathan camp as nīśakūṭṭaṁ which means a group of cruel people. He also refers to Velu Kuruppu as paṭṭikkuṟuppŭ which means a bitch of Kurup clan (in 1891 ed.), which is changed to 'kuntakkuṟuppŭ' (a lancer from Kurup clan) in 1911 ed. and as karikkaṭṭapūtaṁ, which means black colored fiend. In the novel, Ananthapadmanabhan rudely says to Sundarayyan that “thān maṟavanaṭō” (hey! you are a Maravar).
  • Fraternal biandry – In the novel, Sundarayyan proposes to his wife Anantham to have a biandrous relationship with Kodanki, who is former’s elder brother by remarking that fraternal biandry is normal among the community of his wife in those days, however Anantham did not agree to the same.
  • Fraternal duel over woman – In the novel, Sundarayyan jokes to Padmanabhan Thambi not to have a fraternal duel over woman with Raman Thambi and end up like Sunda and Upasunda after falling for the beauty of Parukutty.
  • Sibling incest – In the novel, Ananthapadmanabhan opposes the agreement of his father to the marriage proposal for his younger sister from Padmanabhan Thambi and when the proposal is cancelled, an enraged Sundarayyan says to Ananthapadmanabhan to keep an incestuous relationship with his younger sister, remarking that it will be an addition to the customs organized by Parasurama. The novel mentions that there is a custom in southern Kerala, which prohibits the meeting between a brother and a sister after either of them are matured implying the protective measures against sibling incest.
  • Heirship – The Venad royal family follows the heirship through Marumakkathayam, collateral descent through maternal nephews. In the novel, Sundarayyan points that the above system is opposed to the common system of heirship through Makkathayam, which is lineal descent through sons, and propose to raise the claim of throne for the elder son of the king Rama Varma, Padmanabhan Thambi, who at one point of time conveys his worry to Sunadarayyan about the latter system, which will bring his younger brother Raman Thambi against him. Ettuveettil Pillas pledge to make Padmanabhan Thambi as the next king by taking lethal actions against the prince Marthanda Varma, the legal heir to the kingdom, even though Ettuveettil Pillas follow the system of matrilineality with avuncular paterfamilias.
  • Patrilocality – The novel presents that the family of Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, his wife Karthyayani Amma and daughter Parukutty were living as a patrilocal one until the demise of the former. In the novel its also mentioned that Subadra was staying at her husband’s house until he went missing.
  • Avuncular paterfamilias – The novel presents that the avuncular paterfamilias of matrilineal nair families end up doing the wrong deeds. Kudamon Pilla, Kalakkutty Pilla and Chembakasserry Mootha Pilla are the avuncular patresfamilas at Subadra’s house, Anantham’s house and Chembakassery respectively, among whom the first one is killed by Ananthapadmanabhan, the second one exiles himself from the kingdom fearing treason charges for taking sides with Padmanabhan Thambi, and the third one chose to go along with decisions of his sister and leaves his paterfamilias for Ananthapadmanabhan.
  • Matrilocality – In the novel, Parukutty and her mother chose matrilocality after the lifetime of Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla. The novel states that, even though Ananthapadmanabhan has to be the paterfamilias for both Chemabakassery and his house, he chose to stay at his wife’s house, Chemabakassery after his daughter is born.
  • Matriarchy – In the novel, Karthyayani Amma exercises matriarchy, with which she banishes Shanku Assan from entering into the inner chambers at Chembakassery, when the latter voices against the marriage brokering by Sunadarayyan, and she takes the charge of all arrangements and preparations for receiving Padamanabhan Thambi to proceed with the marriage proposal.
  • Female inferiority – The novel mentions about the social system that do not allow Malayali women to decide on the men, whom they are going to marry. Subadra, at one point concludes that Thirumukhathu Pilla seems to be intellectually lower even to women; implying women are considered as intellectually inferior to men. When her plans against Padmanabhan Thambi and Sundarayyan did not work as expected, Subadra admits to herself that the intellect of women are really bad. Subadra’s servant who brought the medicine from pathan camp thinks that Subadra is also an example to the thought, women are stacks of jealousy, when she becomes reluctant to hear his descriptions about Zulaikha’s beauty.
  • Coquettishness – The novel states that Subadra was such a beauty in her adolescence, which made the men like Thambi duo, Chembazhanthi Pilla, Ramanamadathil Pilla to keep lingering around her, who pleased all of them with her coquettishness. Even though some men resumed so after the desertion of her husband, expect for Ramanamadathil Pilla all others refracted from the same. She eventually garnered herself a title Kulada (an unchaste woman) and at one point prince Marthanda Varma mentions that he heard about her as a Vyabhicharini (an immoral woman). In the novel, Subadra gets the crucial information from Ramanamadathil Pilla, who always falls for her flirtatious company.
  • Philandering – In the novel, Padmanabhan Thambi is presented as philanderer, who keeps relationships with the paramours Kamalam, Sivakami, the mistress at the seventh house, and the unnamed female prostitute at Kottar. Subadra mentions that he was after her since she was ten years old. When Padamanabhan Thambi stays at Chemabakassery, at night he heads to Parukutty’s chamber to attain her as he cannot control himself after being attracted to the beauty of Parukutty. In the first edition of the novel, Suandarayyan proposes to bring beautiful court-mistresses from Thanjavur for Padmanabhan Thambi.

Allusion to writers, literatures and languages[edit]

Writers[edit]

  • Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan – The novel mentions Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan when one of the guards at Kazhakkoottathu Pilla’s Sree Pandarathu house draws a comparison between Ezhuthachan’s version of Mahabharata and Māvārataṁ, a folk ballad of yesteryear Venad based on the characters from Mahabharata.
  • P. Shangoony Menon – In the novel P. Shangoony Menon is referred while quoting the lethal attempts on the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma from A History of Travancore From the Earliest Times.
  • Kunchan Nambiar – The novel refers to Kunchan Nambiar as the chief poet known as 'Kuñcan' who mentioned that a conflict arise either due to a lady love or gold.
The novel refers to Shankaracharyar as kēraḷēcārakaṟttāvŭ, which means the author of customs in Kerala. The novel refers to Venmani Achhan Nambudiripad as kavikulōttaṁsan (one at the crest of poets clan) and compares his lifetime to that of Sundarayyan. The novel also refers to an unnamed poet who lived during the timeline of novel and wrote about Kudamon Pilla that the latter had relationships with multiple women.

Literary works[edit]

Adaptations to the story line[edit]

  • Sree Veera Marthandavarmacharitham (Aattakatha) – Sree Veera Marthandavarmacharitham (Srīvīramāṟttāṇḍavaṟmmacaritaṁ) is an Aattakatha written by various authors based on the historical events of Venad. A four-line verse from the work that lists out the Ettuveettil Pillas is used as epigraph of the eleventh chapter. The character of Sundarayyan in the novel is similar to the character of Pichakappalli in this Aattakatha.[92]
  • Marthandamahathmyam (Kilippattu) – Marthandamahathmyam (Māṟttāṇḍamahātmyaṁ) is lyrical work written as a Kilippattu based on the stories about Marthanda Varma. The situations in which Marthanda Varma escapes the attempts on his life by the men of Thambi are in line with similar events mentioned in this literary work.[92]
  • Ottan KathaOttan Katha or Ottan Kathai (Ōṭṭan Kathai) is one of the ballads of Venad based on the stories involving Marthanda Varma. The attack at Mangoikkal house by the men of Padmanabhan Thambi in the novel is similar to the attack and eventual burning of Mangottu Assan’s house mentioned in Ottan Katha.[123]
  • IvanhoeIvanhoe by Sir Walter Scott is considered as the most influential work in the development of Marthandavarma novel. The first chapter of the novel opens with the description of forest same as in Ivanhoe, and every chapter opens with an epigraph similar to the Scott’s novels. M. P. Paul claims that the characters Marthanda Vama, Ananthapadmanabhan, Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla are based on the characters from Ivanhoe, even though those are based on the history and legends of Venad.[201][202][203]
M. P. Paul also claims that the situations involving either of mad Channan, Subadra or Thirumukhathu Pilla are similar to situations in King Lear by William Shakespeare, the character of Shanku Assan is similar to that of Dominie Sampson in Guy Mannering by Sir Walter Scott.
Neelikatha (subplot)
The novel mentions the story of Panchavankattu Neeli (Pañcavankāṭṭunīli, lit. Neeli of Pachavan forest) in the third chapter as narratted by Karthyayani Amma to Parukutty. According to Dr. P. Venugopalan, this is a combination of stories form the ballads Panchavankattu Neelikatha (Pañcavankāṭṭunīliktha) and Neelikatha (Nīlikatha, lit. story of Neeli). Dr. Thikkurissi Gangadharan states that Kaḷḷiyankāttunīli (Neeli of Kalliyancaud) is changed to Pañcavankāṭṭunīli by the author of the novel.[204][205]

Appropriations[edit]

  • Nalacharitham (Aattakatha) – In the tenth chapter of the novel (paragraph 1, line 2), to describe about the face of Karthyayani Amma when she sees Sundarayyan, a verse is used from the scene one of Nalacharitham, first day. A verse from the scene one of Nalacharitham, second day is used in the third chapter (paragraph 4, line 1), to describe the adolescence of Parukutty. A phrase from scene one of Nalacharitham, third day is used in the first chapter (paragraph 1, line 2) to detail about the forest, and an idiom from the same scene is used in a conversation involving Sundarayyan, Karthyayani Amma and Chembakassery Mootha Pilla narrated in the fourteenth chapter (paragraph 7, line 3) of the novel. A verse from the scene six of Nalacharitham, third day is used as the second line of the epigraph provided for the third chapter. A two-line verse from the scene one of Nalacharitham, fourth day is used as epigraph of the fourth chapter. Three lines of verses from the scene six of Nalacharitham, fourth day are used as epigraph of the eighth chapter. A two-line verse from the scene nine of Nalacharitham, fourth day is used as epigraph of the fifth chapter.[206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213]
  • Adhyathmaramayanam (Kilippattu) – A two-line verse from the Ayodhyakandam of Adhyathmaramayanam is used as epigraph of the twenty-first chapter of the novel. Two phrases from a verse in the Aranyakandam are used in the first chapter (paragraph 1, line 2) to describe about the forest. A two-line verse from the Ravanante Ichabhangam of Sundarakandam is used as epigraph of the tenth chapter of the novel. In the third chapter of the novel, Parukutty recites a four-line verse from the Seethahanumalsamvadam of Sundarakandam. A four-line verse from the Hanoomadbavddhanam of Sundarakandam is used as epigraph of the twentieth chapter of the novel.
  • Sree Mahabharatham (Kilippattu) – A four-line verse from the Sambavaparvam of Sree Mahabharatham (a Kilippattu version of Mahabharata written in Malayalam by Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan), is used as epigraph of the second chapter. An idiom and a part of a verse from Sambavaparvam are used to describe the character of Ramanamadathil Pilla in the twelfth chapter (paragraph 2, line 2) of the novel. A two-line verse from the Udyogaparvam of Sree Mahabharatham is used as epigraph of the twenty sixth chapter of the novel. A four-line verse from the Sthreeparvam of Sree Mahabharatham is used as epigraph of the first chapter.[178][192][214][215]
  • Harishchandracharitham (Aattakatha) – Harishchandracharitham (Hariscandracaritaṁ) is a lyrical work based on the story of Harishchandra as an Aattakatha by Pettayil Raman Pilla Asan. A verse from the Harishchandracharitham is used as the first line of the epigraph provided for the third chapter. In the fifth chapter (paragraph 4, line 16) of the novel, a three-line verse from Harishchandracharitham is used to describe the behavior of Mangoikkal Kuruppu. A two-line verse from Harishchandracharitham is used as epigraph of the seventh chapter.[216]
  • Ravanavijayam (Aattakatha) – Ravanavijayam (Rāvaṇavijayaṁ) is written as an Aattakatha by Vidwan Rajarajavarma Koi Tampuran of Kilimanur who is known as Vidvān Kōyittampurān based on the events from Ramayana involving Ravana. A three line verse from the Ravanavijayam is used as the epigraph of eighth chapter of the novel and a verse from the same is used in the tenth chapter (paragraph 15, line 8) to describe the behavior of Padmanabhan Thambi after hearing the voice of Parukutty.[217][218]
  • Kirmeerawadham (Aattakatha) – Kirmeerawadham (Kiṟmīravadhaṁ) is an Aattakatha written by the author known as Kōṭṭayattŭ Tampuran based events that lead to the death of Kirmira in Mahabharata. A verse from Kirmeerawadham is used to describe the mingling of Sundarayyan and Padmanabhan Thambi while stepping out of Thambi’s residence at Padmanabhapuram palace.[218]
  • Rukmineeswayamvaram (Aattakatha) – Rukmineeswayamvaram (Rukmiṇīsvayaṁvaraṁ) is an Aattakatha written by Aswathi Thirunal Ramavarma Thampuran based on a few events from Bhagavata involving Krishna and Rukmini. A four-line verse from Rukmineeswayamvaram is used as epigraph of the ninth chapter and a phrase from the same work is used in the twelfth chapter (paragraph 1, line 12) to narrate the action of Ramanamadathil Pilla calling out for Subadra.[218]
  • Subhadraharanam (Aattakatha) – Subhadraharanam (Subhadrāharaṇaṁ) is an Aattakatha by the author known as Mantṟēṭattŭ Nampūtiri based on the events from Bhagavata involving Arjuna and Subhadra. A two-line verse from Subhadraharanam is used as epigraph of the sixteenth chapter and a three-line verse from the same used as epigraph of the twenty-second chapter of the novel.[219]
  • Dakshayagam (Aattakatha) – Dakshayagam (Dakṣayāgaṁ) is an Aattakatha written by Irayimman Thampi based on the stories involving Daksha. A two-line verse from Dakshayagam is used as the last two lines of epigraph provided for the seventeenth chapter of the novel.[220]
  • Banayudham (Aattakatha) – Banayudham (Bāṇayuddhaṁ) is an Aattakatha written by author known as Bālakavi Rāmaśāstrikaḷ based on the events from Bhagavata. A two-line verse from Banayudham is used as epigraph of the eighteenth chapter of the novel.[221]
  • Keechakawadham (Aattakatha) – Keechakawadham (Kīcakavadhaṁ) is an Aattakatha written by Irayimman Thampi based on a few events from Mahabharata. A two-line verse from Keechakawadham is used as epigraph of the fifteenth chapter of the novel.[219]
  • Kalakeyawadham (Aattakatha) – Kalakeyawadham (Kālakēyavadhaṁ) is an Aattakatha written by the author known as Kōṭṭayattŭ Tampuran based on the events from Vana Parva of Mahabharata. An idiom that points to the look of Arjuna from Kalakeyawadham is used in the sixth chapter (paragraph 3, line 2) of the novel to describe the attire of Padmanabhan Thambi, and a phrase which points to the performance of character of Arjun in the same work is used in the tenth chapter (paragraph 13, line 5) to compare the behavior of Padmanabhan Thambi while he is entering to the Parukutty’s room.[216][218]
  • Ramayanam (Irupathunalu Vritham) – A four-line verse from the Rāmāyaṇaṁ (Irupattunālu vr̥ttaṁ), which means Ramayanam in 24 chapters (lit. Ramayanam in 24 metre) supposedly written by Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan is used as epigraph of the sixth chapter.[222]
  • Ramayanam (Vilpattu) – Ramayanam as a Vilpattu (song sung with the music from bow strings) is considered as one of the ballads of Venad. In the eighteenth chapter (paragraph 6, line 18) a verse from Ramayanam (Vilpattu) is recited by mad Channan as a reply to the query raised by Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla, when the former strucks down latter’s arrow and bow.[219][223][224]
  • Vethalacharitham (Kilippattu) – Vethalacharitham (Vētāḷacaritaṁ) as a Kilippattu is a lyrical work by Kallēkuḷaṅṅara Rāghavapiṣāraṭi based on the stories of Vikramaditya. A verse from Vethalacharitham is used as epigraph of the nineteenth chapter of the novel.[225]
  • Syamanthakam (Ottan Thullal) – In the first chapter, the novel quotes the ideology mentioned by Kunchan Nambiar that a conflict among men is either due to woman or money, which was mentioned in his Symanthakam (Syamantakaṁ) Ottan Thullal, to conclude the reasons behind the attack on Ananthapadmanabhan at Panchavankadu.[226]
  • Krishnarjunavijayam (Thullal) – A phrase from Krishnarjunavijayam ( Kr̥ṣṇāṟjjunavijayaṁ) supposedly written by Kunchan Nambiar is used in the seventh chapter (paragraph 1, line 5) of the novel to describe the confrontation of Velu Kuruppu and Krishna Kuruppu.[227]
  • NeelikathaNeelikatha (Nīlikatha) is the foremost of all the ballads of Venad and considered as most popular among the same group. Dr. Thikkurissi Ganagadharan list outs three different versions of Neelikatha and points out that there are various versions in the southern Tamil Nadu. According to Dr. P. Venugoplan the verses recited by mad Channan in the sixth and seventh chapter when he is questioned by Padmanabhan Thambi and when he is moving towards the Mangoikkal house by fighting with the lancers of Velu Kuruppu respectively are from one of the versions of Neelikatha, which is not either of the versions researched by Dr. Thikkurissi Ganagadharan and Dr. J. Padmakumari.[92][224][228][229][230]
  • Ponnarithal KathaPonnarithal Katha (Ponnaṟitāḷ Katha) is one of the ballads prevailed in Travancore; which according to Dr. Thikkurissi Ganagadharan might have originated from the migrants from the southern Tamil Nadu (Tirunelveli) to Venad. In the sixth chapter of the novel, the mad Channan sings a few lines from Ponnarithal Katha, when he is persuaded by Padmanabhan Thambi to answer properly to the latter’s query.[231][232]
  • Unnamed – In the eleventh chapter of the novel Ramanamadathil Pilla recites a few broken lines to Kazhakkootathu Pilla from an un-titled ballad that deals with the murder of a prince to point that the former don’t mind having prince Marthanda Varma killed.[233]
  • MavarathamMavaratham (Māvārataṁ) is one of the ballads of Venad based on the characters from Mahabharata. In the tenth chapter of the novel the guards at Sree Pandarathu house recites a few verses from Mavaratham and when mad Channan voluntarily come into their group and questioned by them, he recites a few broken lines (paragraph 16, line 5) from the same.[234][235][236]
  • IravikuttipillaporuIravikuttipillaporu (Iravikkuṭṭippiḷḷappōrŭ) is a historical ballad based on the Kaniyankulam war between Venad and Madurai Nayaks that led to the death of Iravikkutti Pillai. Dr. Thikkurissi Ganagadharan list outs six different versions of the literary work. According to Dr. P. Venugoplan the verses recited by mad Channan in the sixth chapter when he is questioned by Padmanabhan Thambi about the archer are from one of the versions of Iravikuttipillaporu.[237][238]
  • Bashanaishadham (Champu) – Bashanaishadham (Bhāṣānaiṣadhaṁ) is lyrical work written by the writer known as Mazhamangalam as a Champu based on the story of Nala and Damayanthi from Mahabharata. A four-line verse from Bashanaishadham is used as epigraph of twelfth chapter, another two-line verse from the same work is used as epigraph of twenty-third chapter, and a four-line verse is used as epigraph of the twenty-fifth chapter of the novel.[192][239][240]
  • Kuchelavritham (Vanchipattu) – Kuchelavritham (Kucēlavr̥ttaṁ) is a lyrical work written as Vanchipattu (boat song) by Ramapurathu Varrier. A verse from Kuchelavritham is used in the fourteenth chapter (paragraph 8, line 10) of the novel to compare the response of Subadra, when she is affectionately received by Karthyayani Amma.[219]
  • ArjuanapathuArjuanapathu (Aṟjjunapattŭ) is a verse comprises ten names of Arjuna. In the twelfth chapter of the novel (paragraph 6, line 7) Sundarayyan makes a broken recitation of Arjuanapathu as he is terrified being alone in the dark.[218]
  • Gayathreemanthram – In the twelfth chapter of the novel (paragraph 6, line 7), a terrified Sundarayyan ends up reciting Gayathreemanthram (Gayatri Mantra) after starting with Arjuanapathu.[218]
  • SivanandalahariSivanandalahari (Śivāṉandalahari) is a literary composition of Adi Sankaracharya comprises one hundred verses in praise of Shiva. In the twelfth chapter of the novel (paragraph 6, line 8), a terrified Sundarayyan makes a broken recitation of Sivanandalahari.[192]
  • UtsavaprabhandhamUtsavaprabhandham (Ulsavaprabandhaṁ) is a lyrical work written and composed by Swathi Thirunal describing the principal festival at Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple and a verse from the same is used in the nineteenth chapter (paragraph 1, line 4) to detail the attire of Subadra at her house.[225]

Languages[edit]

The novel mentions the languages, Malayalam, Tamil and Hindustani, among which the former one is used primarily for the narration with the adopted words from Tamil, Sanskrit, English, Hindustani and a conversation in a substitution cipher, Mulabhadra.

  • Malayalam – The primary language used in the novel, and mentioned as one of the languages in which the Shamsudeen is proficient. In the novel, prince Marthanda Varma mentions that the diglot at the pathan camp seems to very good in Malayalam. The novel also mentions that the recitation of kilippattu verses of Ramayana by Parukutty is a music to the ears implying her proficiency in reading the verses in Malayalam.
    • Ambiguous usage – The novel presents the ambiguous usages of the term nazhika (Malayalamനാഴിക, nāḻika), as a unit of measure for time and as a unit of measure for length.
      • Nazhika1 – Nazhika as a unit of measure for time is analogous to Ghaṭi and 1 Nazhika corresponds to 24 minutes.
      • Nazhika2 – Nazhika is a unit of measure for length prevailed in yesteryear Kerala at different denominations. Dr. A. C. Vasu[AM] cites two variants of the unit of measurement, among which the first one is termed as a "regional method" which states that 1 Nazhika = 4000 Muzham (1 Muzham = 18 inches, implying 1 Nazhika = 1.828 kilometers), and the second one states that 1 Nazhika = 2000 Kōl (1 Kōl = 24 Viral = 1 Muzham, implying 1 Nazhika = 914.4 meters), which is termed as "cochin survey method". The C. V. Vyakhyanakosam states that 1 Nazhika corresponds to approximately 1.5 kilometers, and equal to 2000 daṇḍŭ, which is derived by combining the "cochin survey method" in which 2000 Kōl = 1 Nazhika and the "contemporary survey method" which considers 1 Kōl = 1 Daṇḍŭ and 1 Kōl = 0.72 meters disregarding the 4 Kōl = 1 Daṇḍŭ relation in the "cochin survey method", so arriving at 1 Nazhika = 1.44 kilometers.[242][243]
  • Tamil – Tamil is extensively used in the conversations involving Sundarayyan, mad Channan, and the other Channar characters. Tamil words and prepositions are used in the statements of Shanku Assan, Anantham, Mangoikkal Kuruppu and in the narrations, among which, the Tamil word nāyaki (Tamil: நாயகி, Malayalam: നായകി, lit. spouse[feminine]) in the first edition of the novel is been replaced with the adapted one from sanskrit, nāyikā (Sanskrit: नायिका, lit. the lady who leads) as the malayalam version nāyika (Malayalam: നായിക, lit. heroine) in the second edition. Tamil is mentioned as one of the languages in which the Shamsudeen is proficient. In the novel, it is mentioned that Beeram Khan talks to the servant of Subadra in Tamil.[244]
  • Hindustani – Hindustani is mentioned as one of the languages in which the Shamsudeen is proficient. The novel states that the pathan camp members converse in Hindustani. In the novel, Ananthapadmanabhan helps Mangoikkal Kruppu to learn the language, and while confronted by Parukutty and her mother inside the dungeon at Chembakassery, the two men converse in Hindustani. The novel presents that Sundarayyan also knows Hindustani, in which he shouts while fighting with Beeram Khan. In the novel, while talking to Subadra, Anantham uses a word enāṁ (Malayalam: എനാം, pronounced: [enaːm] as in Tamil: எனாம், eṉām), which is an adapted word from the Hindustani one, inām (Hindustani: इनाम, انعام, lit. reward)[AN]. The novel uses the word caittān which is a form of Hindustani word šaitān (Hindustani: शैतान, شیطون, lit. devil)[AO], and also uses the word bahadūṟ, a form of Hindustani word bahādur (Hindustani: बहादुर, بهادر, lit. brave)[AP]. The novel uses the term hukka which is a form of Hindustani word hukkā (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा, حقّہ, lit. hookah)[AQ].
  • Sanskrit – Sanskrit words are extensively used in the novel, such as cētōharaṁ (Devanagari: चेतोहरम्, Malayalam: ചേതോഹരം, lit. heart captive), saṁsaṟggaṁ (संसर्ग, സംസർഗ്ഗം, lit. acquaintance), skandha (स्कन्ध, സ്കന്ധ, lit. shoulder), sthaulyaṁ (स्थौल्य, സ്ഥൗല്യം, lit. stout), śiraḥkambanamandasmitādikaḷ (शिरःकम्पनमन्दस्मितादि, ശിരഃകമ്പനമന്ദസ്മിതാദികൾ, lit. gentle laugh with a head shake), sōmavāravrataṁ (सोमवारव्रत, സോമവാരവ്രതം, lit. fasting on Mondays), aṟddhōnmīlitaṁ (अर्द्धोन्मीलित, അർദ്ധോന്മീലിതം, lit. half open), khādyapēyalēhyabhōjya (खाद्यपेयलेह्यभोज्य, ഖാദ്യപേയലേഹ്യഭോജ്യ, lit. chew-able, drinkable, lick-able, and eatable ), tējaḥpuñjaṁ (तेजःपुञ्ज, തേജഃപുഞ്ജ, lit. heap of ardour), aḷivr̥ndaniṟmmitaṁ (अलिवृन्दनिर्मित, അളിവൃന്ദനിർമ്മിതം, lit. built by group of black bees), tāruṇyāraṁbhaṁ (तारुण्यारंभ, താരുണ്യാരംഭം, lit. commencement of teenage) etc. to list a few. Dr. P. Venugoplan notes that some Sanskrit usages were revised and changed after the first edition. The novel mentions that Parukutty is been trained in Sidharoopa and Amarakosha.[245][246][247][248][249][250][251][252][253]
  • Mulabhadra – In the novel, Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla converse in Moolabadri while being in the presence of Kochu Velu, the youngest nephew of the Mangoikkal Kuruppu. Mulabhadra or Moolabadri is a way of a substitution ciphering prevailed in Travancore using Malayalam script.
  • English – The novel uses the word ṟōḍukaḷ, which is an adapted one from the English word roads, and uses the English word, report as ṟepōṟṭṭu. The novel mentions south India as dakṣiṇa inḍya (Malayalam: ദക്ഷിണഇൻഡ്യ), which is a composite word with the Sanskrit word dakṣiṇa (Sanskrit: दक्षिण, lit. southern) and English transliterated version of India as inḍia, instead of the normal usages in Malayalam, (ദക്ഷിണ ഇന്ത്യ, dakṣiṇa intyaദക്ഷിണേന്ത്യ, dakṣiṇēntya).
The novel makes a malayalam usage for the shawl used by Thirumukhathu Pilla as sālva, which is analogous to the english word shawl and the farsi version shāl (Persian: شال‎), and for the meaning of guard while referring to the posture of Chembakassery Mootha Pilla at the door of Parukutty's room, the novel uses a word gāṭṭ akin to the obsolete form gard.
The novel uses the word kinkāb which is a form of word kinkhab, which stands for silk brocade with gold and silver designs and term is a conjoined form of kin kab originated or westernized from kam (Hindi: कम, lit. less) and khwab[AR] (Hindi: ख्वाब, lit. dream).[254]
In the novel, Hakkim refers Mangoikkal Kuruppu as sāhēb which is a form of sāheb (Persian: صاحب‎, lit. lord)[AS]. The novel uses the term ṣaṟbatt, which is a form of Persian word sharbat (Persian: شربت‎, šarbat)[AT] for the beverages used in the pathan camp.

Adaptations[edit]

Abridgement[edit]

  • 2011: Marthandavarma – An abridged version by Prof. P. Ramachandran Nair.
In 2011 D. C. Books brought out an abridged version written by Prof. P. Ramachandran Nair[AU] as a part of Punarākhyānaparampara (re-narration series), which according to Mr. Ravi D C is intended to make the specialties of the source novel and its author’s creativity to be identifiable and enjoyable to children. This version classified as children’s literature has illustrations by Reji Karimulackal.[256][257]
  • 2012: Marthandavarma – An abridged version by Dr. V. Ramachandran.
An abridged version written by Dr. V. Ramachandran Nair[AV] is published in 2012 and distributed through National Book Stall, Kottayam. According to its author this abridgement of the most prominent historical narrative of C. V. Raman Pillai is made by shortening the lengthy narrations, avoiding the subplots and by non-elaboration of dialogues. Advocate. P. K. Harikumar who wrote the introduction for this edition, points out that this version will attract students to the source novel, Marthandavarma.[258][259]


Comics[edit]

Cover page of 1985  edition of comics
The Legend of Maarthaanda Varma
Cover page of 2007 Balarama Amar Chithra Katha
Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma (2007)
Cover of 2010 edition of comics
Maarthaanda Varma (2010)

In 1985, Amar Chitra Katha comics of IBH Publishers Pvt. Ltd released an English comic book adaptation of novel. The thirty-two pages of comic book adaptation have art consultancy by Ram Waeerkar and editing by Anant Pai.[260]

  • The Legend of Maarthaanda Varma
Script : Radha Nair
Illustration : M. Mohandas
Cover Art : Ramesh Umrotkar

The comic book starts with the council of Ettuveettil Pillamar discussing the plans to oust the prince Marthanda Varma and to make Padmanabhan Thambi as the next king. The adaptation features almost all the major characters with the exclusion of Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla, Zulaikha, Fathima. The adaptation also excludes the fight sequence of Sundarayyan with Ananthapadmanabhan disguised as beggar and other events described in the last three years of timeline of the novel.

In 2007, the comic book adaptation was released in Malayalam by Balarama Amar Chithra Katha of Malayala Manorama group as Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma. The title The Legend of Maathaanda Varma was later altered to Maarthaanda Varma and released in 2010 by Amar Chitra Katha Pvt. Ltd, and it was included in the comics-collection The Great Indian Classics.[261][262]

Films[edit]

  • 1933: Marthanda Varma – a silent black & white film directed by P. V Rao
For more details on this topic, see Marthanda Varma (film).
Marthanda Varma (1933)
In 1931, R. Sunder Raj of Nagercoil started a film production company named Rajeshwari Films and chose the novel Marthandavarma to adapt for the inaugural production. The film was helmed by director P. V Rao, who also did the script, which includes subtitles in Malayalam as well as English. The film stars Jaidev (Aandi) as Marthanda Varma, A. V. P. Menon as Ananthapadmanabhan, Miss. Padmini (Pattammal) as Parukutty, Miss. Devaki (Devaki Bhai) as Subadra, V. Naick as Padmanabhan Thambi, V. C. Kutty as Velu Kruppu, and S. V. Nath as Sundarayyan. The film was released and screened at Capitol Theatre, Trivandrum on May 12, 1933 only to face litigation from the publishers of the novel during the period through a court order as the producer of the movie did not have the required rights, which are acquired by Kulakkunnathu S. Raman Menon for B.V. Book Depot and Kamalalaya Book Depot, and subsequently the film was retained by court authorities and imposed a stay on further screening of the film till the closure of legal proceedings which later went against the film producer. Thus, the film marked the first of its kind copyright case involving a literary work and a feature film in India by being a second feature film of Malayalam film industry and the novel being the first Malayalam literary work to adapt to a film from the same industry.[263][264][265][266][267]
For more details on this topic, see Kulam (film).
Kulam (1997)
In 1996, V. S. Ganagadharan who started Ushapriya Movie Makers came forward to produce the new venture by Lenin Rajendran, who chose to make a film based on Marthandavarma novel with his own script and the filming was started in the first half of 1996. The movie focuses only on the story of Subadra, the pivotal character of the novel by exploring her marital and non-marital relationships finally to her murder by Kudamon Pilla. The film stars Bhanupriya as Subadra, Nassar as Padmanabhan Thambi, Gopakumar as Sundarayyan, Vijayaraghavan as Beeram Khan, Suresh Gopi as mad Channan, Thilakan as Kudamon Pilla, Jagathy Sreekumar as Ramanamadathil Pilla, Narendra Prasad as Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, Elias Babu as Kulathoor Pilla, Jose Pellissery as Pallichal Pilla, Narayanan Nair as Thirumadathil Pilla, Paravoor Ramachandran as Venganoor Pilla, and Vijayan Peringode as Chembazhanthy Pilla. The film represents mad Channan in a different light to that of the novel by avoiding alter ego roles and actions of original character, and the film also avoids all other major characters of the novel except Fathima. The film won Kerala State Film Awards for Best Popular Film with Aesthetic Value, and Best Art Direction. The film was released on Feb 21, 1997 through Ambadi Pictures and went on to become a commercial failure.[268][269][270][271][272]

Television[edit]

  • 2003: Marthanda Varma – A television serial directed by Suryan Chennithala.
In 2002 Suryan Chennithala ventured to direct the adaptation of history of Marthanda Varma as a television serial partially based on the novel Marthandavarma by C. V. Raman Pillai. The adaptation scripted by N. Gopinathan Thambi and P. M. Mani Vellarada is produced by Mundanad Sadasivan under the banner of Gokulam Films. The telecast of the serial commenced on January 15, 2003 at 18:00 hours as an episode of 30 minutes on Doordarshan’s Thiruvananthapuram channel. The serial was abruptly discontinued after the telecast of fourth episode on March 03, 2003 due to non-agreement of terms between the producer and the television channel team.[273][274][275]
  • 2010: Veera Marthanda Varma – A television serial produced by Colosceum Media Pvt Ltd.
In 2010, Colosceum Media Pvt. Ltd., one of the leading production houses engaged in making television programs started a branch in Thiruvananthapuram and announced that their first project in Malayalam will be a television serial on Marthanda Varma. Sanjeev Sivan, who was looking after the South Indian operations of Colosceum said that they were also planning to do a film on Marthanda Varma. The script by Gautham Sharma, was heavily drawn from the novel Marthandavarma, with narrations from the novel being used as dialogues, by presenting the characters from the novel such as mad Channan, Subadra, Parukutty, Velu Kuruppu etc. The direction of initial episodes of the serial are by Anil. K. Jain, followed by Shankar Valathungal. The telecast commenced on July 19, 2010 through Surya TV as a daily serial on weekdays from Monday to Friday at 21:30 hours, which was later changed to weekend slot after the eighty third episode in November 2010. The telecast slots of the serial on Surya TV were intermittently skipped from March 2011 and eventually it was discontinued after the 128th episode on May 21, 2011.[276][277][278][279][280]
  • 2014: Marthanda Varma – A television play based on the script of stage adaptation by Dr. P. Venugopalan and performed in 2013.
In 2014 Doordarshan Kendra at Thiruvananthapuram associated with Kalavedi, Thiruvananthapuram to produce a television play based on the latter’s stage adaptation of Marthandavarma novel performed on a script by Dr. P. Venugoplan in 2013. The television version almost had the same cast members who reprised their roles from the stage performance except for few including the replacement of Jiji Kalamandir by Vinayan for the role of mad Channan, and the program was co-directed by N. Rajan Nair and Mohan G., among whom the latter served as the producer. The program was telecasted on March 27, 2014 at 15:30 hours through DD Malayalam, and it was re-telecasted as six episodes on Sundays from the following week.[281][282]

Theatre[edit]

Theatre adaptation of Marthandavarma novel was first done in 1919 by Sree Chithira Thirunal Grandhasala, and the adaptation featured only male cast members for enacting female characters. Dr. N. Rajan Nair notes that Nair societies of Palkulangara, Vanchiyoor and Kunnukuzhy also staged theatre adaptations in early days. The cultural organization Kalavedi of Thiruvananthapuram forayed into theatre adaptations of Marthandavarma from 1957. Dr. N. Rajan Nair points that a stage performance of Marthandavarma once happened at Kozhikode and a few performances are happened at Delhi, Bombay and Madras under the respective Malayali associations.[283]

  • 2008: Marthanda Varma – A stage adaptation directed by Kaladharan.
In 2008 as part of 150th birth anniversary of C. V. Raman Pillai, theatre adaptations of three novels, Marthandavarma, Dharmaraja, and Premamritham were organized by C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation in association with cultural organizations Rasika and Kalavedi at Thiruvananthapuram. The adaptation of Marthandavarma novel directed by Kaladharan was staged on May 18, 2008 at VJT hall with performances of Mr. Firoz as Ananthapadmanabhan and Ms. Bindu as Subadra.[284][285]
  • 2013: Marthanda Varma – A stage adaptation organized by C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation.
In 2013 as part of 155th birth anniversary of C. V. Raman Pillai, a stage performance adapted from the novel Marthandavarma is organized by C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation based on a script by Dr. P. Venugopalan. The play is directed by N. Rajan Nair and staged on May 19, 2013 17:30 hours at Prof. N. Krishnapillai Foundation Theatre, Nandavanam under the banner of Kalavedi, Thiruvananthapuram with performances by Mr. Kannan Nair as Marthanda Varma and Jiji Kalamandir as mad Channan.[286][287][288]

Radio[edit]

  • 1991–1992: Marthandavarma – A radio play produced by All India Radio, Thiruvananthapuram.
In 1991, a radio play adaptation of Marthandavarma novel, written by Gopalakrishnan G. is produced by All India Radio’s Thiruvanathapuram station as a 4½ hours program directed by Vimalasenan Nair R. with voice performances by Santhosh Kumar Kayamkulam, Kochupreman, Bhagyalekshmy, Radhamony T. P, Philip D. and Jagannadhan respectively as Marthanda Varma, Ananthapadmanabhan, Parukutty, Subadra, Padmanabhan Thambi and Sundarayyan. The radio play was broadcast in 30 minutes episodes, every Wednesday at 21:30 hours from July 17, 1991 to January 1, 1992, and it was re-broadcast in 15-minute episodes from Monday to Saturday at 14:15 hours between January 20, 2014 and February 08, 2014.[289][290]
  • 2012: A radio program on the character Subadra, written by K. V. Neelakandan Nair was broadcast by All India Radio, Thiruvananthapuram in December 2012.[291]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ P. K. Parameswaran Nair assumes that the author did so as he was emotionally disturbed after the marriage of his unrequited love, Ms. Janaki Amma to an elderly person and he was embarrassed due to the breakup of his first marriage. Prof. Guptan Nair states that C. V. Raman Pillai went absconding as he was tormented due to heartbreak after the marriage of Janaki Amma, whom he loved for two years. N. Balakarishnan Nair points that author headed with his travel spree during his examinations after getting amused by the descriptions given by some students who visited Srirangapatna. Dr. Ayyappa Paniker states that the author self exiled due to his discord with one of the elder brothers following his marriage failure.[5][6][7][8][9]
  2. ^ N. Balakrishnan Nair and S. Guptan Nair stated that the title of the weekly as Travancore Patriot and The Travancore Patriot respectively where as P. K. Parameswaran Nair and Dr. Ayyappa Paniker mentioned that the title of periodical as Kerala Patriot.[7][9][13][14]
  3. ^ S. Guptan Nair and Dr. Ayyappa Paniker state that the above marriage happened in 1882, but N. Balakrishnan Nair quoted the words of Ms. Paravathy Pilla which state that she was married to C. V. Raman Pillai right after he got the job.[9][20][21][22]
  4. ^ The stage enact of Candramukhīvilāsaṁ was the first theater performance of a play originally conceived in Malayalam and not adapted from any other sources; however, the scripted material never published in printed form.
  5. ^ P. K. Parameswaran Nair and Dr. Ayyappa Paniker state that the author was promoted as Head Translator Indexer & Publisher in 1888, but S. Guptan Nair states that the author was promoted to the position of Head Translator & Indexer by 1886. N. Balakrishanan Nair states that the author was promoted to the post of Translator Indexer & Publisher on Ciṅṅaṁ 2, 1062 (August 16, 1886).[23][24][25][26]
  6. ^ Though Indulekha novel was reportedly published in 1889, its author, O. Chandumenon confirms that the novel was available for sale only by January 1890.[39]
  7. ^ S. Guptan Nair endorsed the claim of P. K. Parameswaran Nair. Dr. Ayyappa Paniker also state that the novel was first written between 1883 and 1885.[46][47]
  8. ^ Messrs. Addison & Co., named after the prolific essayist and critic, Joseph Addison, are described as being letterpress and lithographic printers, bookbinders, manufacturing stationers, engravers, fancy goods merchants, cycle and motor agents, and repairers and engineers in Madras during the period 1873 to 1943. Addison & Co. were later acquired by Anantharamakrishnan of Amalgamations in 1943.[53][54][55]
  9. ^ 1. 1891–Marthandavarma (Malayalam: മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മാ, māṟttāṇḍavaṟmmā) 2. 1892–Suryakantha (Kannada: ಸೂರ್ಯಕಾಂತಾ, sūryakāṁtā) 3. 1895–Mohanangi (Tamil: மோகனாங்கி, mōkaṉāṅki) 4. 1896–Hemalata (Telugu: హేమలత, hēmalata)
  10. ^ B. K. Menon (1907–1950) was a writer in Malayalam and English who wrote poetry in Malayalam, articles and short stories in English.[71]
  11. ^ 1. Kundalatha (1887) 2. Indulekha (1889) 3. Indumathee Swayamvaram (1890) 4. Meenakshi (1890)
  12. ^ മനോസുഖം, മനോകാഠിന്യം (manōsukhaṁ, manōkāṭhinyaṁ) instead of the correct ones മനസ്സുഖം, മനഃകാഠിന്യം (manassukhaṁ, manaḥkāṭhinyaṁ)
  13. ^ Thumpamon Thomas (1946–2014) was a reader at Mar Thoma College, Tiruvalla and a noted writer in Malayalam, served at State Institute of Children’s Literature and as director of the State Institute of Encyclopaedic Publications.[90]
  14. ^ Matilakaṁ Grantavari or Mathilakam Records are palm leaf scrolls (churunas or curuṇakaḷ) with information about Sree Padmanabha Swamy temple and the kingdom of erstwhile Travancore, written in ancient scripts of Kerala such as Vattezhuthu, Kolezhuthu, besidesTamil and Malayalam as royal orders (neettu or nīṭṭŭ), land records (ozhuku or oḻukŭ), treasury notices, taxation records, court proceedings, boundary disputes etc.[106]
  15. ^ Kuñcu Taṁpi and Iḷaya Taṁpi. They are also been referred as Kanakku Thambi Raman Raman and Kanakku Thambi Raman Athichan (Kaṇakku Taṁpi Rāman Rāman and Kaṇakku Taṁpi Rāman Āticcan) respectively.
  16. ^ P. Shangoony Menon (1815–1880), was a clerk, then Assistant Record Keeper at the Travancore royal palace, he was Dewan Peishkar, served at Padmanabhapuram and Kollam, authored History of Travancore from the Earliest Times.[107]
  17. ^ Avirāmi or Kiṭṭaṇattāḷamma.
  18. ^ Prof. V. Anandakkuttan Nair (1920–2000) a writer in Malayalam, served as vice-president and then the president of Sahitya Prvarthaka Sahagarana Sangham.[113]
  19. ^ Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju (1921–2000), got his PhD from University of Kerala for the research thesis Mārtāṇḍa Varma and his Times; was a reader and professor in University of Calicut.[114]
  20. ^ Valiyattampikkuñcuttampikkataippāṭal, Tampimar Katai, and Valiyataṁpi Kuñcutaṁpi Katha.
  21. ^ T. K. Velu Pillai (1882–1950), was a schoolteacher, later an advocate and civil servant, then a legislator, a writer in Malayalam and English who revised the Travancore State Manual in 1940.[124]
  22. ^
    • Group I (1. Kanakku Thambi Raman Raman, 2. Kanakku Thambi Raman Athichan) as Thambimar, of which both were killed.
    • Group II (1. Koduman Pilla, 2. Vanchikkuttathu Pilla, 3. Karakkulathu Pilla) of which, Karakkulathu Pilla was killed.
    • Group III (1. Ettuveettil Madambi Panayara Shankaran Pandarathu Kuruppu, 2. Kochu Mahadevan Pandarathu Kuruppu, 3. Thekkeveettil Eachambi Kuruppu, 4. Vadakkeveettil Eachambi Kuruppu, 5. Chiriyankeezhu Mundakkal Kamachotti Pilla, 6. Makizhanchery Ravikutty Pilla, 7. Thekkeveettil Cherupulli Nambukali Pilla, 8. Valiya Pilla Kunchu Irayimman Pilla) as Ettuveettil Madambimar, of which all were punished.
    • Group IV (1. Idathara Thrivikraman, 2. Ilambeal Marthandan Ravi), of which all were punished.
    • Group V (1. Kulathur Kanakku Kali Kali, 2. Kazhakkoottam Kanakku Raman Ichuvaran, 3. Chiriyankeezhu Vadakkeveettil Kanakku Cherupulli Marthandan Ananthan, 4. Parakkottu Kanakku Ayyappan Vikraman, 5. Kanakku Thambi Raman Raman, 6. Pandikkuttathil Kanakku Shankaranarayanan Ayyappan) as Arukoottathil Pillamar, of which all were punished.
    • Group VI (1. Kochu Kunjan Pandarathu Kuruppu, 2. Valiya Pilla Kunchu Irayimman Pilla) as Ettuveettil Madambimar who, were set free.
    • Group VII (1. Parakkottu Thikkakutti Pilla, 2. Pandikkuttathil Ayyappan Pilla) as Arukoottam Pillamar who, were set free.
  23. ^ Dr. P. Venugopalan is the dean of Faculty of Fine Arts at University of Kerala, served as the chief editor of Malayalam Lexicon, he edited the centenary edition of Marhtandavarma novel with a comparative study of first and second editions of the novel.
  24. ^ P. Govinda Pillai (1829–1907), a school teacher, later a lawyer at royal court and a prose writer in Malayalam who wrote the history of Malayalam language entitled Malayāḷabhāṣācaritraṁ.[131]
  25. ^ Ramanamadathil Pillay, Mathanamadathil Pillay, Kolathoo Pillay, Kalacoottathu Pillay, Chembalathil Pillay, Pallichel Pillay, Kudamun Pillay and Venganoor Pillay.
  26. ^ Ramanamatam, Martandam, Kulattur, Kazhakuttam, Chembazhanthi, Pallichal, Koduman and Venganur.
  27. ^ Dr. C. K. Kareem (1929–2000), was a scholar and secured his Ph.D from Aligarh Muslim University with a research thesis on Administration of Kerala under Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, he served as state editor of Kerala Gazetteers, the registrar of Cochin University and, the secretary of Kerala History Association.[137][138]
  28. ^ Letters to Tellicherry are records of Madras Presidency published as one of the series among Records of Fort St. George in 12 Volumes by the Superintendent of Government Press, Madras in 1934.
  29. ^ Dhanuvachapuram is a village in Perumkadavila taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  30. ^ Eithukondamkani is a locality in Perumkadavila taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  31. ^ Marayamuttom is a village in Neyyattinkara taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  32. ^ Malakulangara is a locality in Perumkadavila taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  33. ^ First published history of Travancore (in Malayalam) written by Pachu Moothathu in 1867.
  34. ^ Budhanoor is a village in Chengannur taluk of Alappuzha district.
  35. ^ P. K. Parameswaran Nair (1903–1988), was a clerk in Travancore Devaswom then supervisor in Lexicon Department at University of Kerala, was a writer in Malayalam who wrote the brographies of C. V. Raman Pillai, Chattampi Swamikal, also authored history of Malayalam literature as Ādhunikamalayāḷasāhityaṁ, Malayāḷasahityacaritraṁ.[158]
  36. ^ Puthenkotta is a locality between Attakulangara and Karamana in Thiruvananthapuram city.
  37. ^ Thirukannangudi is a locality in Tirunelveli district.
  38. ^ Dr. M.G. Sasibhooshan, a historian and researcher in the mural arts of Kerala, was a reader at the University College Thiruvananthapuram and former director of Kerala State Literacy Mission Authority.
  39. ^ Dr. A. C. Vasu was a researcher in Number theory and served as an assistant editor in the Encyclopedia department of Kerala.[241]
  40. ^ Analogous to the Urdu one (Urdu: انعام‎, inām) rooted from the Arabic one (Arabic: إنعام‎, 'inʿām).
  41. ^ Analogous to the Arabic version (Arabic: شیطون‎, šayṭān) rooted from the Hebrew one (Hebrew: שָׂטָן‎, śāṭān).
  42. ^ Adapted from the Persian version (Persian: بهادر‎, bahadur) rooted from the Turkish one (Ottoman Turkish: بهادر, Turkish: baghatur, bahadır).
  43. ^ Analogous to the Urdu version (Urdu: حقہ‎, huqqā) rooted from Arabic one (Arabic: حقة‎, ħúqqa).
  44. ^ Analogous to the Hindustani or Urdu version (Urdu: خواب‎, Hindi: ख़्वाब, xvāb) rooted from the Persian one (Persian: خواب‎, xâb).
  45. ^ Analogous to the Hindustani version (Hindustani: साहिब, صاحب, sāhib) rooted from Arabic one (Arabic: صاحِب‎, ṣāḥib).
  46. ^ Analogous to the Urdu version (Urdu: شربت‎, śarbat) rooted from Arabic one (Arabic: شربة‎, shárba).
  47. ^ Prof. P. Ramachandran Nair was the head of Malayalam department in Mananam K. E. college.[255]
  48. ^ Dr. V. Ramachandran Nair is a PhD holder in psychology from University of Kerala, worked as a scientist at Defence Research and Development Organisation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Novel and Short Story to the Present Day". History of Malayalam Literature. 
  2. ^ "Malayalam Literature". Indianetzone.com. 2009. 
  3. ^ a b Menon, B.K (1936). MARTHANDA VARMA (First ed.). Trivandrum: Kamalalaya Book Depot. A Historical Romance 
  4. ^ a b Devi, R. Leela (1984) [1979]. MARTHANDA VARMA (Second ed.). New Delhi: Sterling Paperbacks. A Historical Novel 
  5. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "പ്രവാസം" [Expatriation]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 59. 
  6. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "പ്രവാസം" [Expatriation]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 60. 
  7. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "പ്രവാസം" [Expatriation]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 57–58. 
  8. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഉയർച്ചയ്ക്കുള്ള വൈഷമ്യങ്ങൾ" [Difficulties for Ascension]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 38. 
  9. ^ a b c Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "വ്യക്തിജീവിതം" [Personal Life]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 23. 
  10. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "വ്യക്തിജീവിതം" [Personal Life]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 22. 
  11. ^ Nair, S. Guptan (1992). "Life". C. V. Raman Pillai (First ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. pp. 14–16. 
  12. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "നവോത്ഥാനത്തിന്റെ കിരണങ്ങൾ" [Rays of Renaissance]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 19. 
  13. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഉയർച്ചയ്ക്കുള്ള വൈഷമ്യങ്ങൾ" [Difficulties for Ascension]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 25–26. 
  14. ^ Nair, S. Guptan (1992). "Politics and Journalism". C. V. Raman Pillai (First ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 21. In 1882, he started a weekly, The Travancore Patriot. 
  15. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഉയർച്ചയ്ക്കുള്ള വൈഷമ്യങ്ങൾ" [Difficulties for Ascension]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. pp. 41–42. 
  16. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "സി.വി.യും താണുപിള്ളയും" [C. V. and Thanu Pillai]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 75–76. 
  17. ^ Nair, S. Guptan (1992). "Politics and Journalism". C. V. Raman Pillai (First ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 22. Financially Travancore Patriot was a flop. 
  18. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "ചന്ദ്രമുഖീവിലാസം" [Candramukhīvilāsaṁ]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 80. 
  19. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഉയർച്ചയ്ക്കുള്ള വൈഷമ്യങ്ങൾ" [Difficulties for Ascension]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 50. 
  20. ^ Nair, S. Guptan (1992). "Politics and Journalism". C. V. Raman Pillai (First ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 23. C.V.'s first marriage, sometime in 1882... 
  21. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "വ്യക്തിജീവിതം" [Personal Life]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 24. 
  22. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഗുമസ്തന്റെ പൗരുഷം" [Valor of Clerk]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. pp. 71–72. 
  23. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "ചന്ദ്രമുഖീവിലാസം" [Candramukhīvilāsaṁ]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 81. 
  24. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "വ്യക്തിജീവിതം" [Personal Life]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 25. 
  25. ^ Nair, S. Guptan (1992). "Appendix II". C. V. Raman Pillai (First ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 73. Chronology of important events 
  26. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഗുമസ്തന്റെ പൗരുഷം" [Valor of Clerk]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 73. 
  27. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഗുമസ്തന്റെ പൗരുഷം" [Valor of Clerk]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 70. 
  28. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "സമുദായപ്രവർത്തനം സി.വി.യും സി.കെ.പി.യും" [Community activity : C. V and C. K. P.]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 63. 
  29. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഗുമസ്തന്റെ പൗരുഷം" [Valor of Clerk]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. pp. 66–67. 
  30. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "വിവാഹം" [Wedding]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 94. 
  31. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "വിവാഹം" [Wedding]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 96. 
  32. ^ a b Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഗുമസ്തന്റെ പൗരുഷം" [Valor of Clerk]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 69. 
  33. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "വിവാഹം" [Wedding]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 98. 
  34. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 77. കൊല്ലവർഷം 1065 കുംഭം പത്താംതീയതി മുതൽ സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ളയ്ക്കു നിയമാദ്ധ്യയനത്തിനായി ആറു മാസത്തെ അവധി അനുവദിക്കപ്പെട്ടു [C. V. Raman Pillai was granted leave of six months from Kuṁbhaṁ 10, Kollavarsham 1065 for the study of law.] 
  35. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മലയാളി മെമ്മോറിയൽ" [Malayāḷi Memorial]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 119. 1889-ൽ സി.വി. നിയമപരീക്ഷ സംബന്ധിച്ചു മദ്രാസിൽ താമസിച്ചപ്പോഴാണ്...[When C.V. stayed at Madras for law examination in 1889...] 
  36. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ നിർമ്മിതിയും പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണവും" [Marthandavarma : Creation and Publication]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 99. 
  37. ^ Pilla, C. P. Ramakrishna (1948). "രാഷ്ട്രീയ ധർമ്മസമരം" [Political Moral Protest]. Ji. Pi. ജി. പി. [G. P.] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Radh-Ind Publications. p. 21. 
  38. ^ a b Gopalakrishnan, Malayankeezh (2007). "പാരമ്പര്യത്തിന്റെ യവനിക പിച്ചിച്ചീന്താൻ രണ്ട് സ്വാമിമാർ" [Two masters to tore the screen of tradition]. Ji. Pi. Piḷḷa Mahātmagāndhikk Māṟgadaṟśiyāya Malayāḷi ജി. പി. പിള്ള മഹാത്മാഗാന്ധിക്ക് മാർഗദർശിയായ മലയാളി [G. P. Pillai : Malayali guidance to Mahatma Gandhi] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Information & Public Relations Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 84–85. 
  39. ^ Chandumenon, O (1995) [1890]. "ഇന്ദുലേഖ രണ്ടാം അച്ചടിപ്പിന്റെ അവതാരിക" [Introduction of Indulekha, second print]. Indulēkha ഇന്ദുലേഖ [Indulekha] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 13. 1890 ജനുവരി ആദ്യത്തിൽ വില്പാൻ തുടങ്ങിയ ഈ പുസ്തകത്തിന്റെ ഒന്നാം അച്ചടിപ്പ്.. [The first print of this book, the sale of which begun in early January 1890..] 
  40. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ നിർമ്മിതിയും പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണവും" [Marthandavarma : Creation and Publication]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 100. 
  41. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. pp. 79–80. 
  42. ^ a b c Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. pp. 85–87. 
  43. ^ a b c Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ നിർമ്മിതിയും പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണവും" [Marthandavarma : Creation and Publication]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 101–104. 
  44. ^ Krishnan, K. S. (1991) [1988]. "ജീവിതത്തിൽനിന്നുതന്നെ" [From life itself]. Si. Vi. Caritrākhyāyikakaḷilūṭe സി. വി. ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകളിലൂടെ [C. V., through the Historical Narratives] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 50. 
  45. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. pp. 97–98. 
  46. ^ a b c d Nair, S. Guptan (1992). "Foreword". C. V. Raman Pillai (First ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 7. 
  47. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 37. 
  48. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "ചന്ദ്രമുഖീവിലാസം" [Candramukhīvilāsaṁ]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 84. 
  49. ^ a b Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. 60, 66–69. 
  50. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2010) [1982]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ–ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma–A Study]. Ādyakāla Malayāḷanōval ആദ്യകാല മലയാളനോവൽ [Early Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. pp. 70–71. 
  51. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "ഉയർച്ചയ്ക്കുള്ള വൈഷമ്യങ്ങൾ" [Difficulties for Ascension]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 44. ജി. പി. യും എൻ. രാമൻപിളളയും മറ്റും മദ്രാസിലായതു മുതൽ സി. വി. അങ്ങോട്ട് കൂടെക്കൂടെ പോകാറുണ്ടായിരുന്നു. [When G. P., N. Raman Pillai and others were in Madras, C. V used to go there frequently.] 
  52. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (2009) [1996]. "സി.വി.യെ വിശ്വസിക്കുക, ആരാധകരിൽ നിന്നു രക്ഷിക്കുക" [Beleive C. V., Relieve from fans]. Nōval Si.Vi. Mutal Baṣīṟ Vare നോവൽ സി. വി. മുതൽ ബഷീർ വരെ [Novel : From C. V. until Basheer] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 131–134. 
  53. ^ Wright, Arnold; Bond, J.W; Playne, Somerset, eds. (2004) [1914–1915]. "The City of Madras and Environs". Southern India its history, people, commerce, and industrial resources (AES Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 133–135. 
  54. ^ "Some Business Houses in Madras". The Madras Tercentenary commemoration volume. Madras Tercentenary Celebration Committee (AES Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 1994 [1939]. pp. 274–275. ISBN 81-206-0537-3. 
  55. ^ Muthiah, S (Aug 13, 2003), Printers' ink on Mount Road, Metro Plus, Chennai: The Hindu 
  56. ^ Pilla, K. R. Parameswaran (1921). "Ātmapōṣiṇi" ആത്മപോഷിണി [Soul-nourishing] (Print) (in Malayalam). Kunnamkulam: A. R. P. pp. 588–589. സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള അവർകളുടെ നോവലെഴുത്ത് [The novel scripting of respected C. V. Raman Pillai] 
  57. ^ Gopalakrishnan, Malayankeezh (2007). "മഹാരാജാവിന് മലയാളി മെമ്മോറിയൽ സമർപ്പിക്കുന്നു" [Submitting Malayali Memorial to the king]. Ji. Pi. Piḷḷa Mahātmagāndhikk Māṟgadaṟśiyāya Malayāḷi ജി. പി. പിള്ള മഹാത്മാഗാന്ധിക്ക് മാർഗദർശിയായ മലയാളി [G. P. Pillai : Malayali guidance to Mahatma Gandhi] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Information & Public Relations Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 86–87. 
  58. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മലയാളി മെമ്മോറിയൽ" [Malayāḷi Memorial]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 122. 
  59. ^ Jeffrey, Robin (2014) [1976]. "The Malayali Sabha and the Malayali Memorial : Out of Change, Conflict 1886-89". The Decline of Nair Dominance: Society and Politics in Travancore, 1847-1908. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers & Distributers. 150–151, 155. ISBN 9789350980347. K. P. Sankara Menon, who became the titular leader of the Memorial campaign,sent it to the Maharaja on 10 January 1891. 
  60. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 112. 
  61. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 116. 
  62. ^ a b Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 57–58. 
  63. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയ്ക്കു ശേഷം" [After Marthandavarma]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 105. 
  64. ^ a b Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ നിർമ്മിതിയും പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണവും" [Marthandavarma : Creation and Publication]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 105–106. 
  65. ^ a b Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയ്ക്കു ശേഷം" [After Marthandavarma]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 107. 
  66. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. 69–72, 75–77. ISBN 8171301304. 
  67. ^ Kizhakemuri, D C (2009) [1992]. "പ്രസാധകക്കുറിപ്പ്" [Publishers's Note]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 5. ISBN 8171301304. 
  68. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (1983) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Little Prince Publications. 
  69. ^ Pilla, Dr. K. Raghavan (2009) [1983]. "സി വി യുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾക്ക് ഒരാമുഖം" [An Introduction to CV's Hostorical Narratives]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 28. ISBN 8171301304. 
  70. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (2010) [1891–1919]. Si. Vi. Rāmanpiḷḷāyuṭe Caritrākhyāyikakaḷ Sampūṟṇṇaṁ സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ളയുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾ സമ്പൂർണ്ണം [CV's Complete Historical Narratives] (in Malayalam) (first ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. ISBN 9788126427970. 
  71. ^ a b Jayakumar, Prema (1998). "Foreword". MARTHANDA VARMA. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. 
  72. ^ Menon, B.K (1936). "DEDICATED TO BY KIND PERMISSION". MARTHANDA VARMA (First ed.). Trivandrum: Kamalalaya Book Depot. i-vii, 1–12(b), 254–255, 304–330. End of Volume One 
  73. ^ Menon, B.K (1998) [1936]. MARTHANDA VARMA. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. A Historical Romance 
  74. ^ Paniker, Ayyappa (1998). "Introduction". MARTHANDA VARMA. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. C.V.'s Marthanda Varma : A Centenary Revaluation 
  75. ^ Pillai, O. Krishna (1954). Mārttāṇṭa Varma மார்த்தாண்ட வர்மா [Marthandavarma] (in Tamil). Trivandrum: Kamalalaya Book Depot. 
  76. ^ Krishnankutty, Kunnukuzhy (1990). "Mārtāṇḍa Varma" मार्ताण्ड वर्मा [Marthandavarma]. Keral Jyoti (in Hindi) (Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Hindi Prachar Sabha) XXV (3). 
  77. ^ Thambi, P. Padmanabhan (2007). Mārttāṇṭa Varmma மார்த்தாண்ட வர்ம்மா [Marthandavarma] (in Tamil). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1658-2. 
  78. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 88. 
  79. ^ Nair, S. Guptan, ed. (1992) [1891]. "Appendix I". C. V. Raman Pillai. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 72. 
  80. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയ്ക്കു ശേഷം" [After Marthandavarma]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. pp. 105–106. 
  81. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 93. 
  82. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 59. ISBN 8171301304. മലയാളത്തിൽ ഏറ്റവും കൂടുതൽ വിറ്റഴിഞ്ഞിട്ടുള്ള പുസ്തകം മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ ആണെന്നതിൽ സംശയമില്ല. [It is not doubtful that Marthandavarma is the most sold book in Malayalam.] 
  83. ^ Nair, S. Guptan, ed. (1992) [1891]. "Appendix I". C. V. Raman Pillai. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. pp. 68–70. Editorial from THE HINDU, dated December 21, 1891 
  84. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 38. 
  85. ^ Pillai, Dr. P. V. Velayudhan (2000). "ചരിത്രനോവലുകളല്ല" [Not Historical Novels]. Āṇuṅṅaḷillātta Koṟa Valyakoṟa (Si.vi nōvalukaḷ oru punaṟvāyana) ആണുങ്ങളില്ലാത്ത കൊറ വല്യകൊറ (സി.വി. നോവലുകൾ ഒരു പുനർവായന) [Scarcity of Men is a major exiguity (C. V. Novels, a re-reading)] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Prabhatham Printing and Publishing Co. 17, 22. 
  86. ^ Pillai, Dr. A. M. Vasudevan (1991). "സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ളയുടെ രാഷ്ട്രീയ നോവലുകൾ" [Political novels of C. V. Raman Pillai]. Nōvaluṁ Rāṣṭṟīyavuṁ നോവലും രാഷ്ട്രീയവും [Novel and Politics] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 43. 
  87. ^ Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1951). "രണ്ടു കാര്യങ്ങൾ" [Two affairs]. Sākṣāl Si. Vi സാക്ഷാൽ സി. വി. [Real C. V.] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Kamalalaya Printing Works & B. V. Book Depot. p. 89. 
  88. ^ a b Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ചരിത്രവും കല്പനയും" [Marthandavarma: History and Figment]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 109. ISBN 8171301304. 
  89. ^ Sasibhooshan, Dr. M. G. (2013). "പെരുന്തച്ചന്റെ ബലിഷ്ഠശില്പങ്ങൾ" [Perunthachan's Strong Structures]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 143. ISBN 9788124019566. 
  90. ^ (Express News Service) (July 18, 2014). "Thumpamon Thomas Passes Away". The New Indian Express (Thiruvananthapuram: The New Indian Express). 
  91. ^ a b Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "സൂചിതസാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ - ഒരു പഠനം" [Referred Literary works – A study]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 114. ISBN 8171301304. 
  92. ^ a b c d e Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 84–85. ISBN 8171301304. 
  93. ^ a b c Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "കഥാകാലം; സംഭവസ്ഥലങ്ങൾ" [Timeline of story; Incident locations]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 126–127. ISBN 8171301304. 
  94. ^ Thomas, Prof. Thumpamon (1992). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Malayāḷanōvalil Oru Punḥapariśōdhana മലയാളനോവലിൽ ഒരു പുനഃപരിശോധന [A Re-examination in Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 42. 
  95. ^ Tharakan, Prof. K. M. (2005) [1978]. "ഭാഗം രണ്ട്" [Part Two]. Malayāḷa Nōval Sāhitya Caritṟaṁ മലയാള നോവൽ സാഹിത്യ ചരിത്രം [History of Malayalam Novel Literature] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. 49, 51. ISBN 8176900788. 
  96. ^ Paniker, Dr. Ayyappa (1993). "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ" [Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Malalyalam Men of Letters (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 40. 
  97. ^ Onakkoor, Dr. George (2013). "നായക സങ്കല്പം മലയാള നോവലിൽ" [Concept of Hero in Malayalam Novel]. Nāyaka Sankalpaṁ Malayāḷa Nōvalil നായക സങ്കല്പം മലയാള നോവലിൽ [Concept of Hero in Malayalam Novel] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Ascend Publication. p. 83. നായക കഥാപാത്രങ്ങളായ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ, അനന്തപത്മനാഭൻ... [lead characters Marthandavarma and Ananthapadmanabhan...] 
  98. ^ Pilla, Dr. K. Raghavan (2009) [1983]. "സി വി യുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾക്ക് ഒരാമുഖം" [An Introduction to CV's Hostorical Narratives]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 24. ISBN 8171301304. 
  99. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. Kalpatta (2005) [1986]. "സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള" [C. V. Raman Pillai]. Caritranōval Malayāḷattil ചരിത്രനോവൽ മലയാളത്തിൽ [Historical Novel in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 62. ISBN 8176900869. 
  100. ^ a b c d e f g Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 328–330. 
  101. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 232. Last Phase of Mediaeval History 
  102. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 288. 
  103. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ ആദ്യകാല ജീവിതം" [Early life of Marthanda Varma]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 24. 
  104. ^ Pillai, C.V. Raman (1991) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 28. 
  105. ^ Pillai, C.V. Raman (1991) [1891]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 175. 
  106. ^ "Our archival heritage". METRO PLUS (Thiruvananthapuram: The Hindu). 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012. 
  107. ^ Pilla, V. R. Parameswaran (2012) [1973]. "ഗ്രന്ഥകാരനെ പറ്റി" [About the author]. Tiruvitāṁkūṟ Caritraṁ തിരുവിതാംകൂർ ചരിത്രം [Travancore History] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. pp. xi–xiii. ISBN 9788176380744. 
  108. ^ a b c d Pillai, T.K. Velu, ed. (1996) [1940]. "M. Doc. CXXX". The Travancore State Manual (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 115–117 (Historical Documents). 
  109. ^ a b c d Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 116–117. 
  110. ^ a b c d e Pillay, Nanoo (1974). "The Sketch of Progress of Travancore". In Elenkath, K. R. Dewan Nanoo Pillay. Neyyoor-West: Dewan Nanoo Pillay Memorial Reading Room. pp. 126–129. 
  111. ^ Padmakumari, Prof. J.; Hussain, K.B.M, eds. (2003). Valiyatampi Kuñcutampi Katha വലിയതമ്പി കുഞ്ചുതമ്പി കഥ [Big Brother Small Brother Story] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. pp. 4–22. 
  112. ^ Natarajan, T.; Sarveswaran, P., eds. (2001). Tampimār Katai தம்பிமார் கதை [Brothers Story] (in Tamil). Madurai: Madurai Kamaraj University. pp. 42–58. 
  113. ^ Nair, Dr. P. V. Krishnan, ed. (2005) [1980]. "പ്രൊഫ. വി. ആനന്തക്കുട്ടൻ നായർ" [Prof. V. Anandakkuttan Nair]. Kēraḷbhāṣāgānaṅṅaḷ കേരളഭാഷാഗാനങ്ങൾ [Folk songs in Kerala] (in Malayalam) II. Thrissur: Kerala Sahithya Akademi. 
  114. ^ B, Kumari Vanaja N., ed. (2005) [1990]. "ഡോ. എ. പി. ഇബ്രാഹിംകുഞ്ഞ്" [Dr. A.P. Ibrahim Kunju]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. Inside front cover. 
  115. ^ Shobhanan, Dr. B. (2011). "A Note on Ananthapadmanabhan". In Immanuel, Dr. M.; Sarveswaran, Dr. P. Māvīraṉ Taḷapati Aṉantapatmanāpaṉ மாவீரன் தளபதி அனந்தபத்மநாபன் [Great Commander Ananthapadmanabhan]. Nagercoil: Cultural Historical Linguistic Indegenous Research Organisation, India. p. 105. 
  116. ^ Kunju, Dr. A. P. Ibrahim (1976). Rise of Travancore: A Study of life and times of Marthanda Varma. Trivandrum: Kerala Historical Society. pp. 20–22. 
  117. ^ Immanuel, Dr. M. (2007). "A Forgotten Hero". Kanniyakumari: Aspects and Architects. Nagercoil: Historical Research and Publications Trust. pp. 92–93. 
  118. ^ Varatharajan, K. P. (2000). "அத்தியாயம் 4" [Chapter 4]. Tiruvaṭi Tēcaṁ Tiruppāppūr Paramparai Śrīmat Aṉantapatmanāpaṉ Nāṭār Varalāṟu திருவடி தேசம் திருப்பாப்பூர் பரம்பரை மாவீரன் ஶ்ரீமத் அனந்தபத்மநாபன் நாடார் வரலாறு [History of great hero Mr. Ananthapadmanabhan Nadar in Thripappur lineage of Thiruvati nation] (in Tamil). Kattathurai: Ananthapadmanabhan Trust. pp. 39–40. 
  119. ^ Thampi, Dr. G. Thrivikraman (2008). "തെക്കൻപാട്ടുകളിലെ സാസ്കാരിക പ്രതിഫലനം" [Cultural reflection in southern ballads]. Tekkanpāṭṭukaḷuṁ Vāmoḻippāṭṭukaḷuṁ: Uḷḷorukkaṅṅaḷ Uḷpporuḷukaḷ തെക്കൻപാട്ടുകളും വാമൊഴിപ്പാട്ടുകളും: ഉള്ളൊരുക്കങ്ങൾ ഉൾപ്പൊരുളുകൾ [Southern Ballads and Vernacular Songs: Inner equipments and inner meanings] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Raja Raja Varma Basha Padana Kendram. p. 27. 
  120. ^ Radhakrishnan, R. (2011). "திருவடி பரம்பரையில் உதித்த மாவீரன்" [Hero emerged in the Thiruvati Lineage]. In Immanuel, Dr. M.; Sarveswaran, Dr. P. Māvīraṉ Taḷapati Aṉantapatmanāpaṉ மாவீரன் தளபதி அனந்தபத்மநாபன் [Great Commander Ananthapadmanabhan] (in Tamil). Nagercoil: Cultural Historical Linguistic Indegenous Research Organisation, India. p. 42. 
  121. ^ Padmakumari, Prof. J.; Hussain, K.B.M, eds. (2003). Valiyatampi Kuñcutampi Katha വലിയതമ്പി കുഞ്ചുതമ്പി കഥ [Big Brother Small Brother Story] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. p. 78. 
  122. ^ Natarajan, T.; Sarveswaran, P., eds. (2001). Tampimār Katai தம்பிமார் கதை [Brothers Story] (in Tamil). Madurai: Madurai Kamaraj University. p. 109. 
  123. ^ a b c Sarveswaran, Dr. P., ed. (1982). Ōṭṭaṉ Katai ஓட்டன் கதை [Runner Tale] (in Tamil). Madurai: Mano Publishers. 12-16, 22-24, 31. 
  124. ^ Raimon, S. (1996). "T.K. Velu Pillai, A biographical note". THE TRAVANCORE STATE MANUAL VOL -I. KCHR Publications. 
  125. ^ a b Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 314–315. 
  126. ^ a b Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. 232, 260-261. Last Phase of Mediaeval History 
  127. ^ a b c d Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 106, 108, 110. 
  128. ^ a b c Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 107. 
  129. ^ a b Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 324. 
  130. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 241. Last Phase of Mediaeval History 
  131. ^ Mukherjee, Sujit (1999). "G". A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. A Dictionary of Indian Literature I. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan. p. 119. ISBN 8125014535. 
  132. ^ a b Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I, Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 96, 109. 
  133. ^ a b c d e f Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I, Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 114–115. 
  134. ^ a b c d e f Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. 327, 333-334. 
  135. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "എട്ടരയോഗവും എട്ടുവീട്ടിൽ പിള്ളമാരും" [Ettarayogam and Ettuveettil Pillas]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 169–170. 
  136. ^ Pillai, C.V. Raman (1891) [1991]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 96. 
  137. ^ Warrier, N. V. Krishna; P. Devadas, K. (2012) [1973]. "ഒന്നാം പതിപ്പിന്റെ ആമുഖം" [Preface of first edition]. Tiruvitāṁkūṟ Caritraṁ തിരുവിതാംകൂർ ചരിത്രം [Travancore History] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. p. vii. ISBN 9788176380744. 
  138. ^ Abrar, Dr. Rahat. "Directory of Journalist from AMU". Alumni of Aligarh Muslim University (India). Saudi Arabia: amualumni.8m.com. p. 3. 
  139. ^ a b c Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 120–121. 
  140. ^ a b Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 311–313. 
  141. ^ a b Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 97–100. 
  142. ^ Kareem, C. K. (2012) [1973]. Tiruvitāṁkūṟ Caritraṁ തിരുവിതാംകൂർ ചരിത്രം [Travancore History] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. pp. 84–85. ISBN 9788176380744. 
  143. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 211–212. The Temple and the State 
  144. ^ a b Pillai, T.K. Velu, ed. (1996) [1940]. "M. Doc. CXXX". The Travancore State Manual (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 121–122 (Historical Documents). 
  145. ^ a b c Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "പതിനേഴാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടിലെ വേണാടു രാഷ്ട്രീയം" [Venadu politics in seventeenth century]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 20–22. 
  146. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 92. ISBN 8171301304. 
  147. ^ a b Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I, Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 122-123, 127, 173. 
  148. ^ Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 363–364. 
  149. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. 281, 349-350. 
  150. ^ a b c Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 335. 
  151. ^ a b c Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 268–269. 
  152. ^ a b c Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 256–259. 
  153. ^ a b Varatharajan, K. P. (2000). "அத்தியாயம் 3" [Chapter 3]. Tiruvaṭi Tēcaṁ Tiruppāppūr Paramparai Śrīmat Aṉantapatmanāpaṉ Nāṭār Varalāṟu திருவடி தேசம் திருப்பாப்பூர் பரம்பரை மாவீரன் ஶ்ரீமத் அனந்தபத்மநாபன் நாடார் வரலாறு [History of great hero Mr. Ananthapadmanabhan Nadar in Thripappur lineage of Thiruvati nation] (in Tamil). Kattathurai: Ananthapadmanabhan Trust. p. 26. 
  154. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 99. ISBN 8171301304. 
  155. ^ a b Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 402. ISBN 8171301304. 
  156. ^ a b Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ ആദ്യകാല ജീവിതം" [Early life of Marthanda Varma]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 26–27. 
  157. ^ Gopalakrishnan, Dr. Naduvattom (2008). "പെരുങ്കടവിള ഈഴക്കുടി" [Ezhava house at Perunkadavila]. Nāṭōṭi Caritrakkathakaḷ നാടോടി ചരിത്രക്കഥകൾ [Folk historical stories] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Malu Ben Publications. pp. 61–62. 
  158. ^ Varma, Ezhumattoor Rajaraja (2011). Pi. Ke. Paramēśvaran Nāyaṟ പി. കെ. പരമേശ്വരൻനായർ [P. K. Parameswaran Nair]. Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. pp. 58–310. ISBN 9788124019139. 
  159. ^ a b Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ ആദ്യകാല ജീവിതം" [Early life of Marthanda Varma]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 28–29. 
  160. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (1959) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thriuvananthapuram: Kerala Sahithya Sahakarana Sangham. p. 131. 
  161. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 87. ISBN 8171301304. 
  162. ^ a b c Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 271–273. 
  163. ^ a b c Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 336–339. 
  164. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ ആദ്യകാല ജീവിതം" [Early life of Marthanda Varma]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 31–32. 
  165. ^ Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ചരിത്രവും കല്പനയും" [Marthandavarma: History and Figment]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 102–103. ISBN 8171301304. 
  166. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 262. 
  167. ^ Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 125–126. 
  168. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 274–278. 
  169. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "പതിനെട്ടാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടിൽ തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ വികാസം" [Expansion of Travancore in Eighteenth Century]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma: Ādhunika Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Udayaṁ മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 34–35. 
  170. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 417. ISBN 8171301304. 
  171. ^ Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 102–103. 
  172. ^ Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 310. 
  173. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 220–225. The Temple and the State 
  174. ^ Gangadharan, Dr. Thikkurissi, ed. (2011). "ഇരവിക്കുട്ടിപ്പിള്ളപ്പോര് (പാട്ട്)" [Iravikkuṭṭippiḷḷappōr (song)]. Iravikkuṭṭippiḷḷappōr Oru Pṭhanaṁ ഇരവിക്കുട്ടിപ്പിള്ളപ്പോര് ഒരു പഠനം [Fight of Ravikutty Pillai : A study] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Sahithya Kairali Publications. pp. 203–207. 
  175. ^ Pillai, C.V. Raman (1891) [1991]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. 52, 99-100, 103. 
  176. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (2004). "ശാ" [Śā]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 490. 
  177. ^ Sasibhooshan, Dr. M. G. (2013). "പെരുന്തച്ചന്റെ ബലിഷ്ഠശില്പങ്ങൾ" [Perunthachan's Strong Structures]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. p. 142. ISBN 9788124019566. 
  178. ^ a b c d Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 400–401. ISBN 8171301304. 
  179. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (1959) [1948]. "ബാല്യം" [Childhood]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thriuvananthapuram: Kerala Sahithya Sahakarana Sangham. 3-4, 6-8. 
  180. ^ Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "കഥാകാലം; സംഭവസ്ഥലങ്ങൾ" [Timeline of story; Incident locations]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 128. ISBN 8171301304. 
  181. ^ Valath, V. V. K. (1998). "തിരുവനന്തപുരം" [Thiruvananthapuram]. Kēraḷattile Sthalacaritraṅṅaḷ : Tiruvaṉantapuraṁ Jilla കേരളത്തിലെ സ്ഥലചരിത്രങ്ങൾ : തിരുവനന്തപുരം ജില്ല [Locality histories in Kerala : Thiruvananthapuram district] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 33. 
  182. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 403. ISBN 8171301304. 
  183. ^ Pilla, Sooranad Kunjan (1998) [1992]. "കിഴക്കേ കോട്ടയും പടിഞ്ഞാറേ കോട്ടയും" [East fort and West fort]. Kēraḷattile Sthalacaritraṅṅaḷ : Tiruvaṉantapuraṁ Jilla കേരളത്തിലെ സ്ഥലചരിത്രങ്ങൾ : തിരുവനന്തപുരം ജില്ല [Locality histories in Kerala : Thiruvananthapuram district] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 170–171. 
  184. ^ Valath, V. V. K. (1998). "കിഴക്കേ കോട്ടയും പടിഞ്ഞാറേ കോട്ടയും" [East fort and West fort]. Kēraḷattile Sthalacaritraṅṅaḷ : Tiruvaṉantapuraṁ Jilla കേരളത്തിലെ സ്ഥലചരിത്രങ്ങൾ : തിരുവനന്തപുരം ജില്ല [Locality histories in Kerala : Thiruvananthapuram district] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 48–50. 
  185. ^ Moothathu, Vaikkath Pachu (1986) [1867]. Tiruvitāṁkūṟ Caritraṁ തിരുവിതാംകൂർ ചരിത്രം [Travancore History] (in Malayalam). Kochi: Prathibha Publications. p. 20. 
  186. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (1959) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. Si. Vi. Rāman Piḷḷa സി. വി. രാമൻ പിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pillai] (in Malayalam). Thriuvananthapuram: Kerala Sahithya Sahakarana Sangham. p. 133. 
  187. ^ Parthan (2011). "അനന്തപത്മനാഭൻ നാടാരും തിരുവിതാംകൂർ നിർമ്മിതിയും" [Ananthapadmanabhan Nadar and Travancore formation]. In Immanuel, Dr. M.; Sarveswaran, Dr. P. Māvīraṉ Taḷapati Aṉantapatmanāpaṉ மாவீரன் தளபதி அனந்தபத்மநாபன் [Great Commander Ananthapadmanabhan] (in Malayalam). Nagercoil: Cultural Historical Linguistic Indegenous Research Organisation, India. p. 150. 
  188. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (1997). "ചെ" [Ce]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 716. 
  189. ^ Pazhani, Dr. T. (2003). "Introduction". Social Change among the Vellalas of Nanchinad. Aluva: Pen Books. pp. 13–17. 
  190. ^ Valath, V. V. K. (1998). "അഗസ്ത്യമുടി മുതൽ അരുവിപ്പുറം വരെ" [From Agastya peak to Aruvipuram]. Kēraḷattile Sthalacaritraṅṅaḷ : Tiruvaṉantapuraṁ Jilla കേരളത്തിലെ സ്ഥലചരിത്രങ്ങൾ : തിരുവനന്തപുരം ജില്ല [Locality histories in Kerala : Thiruvananthapuram district] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 68. 
  191. ^ Menon, B.K (1936). "Chapter XV". MARTHANDA VARMA (First ed.). Trivandrum: Kamalalaya Book Depot. p. 66. 
  192. ^ a b c d e Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 420. ISBN 8171301304. 
  193. ^ a b Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Kartha, K. B.; Nair, Prof. Aliam Bhaskaran; Omana, Ms. P. V., eds. (1994). "ഊ" [Ū]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) I. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 689. 
  194. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (2002). "പാ" [Pā]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) III. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 485. 
  195. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Kartha, K. B.; Nair, Prof. Aliam Bhaskaran; Omana, Ms. P. V., eds. (1994). "ഉ" [U]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) I. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 663. 
  196. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Kartha, K. B.; Nair, Prof. Aliam Bhaskaran; Omana, Ms. P. V., eds. (1994). "അ" [A]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) I. Thiruvanathapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 225. 
  197. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (1997). "കു" [Ku]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 312. 
  198. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (1997). "ചാ" [Cā]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 670. 
  199. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 428. ISBN 8171301304. 
  200. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Kartha, K. B.; Nair, Prof. Aliam Bhaskaran; Omana, Ms. P. V., eds. (1994). "ഉ" [U]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) I. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 585. 
  201. ^ Paul, M. P. (1991) [1930]. "ഭാഷാനോവൽ–സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള" [Novel in Language – C. V. Raman Pilla]. Nōvalsāhityaṁ നോവൽസാഹിത്യം [Novel Literature] (in Malayalam) (First Poorna ed.). Kozhikode: Poorna Publications. pp. 136–143. 
  202. ^ Devi, R. Leela (1978). "Historical Novels". Influence of English on Malayalam Novels. Trivandrum: College Book House. pp. 84–85. 
  203. ^ George, K. M. (1978). "The Novel". Western Influence on Malayalam Language and Literature. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 97. 
  204. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 404. ISBN 8171301304. 
  205. ^ Gangadharan, Dr. Thikkurissi (August 22, 2012). Madhusudanan, M. S.; Vellayani, Manju, eds. "Kēraḷakaumudi Āḻcappatippŭ" കേരളകൗമുദി ആഴ്ചപ്പതിപ്പ് [Kerala Kaumudi Weekily] (Print) (in Malayalam) 16 (34). Thriruvananthapuram: Kerala Kaumudi. p. 15. വേണാട്ടിലെ യക്ഷികൾ [Fairies of Venad] 
  206. ^ Variyar, Unnayi (2003) [1700–1750]. "രംഗം ഒന്ന്" [Scene One]. Naḷacaritaṁ (Onnāṁ Divasaṁ) നളചരിതം (ഒന്നാം ദിവസം) [Nalacharitham (1st day)] (in Malayalam) (Fourth ed.). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 29. 
  207. ^ Variyar, Unnayi (2001) [1700–1750]. "രംഗം ഒന്ന്" [Scene One]. Naḷacaritaṁ (Raṇṭāṁ Divasaṁ) നളചരിതം (രണ്ടാം ദിവസം) [Nalacharitham (2nd day)] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 30. 
  208. ^ Variyar, Unnayi (2007) [1700–1750]. "രംഗം ഒന്ന്" [Scene One]. Naḷacaritaṁ (Mūnnāṁ Divasaṁ) നളചരിതം (മൂന്നാം ദിവസം) [Nalacharitham (3rd day)] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 47. 
  209. ^ Variyar, Unnayi (2007) [1700–1750]. "രംഗം ആറ്" [Scene Six]. Naḷacaritaṁ (Mūnnāṁ Divasaṁ) നളചരിതം (മൂന്നാം ദിവസം) [Nalacharitham (3rd day)] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 102. 
  210. ^ Variyar, Unnayi (2007) [1700–1750]. "രംഗം ഒന്ന്" [Scene One]. Naḷacaritaṁ (Mūnnāṁ Divasaṁ) നളചരിതം (മൂന്നാം ദിവസം) [Nalacharitham (3rd day)] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 44. 
  211. ^ Variyar, Unnayi (2003) [1700–1750]. "ഒന്നാം രംഗം" [First Scene]. Naḷacaritaṁ (Nālāṁ Divasaṁ) നളചരിതം (നാലാം ദിവസം) [Nalacharitham (4th day)] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 28. 
  212. ^ Variyar, Unnayi (2003) [1700–1750]. "ഒമ്പതാം രംഗം" [Ninth Scene]. Naḷacaritaṁ (Nālāṁ Divasaṁ) നളചരിതം (നാലാം ദിവസം) [Nalacharitham (4th day)] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 52. 
  213. ^ Variyar, Unnayi (2003) [1700–1750]. "ആറാം രംഗം" [Sixth Scene]. Naḷacaritaṁ (Nālāṁ Divasaṁ) നളചരിതം (നാലാം ദിവസം) [Nalacharitham (4th day)] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 42. 
  214. ^ Ezhuthachan, Thunchathu (1999) [1500–1699]. Śrīmahābhārataṁ Strīpaṟvvaṁ ശ്രീമഹാഭാരതം സ്ത്രീപർവ്വം [Great Mahabharat – Lady Section] (in Malayalam) (Fourth ed.). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. pp. 44–45. 
  215. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2004). "അനുബന്ധം 3 : ഉദ്ധരണങ്ങൾ, ഉപാദാനങ്ങൾ" [Annexure 3 : Quotations, Appropriations]. In Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 922. 
  216. ^ a b Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2004). "അനുബന്ധം 3 : ഉദ്ധരണങ്ങൾ, ഉപാദാനങ്ങൾ" [Annexure 3 : Quotations, Appropriations]. In Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 919. 
  217. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 414. ISBN 8171301304. 
  218. ^ a b c d e f Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2004). "അനുബന്ധം 3 : ഉദ്ധരണങ്ങൾ, ഉപാദാനങ്ങൾ" [Annexure 3 : Quotations, Appropriations]. In Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 920. 
  219. ^ a b c d Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2004). "അനുബന്ധം 3 : ഉദ്ധരണങ്ങൾ, ഉപാദാനങ്ങൾ" [Annexure 3 : Quotations, Appropriations]. In Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 921. 
  220. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 424. ISBN 8171301304. 
  221. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 426. ISBN 8171301304. 
  222. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 410. ISBN 8171301304. 
  223. ^ Gangadharan, Dr. Thikkurissi (2011). "വിൽപാട്ട് എന്ന കലാരൂപം" [The art form known as Vilpāṭṭŭ]. Iravikkuṭṭippiḷḷappōr Oru Pṭhanaṁ ഇരവിക്കുട്ടിപ്പിള്ളപ്പോര് ഒരു പഠനം [Fight of Ravikutty Pillai : A study] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Sahithya Kairali Publications. p. 36. 
  224. ^ a b Gangadharan, Dr. Thikkurissi (2011). "വിൽപാട്ട് എന്ന കലാരൂപം" [The art form known as Vilpāṭṭŭ]. Iravikkuṭṭippiḷḷappōr Oru Pṭhanaṁ ഇരവിക്കുട്ടിപ്പിള്ളപ്പോര് ഒരു പഠനം [Fight of Ravikutty Pillai : A study] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Sahithya Kairali Publications. pp. 43–47. 
  225. ^ a b Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 427. ISBN 8171301304. 
  226. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2004). "അനുബന്ധം 3 : ഉദ്ധരണങ്ങൾ, ഉപാദാനങ്ങൾ" [Annexure 3 : Quotations, Appropriations]. In Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 918. 
  227. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 413. ISBN 8171301304. 
  228. ^ Gangadharan, Dr. Thikkurissi (2011). "പഴകനല്ലൂർ നീലികഥ" [Paḻakanallūṟ Nīli Story]. Vēṇāṭinṟe Kthāgānaṅṅaḷ വേണാടിന്റെ കഥാഗാനങ്ങൾ [Ballads of Venad] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Sahithya Kairali Publications. 381, 384. 
  229. ^ Gangadharan, Dr. Thikkurissi, ed. (2011). "പഴകനല്ലൂർ നീലികഥ" [Paḻakanallūṟ Nīli Story]. Vēṇāṭinṟe Kthāgānaṅṅaḷ വേണാടിന്റെ കഥാഗാനങ്ങൾ [Ballads of Venad] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Sahithya Kairali Publications. pp. 397–466. 
  230. ^ Padmakumari, Prof. J., ed. (2009). "നീലികഥ" [Nīli Story]. Tekkan Pāṭṭukaḷ : Pāṭhavuṁ Paṭhanavuṁ തെക്കൻ പാട്ടുകൾ : പാഠവും പഠനവും [Southern Ballads : Text and Study] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. pp. 239–301. 
  231. ^ Padmakumari, Prof. J., ed. (2009). "പൊന്നറിത്താൾ കഥ" [Ponnaṟittāḷ Story]. Tekkan Pāṭṭukaḷ : Pāṭhavuṁ Paṭhanavuṁ തെക്കൻ പാട്ടുകൾ : പാഠവും പഠനവും [Southern Ballads : Text and Study] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 320. 
  232. ^ Gangadharan, Dr. Thikkurissi (2011). "പൊന്നറിത്താൾ കഥ" [Ponnaṟittāḷ Story]. Vēṇāṭinṟe Kthāgānaṅṅaḷ വേണാടിന്റെ കഥാഗാനങ്ങൾ [Ballads of Venad] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Sahithya Kairali Publications. pp. 485–486. 
  233. ^ Pilla, P. Govinda, ed. (1917). Malayāḷattile Paḻaya Pāṭṭukaḷ മലയാളത്തിലെ പഴയ പാട്ടുകൾ [Old songs in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Vidyavilasa Prasideekaranashala. p. 33. 
  234. ^ Pilla, P. Govinda, ed. (1917). Malayāḷattile Paḻaya Pāṭṭukaḷ മലയാളത്തിലെ പഴയ പാട്ടുകൾ [Old songs in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Vidyavilasa Prasideekaranashala. 192, 202. 
  235. ^ Pilla, P. Govinda, ed. (1917). Malayāḷattile Paḻaya Pāṭṭukaḷ മലയാളത്തിലെ പഴയ പാട്ടുകൾ [Old songs in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Vidyavilasa Prasideekaranashala. p. 187. 
  236. ^ Pilla, P. Govinda, ed. (1917). Malayāḷattile Paḻaya Pāṭṭukaḷ മലയാളത്തിലെ പഴയ പാട്ടുകൾ [Old songs in Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Vidyavilasa Prasideekaranashala. pp. 196–197. 
  237. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "സൂചിതസാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ – ഒരു പഠനം" [Referred Literary Works – A Study]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 124. ISBN 8171301304. 
  238. ^ Gangadharan, Dr. Thikkurissi (2011). "പാഠഭേദങ്ങൾ" [Text variations]. Iravikkuṭṭippiḷḷappōr Oru Pṭhanaṁ ഇരവിക്കുട്ടിപ്പിള്ളപ്പോര് ഒരു പഠനം [Fight of Ravikutty Pillai : A study] (in Malayalam). Thriruvananthapuram: Sahithya Kairali Publications. pp. 142–143. 
  239. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 432. ISBN 8171301304. 
  240. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 435. ISBN 8171301304. 
  241. ^ Kadalundy, Purushan, ed. (2009). "ഏ. സി. വാസു" [Ē. Si. Vāsu]. Enṟe Malayāḷaṁ എന്റെ മലയാളം [My Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. 
  242. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (2002). "നാ" [Nā]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) III. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 228. 
  243. ^ Vasu, Dr. A. C (2009). "സംഖ്യാനാമം പ്രാചീന അളവുപട്ടിക" [Numeric names, Ancient measurement table]. Enṟe Malayāḷaṁ എന്റെ മലയാളം [My Malayalam] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. 155, 159. 
  244. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 75. ISBN 8171301304. 
  245. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (2004). "സ" [Sa]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 654. 
  246. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (2004). "സ" [Sa]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 784. 
  247. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (2004). "സ" [Sa]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 804. 
  248. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (2004). "ശി" [Śi]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) IV. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 497. 
  249. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Kartha, K. B.; Nair, Prof. Aliam Bhaskaran; Omana, Ms. P. V., eds. (1994). "അ" [A]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) I. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. pp. 258, 333. 
  250. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (1997). "ഖാ" [Khā]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 522. 
  251. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (1997). "താ" [Tā]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 919. 
  252. ^ Balakrishnan, Dr. B. C.; Satheesh, Mrs. P. V. Omana, eds. (1997). "തേ" [Tē]. Si. Vi. Vyākhyānakōśaṁ സി. വി. വ്യാഖ്യാനകോശം [C. V. Excegetic Dictionary] (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: C. V. Raman Pillai National Foundation. p. 996. 
  253. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 76. ISBN 8171301304. 
  254. ^ Sumathi, G. J. (2004) [2002]. "Some Traditional Textiles of India". Elements of Fashion and Apparel Design. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. p. 55. 
  255. ^ C, Ravi D, ed. (2011). "പ്രൊഫ. പി. രാമചന്ദ്രൻനായർ" [Prof. P. Ramachandran Nair]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma]. Punarākhyānaparampara (in Malayalam) (Children's Literature ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 2. ISBN 9788126429806. 
  256. ^ Nair, Prof. P. Ramachandran (2011). Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma]. Punarākhyānaparampara (in Malayalam) (Children's Literature ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 11–160. ISBN 9788126429806. 
  257. ^ C, Ravi D (2011). "അദ്ധ്യാപകരോടും രക്ഷാകർത്താക്കളോടുമായി രണ്ടു വാക്ക്" [Two words to teachers and guardians]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma]. Punarākhyānaparampara (in Malayalam) (Children's Literature ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 5. ISBN 9788126429806. 
  258. ^ Ramachandran, Dr. V. (2012). Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Abridged Novel ed.). Kottayam: Dr. V. Ramachandran. 5, 11–104. 
  259. ^ Harikumar, Advocate. V. (2012). "ആമുഖം" [Preface]. Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Abridged Novel ed.). Kottayam: Dr. V. Ramachandran. pp. 7–8. 
  260. ^ Radha Nair (w), M. Mohandas, Ramesh Umrotkar (a), Anant Pai (ed). "A Historical Romance from Kerala" The Legend of Maarthaanda Varma 346: Inside front cover (December 1985), Bombay: IBH Publishers Pvt. Ltd
  261. ^ Radha Nair (w), M. Mohandas, Ramesh Umrotkar (a), Anant Pai (ed). "A Romantic Legend from Kerala" Maarthaanda Varma v813,: Inside front cover (December 2010), Mumbai: Amar Chitra Katha Pvt. Ltd
  262. ^ Radha Nair (w), M. Mohandas, Ramesh Umrotkar (a), N. M. Mohanan (ed). മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma] vXVII, 6: 50 (September 2007), Kottayam: Balarama Amar Chithra Katha
  263. ^ Chabria, Suresh, ed. (2013) [1994]. "The Indian Silent Cinema Retrospective". Light of Asia : INDIA SILENT CINEMA 1912-1934 (Expanded ed.). New Delhi: Niyogi Books. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-93-83098-02-6. 
  264. ^ "Introduction". Malayalam Cinema. Thiruvananthapuram: Public Relations Development, Government of Kerala. 
  265. ^ M, Bindu Menon (June 2009). "Romancing history and historicizing romance". Circuits of Cinema: a symposium on Indian cinema in the 1940s and '50s. New Delhi: Seminar: Web Edition. 
  266. ^ "ചലച്ചിത്ര ചരിത്രം" [Movie History]. About City - ചലച്ചിത്ര രംഗം [About City – Movie Scene] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation. p. 16. 
  267. ^ Vijayakumar, B. (March 7, 2013). "Marthanda Varma 1931". Metro Plus. Thiruvananthapuram: The Hindu. 
  268. ^ Kodampuzha, T. H. (1996). "Rāmanāmaṭhatte Bhayappeṭuttiya Yakṣi" രാമനാമഠത്തെ ഭയപ്പെടുത്തിയ യക്ഷി [The Fairy who scared Ramana Madam]. Chithrabhumi (in Malayalam) (Kozhikode: Mathrubhumi Publishing & Printing Company Ltd). 
  269. ^ Kodampuzha, T. H. (1996). "Subhadrayuṭe Kumāran" സുഭദ്രയുടെ കുമാരൻ [Subadra's Kumaran]. Chithrabhumi (in Malayalam) (Kozhikode: Mathrubhumi Publishing & Printing Company Ltd). 
  270. ^ Jayakumar, G. (January 27, 2006). "The politics of a relationship". The Hindu. 
  271. ^ Malayilkada, Vinil (1998). "Śuṣkamāya Bhāviyuṁ Selakṭīvāya Kāṇikaḷuṁ" ശുഷ്കമായ ഭാവിയും സെലക്ടീവായ കാണികളും [Dry future and selective viewers]. Chithrabhumi (in Malayalam) (Kozhikode: Mathrubhumi Publishing & Printing Company Ltd) XLII (16): 7–9. 
  272. ^ Mathew, Joshi (1998). "Paricayasampannaṟ Vijayaṁ Koyyunnu" പരിചയസമ്പന്നർ വിജയം കൊയ്യുന്നു [Veterans harvest success]. Rashtra Deepika Cinema (in Malayalam) (Kottayam: Rashtra Deepika Ltd.) III (17): 8–9. 
  273. ^ Balakrishnan, K., ed. (2002). "channel page". Rashtra Deepika Cinema (Print) (in Malayalam) (Kottayam: Rashtra Deepika Ltd) 8 (26): 34. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ [Marthandavarma] 
  274. ^ Thambi, N. Gopinathan; Vellarada, P. M. Mani (January 15, 2003–March 03, 2003). "1". Marthanda Varma. 30 minutes in. Doordarshan. DD Thiruvananthapuram.
  275. ^ Syamala, C. N. (July 1, 2014). No.67(5)/RIACT/AI/DKT/3449 (Print) (Report). Thiruvananthapuram: Doordarshan Kendra. p. 1. 
  276. ^ "Serial on Anizham Thirunal Marthandavarma soon". Showbuzz - Television. Thiruvananthapuram: Express News Service. April 21, 2010. Retrieved May 16, 2010. 
  277. ^ Liza, George (October 22, 2010). "Real to reel". Friday Review. Thiruvananthapuram: The Hindu. Retrieved December 24, 2010. 
  278. ^ Sharma, Gautham (July 19, 2010–May 21, 2011). "Episode-1". Veera Marthanda Varma. 30 minutes in. Sun Network. Surya TV.
  279. ^ Sharma, Gautham (July 19, 2010–May 21, 2011). "Episode-9". Veera Marthanda Varma. 30 minutes in. Sun Network. Surya TV.
  280. ^ Sharma, Gautham (July 19, 2010–May 21, 2011). "Episode-84". Veera Marthanda Varma. 30 minutes in. Sun Network. Surya TV.
  281. ^ "Marthanda Varma". March 27, 2014. Event occurs at 15:30. Doordarshan. DD Malayalam.
  282. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (March 30, 2014–May 04, 2014). Marthanda Varma. 30 minutes in. Doordarshan. DD Malayalam.
  283. ^ Nair, Dr. N. Rajan (2013). "സി. വി. നോവലുകൾ അരങ്ങത്ത്" [C. V. Novels on Stage]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvanathapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. 238, 243–244, 252, 254. ISBN 9788124019566. 
  284. ^ (Staff Reporter) (May 17, 2008). "Anniversary celebrations". Thiruvananthapuram: The Hindu. Retrieved January 12, 2010. 
  285. ^ Remakant, Manu (May 30, 2008). "In memory of a maestro". Thiruvananthapuram: The Hindu. Retrieved January 12, 2010. 
  286. ^ (Staff Reporter) (May 18, 2013). "A classic goes on stage, with its gist intact". National. Thiruvananthapuram: The Hindu. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  287. ^ (Express News Service) (May 18, 2013). "‘Marthanda Varma’ to be staged in city on Sunday". Thiruvananthapuram: The New Indian Express. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  288. ^ Shameer (May 23, 2013). "Tiruvitāṁkūṟinṟe Caritrarēkhakaḷumāyi Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma Avatarippiccu" തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ചരിത്രരേഖകളുമായി മാർത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ അവതരിപ്പിച്ചു ['Marthanda Varma' staged with historical notes of Travancore]. literature (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Madhyamam. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  289. ^ G., Gopalakrishnan (July 17, 1991–January 01, 1992). Marthandavarma. 30 minutes in. All India Radio. Akashvani Thiruvananthapuram.
  290. ^ G., Gopalakrishnan (January 20, 2014–February 08, 2014). Marthandavarma. 15 minutes in. All India Radio. Akashvani Thiruvananthapuram.
  291. ^ Nair, Dr. N. Rajan (2013). "സി. വി. നോവലുകൾ അരങ്ങത്ത്" [C. V. Novels on Stage]. In Nair, Prof. Panmana Ramachandran. Si. Vi. Paṭhanaṅṅaḷ സി. വി. പഠനങ്ങൾ [C. V. Studies] (in Malayalam). Thiruvanathapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. pp. 249–250. ISBN 9788124019566. 


External links[edit]