Marthandavarma (novel)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the historical novel in Malayalam . For other uses, see Marthanda Varma (disambiguation).
Marthandavarma
This is the title page of first edition
Title page of the first edition
Author C.V. Raman Pillai
Original title മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ
Translator O. Krishna Pillai (1934 - Tamil)
B. K. Menon (1936 - English)
R. Leela Devi (1979 - English)
Kunnukuzhy Krishnankutty (1990 - Hindi)
P. Padmanabhan Thambi (2007 - Tamil)
Country India
Language Malayalam
Genre Historical Novel
Historical Romance
Published

Malayalam :

June 11, 1891 (Author)
1911 – 1970 (B. V. Book Depot)
1973 onwards (Sahithya Pravarthaka Sahakarana Sangham)
1983 onwards (Poorna Publications)
1992 onwards (D. C. Books)
1999 (Kerala Sahithya Academy)

Tamil :

1934 (Kamalalaya Book Depot)
2007 (Sahitya Akademi)

English :

1936 (Kamalalaya Book Depot)
1979 (Sterling Publishers)
1998 (Sahitya Akademi)

Hindi :

1990 (Kerala Hindi Prachar Sabha)
Media type Print (Paperback)
ISBN ISBN 81-7690-000-1
ISBN 81-7130-130-4
Followed by Dharmaraja, Ramarajabahadur
Original text
മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ at Malayalam Wikisource

Marthandavarma ( Malayalamമാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ, Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma [mɑːṟt̪t̪ɑːɳɖaʋaṟmma] ) is a novel by C.V. Raman Pillai published in 1891. It is presented as a historical romance recounting the history of Venad (Travancore) during the final period of Rajah Rama Varma’s reign and subsequently to the accession of Marthanda Varma. The action of story takes place in Kollavarsham 901-906 (Gregorian calendar: 1727-1732). The story revolves around the main protagonists, Ananthapadmanabhan, Subhadra and Mangoikkal Kuruppu who are trying to protect the title character from Padmanabhan Thambi & Ettu Veetil Pillamar who plan to oust him from the throne of Travancore.[1][2]

This novel initiated the historical romance genre in Malayalam literature by being the first historical novel published in Malayalam language. The story of Travancore was continued in Dharmaraja and Ramarajabahadur. These three novels are together known as CV’s Historical Narratives (Malayalam: സിവിയുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾ).[2][3][4]

Marthandavarma is often considered as a classic blend of historical fiction and romance in Malayalam literature.[3][5]

Title[edit]

The title of the novel is a single word Marthandavarma (മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ). There is no space between the words Marthanda and Varma unlike the translated name of historical character Marthanda Varma, the Maharaja of Travancore.[1][4][6]

The authorship credit is C. V. Ramanpilla (സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള) in Malayalam literals whereas its English counterpart is C. V. Raman Pillai.[6]

Plot Summary[edit]

A young man is found covered in blood and unconscious at Panchavan forest by a group of merchants who get their servants to carry the body of the young man along with them. Parukutty, the lover of the young man, is depressed because she does not believe her loved one is dead even though there has been no sign of him in the two years since he was found; meanwhile, her mother Karthyayani Amma arranges for a new marriage proposal through Sundarayyan for her daughter with Padmanabhan Thambi, the elder son of king Rama Varma. During the two years Padmanabhan Thambi and Sundarayyan conspired against the prince Marthanda Varma; they forged the news that attack on Ananthapadmanabhan at Panchavan forest was planned by the prince due to latter’s discord with the victim in the matter of a prostitute at Nagercoil. Eventually the aging king Rama Varma got sick and was confined to bed; Padmanabhan Thambi, who wants to become the next king, allies with the Ettuveettil Pillas to oust the rightful heir, Marthanda Varma. Association of Thambi with the Pillas caused an aversion among some sections of forces in the kingdom against the prince and royal officials and so, people excluded themselves from paying tax to the kingdom, subsequently the forces and finances at royal side got weaker than to that of the conspirators.

Three days after Sundarayyan brought the proposal at Chembakassery, a worried Marthanda Varma and his aide Parameswaran Pilla, venture out to head to Bhoothapandi, where the forces from Madurai are camped and are not willing to compromise to support the royal side as the payment for them is still pending as per the agreement with the king, Rama Varma. Dalawa Arumukham Pilla personally went there to make the payment, unfortunately as the amount was not sufficient for the full payment, he had to stay there as an assurance. Marthanda Varma worries that Raman Thambi, the second son of king might influence the Madurai forces adversely during latter's visit to Nanchinadu. When the prince and his aide are at Padmanabhapuram, Padmanabhan Thambi reaches there and to evade him, prince and the aide head to Charottu palace through the underground path. The next day morning, while coming to Thambi’s palace Sundarayyan sees Parameswaran Pilla and tips off to Velu Kuruppu, the loyalist fighter who serves Padmanabhan Thambi. Later, prince Marthanda Varma and his aide Pramerswaran Pilla are chased away from Charottu palace by Velu Kuruppu and lancers; however the former duo are helped by a mad Channan to evade the chasers, who puts up a fight with mad Channan only to be defeated by an archer Chulliyil Chatachi Marthandan Pilla, who was indebted to Channan once for saving his life when he was bitten by a snake. The prince Marthanda Varma and his aide take refuge at the house of Mangoikkal Kuruppu; meanwhile, Velu Kuruppu reaches back to his master Padmanabhan Thambi to inform about the fight with mad Channan. Following the order of an angry Thambi to capture the Channan-people, the mad Channan is captured and locked in the dungeon. Meanwhile, Velu Kuruppu, on realizing that Marthandavarma is at Mangoikkal house, deploys his men nearby to the house and rushes back to Thambi to arrange for more lancers and Nair soldiers by late evening to finish off Marthandavarma at Mangoikkal. The mad Channan, in meantime manages to find an underground path from the dungeon to Charottu palace. While Marthanda Varma and Mangoikkal Kuruppu are discussing about arranging additional force, Velu Kuruppu and his men launch attack on Mangoikkal at late evening; meanwhile, mad Channan rushes from Charottu palace to the Channan-people. Mangoikkal Kuruppu and his nephews try to resist the Velu Kuruppu’s men who surround and set the house afire. Mad Channan and his group of Channan accomplices reach at Mangoikkal by then and fight the attackers; mad Channan is able to rescue Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla out of the house before the same is completely on fire. Soon then, fighters from martial arts school of Mangoikkal arrive at the scene and defeat the attackers. On that night Thirumukhathu Pilla visits Padmanabhan Thambi to enquire about the news regarding the murder of his absconding son, Ananthapadmanabhan; soon then, one of the lancers of Velu Kurupp’s team reach there to inform about the defeat at Mangoikkal.

Padmanabhan Thambi and Marthanda Varma are back at their respective houses at Thiruvananthapuram and seven days after incidents at Mangoikkal a message from Thirumukhathu Pilla is delivered at Chembakasserry as a letter about the murder of his son Ananthapadmanabhan, however Parukutty who loves Ananthapadmanabhan rejects the same. The next day, Padmanabhan Thambi and Sundarayyan arrive and stay at Chembakassery. At night, Ananthapadmanabhan who disguised as a dweller of Kasi (Kasivasi) drugs Shanku Assan, the caretaker of armory at Chembakassery, to enter the house. Thambi, who is overwhelmed by the beauty of Parukutty goes to her room to attain her but only to be dragged out by Kasivasi, about which Parukutty gets glimpses of the frantic actions in her half sleep and falls sick. Later Sundarayyan steals the ornaments from there. Thambi and his team leave Chembakassery by next day early morning. Kazhakkoottathu Pilla arrives at Chembakassery to inquire about the illness of Parukutty and takes leave by late evening to the house of Kudamon Pilla only to be followed by Ananathapadmanabhan disguised as a beggar; meanwhile, Sundarayyan leaves from Thambi’s house for the discussions at Kudamon Pilla’s house. A council is formed by Kudamon Pilla, Ramanamadathil Pilla, Venganoor Pilla, Pallichal Pilla, Marthandan Thirumadathil Pilla, Chembazhanthy Pilla, Kulathoor Pilla, Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, who are known as Ettuveettil Pillas and Sundarayyan to support Padmanabhan Thambi as the next king; however Kazhakkoottathu Pilla informs his dislike on the issue and after assuring his support for their actions, he leaves the council at once only to be followed by the beggar. On the way, Kazhakkoottathu Pilla meets Mangoikkal Kuruppu, but the beggar heads back to the house of council to know final decision. Meanwhile, at council, decisions are made to assassinate prince Marthanda Varma and make Thambi as the next king. After the council, Ramanamadathil Pilla meets Subadra, the granddaughter of Kudamon Pilla's maternal aunt. Kazhakkoottathu Pilla tricks Mangoikkal Kuruppu to get the latter under detention. The beggar confronts Sundarayyan, who is on his way back after council, they indulge in a fight when the former tries to snatch the council note from the latter and due to the fight both of them fall into Killiyar, however beggar rescues the drowning Sundarayyan, who does not know how to swim. The next day, Sundarayyan heads to Thambi’s house after awaking at the shore and conveys the council decision to Thambi. Subadra arrives at Chembakassery after learning about the illness of Parukutty; meanwhile Shanku Assan who is worried about previous day’s events go in search of the Kasivasi. Subadra condoles Karthyayani Amma and learns about the Thambi’s stay and the theft happened at the house. Meanwhile, at royal palace a message from Pathan camp informed that a council happened at Kudamon Pilla’s house the other night, as the resolution could not be known, the prince shall be alert at all times. The message also conveyed about the arrival of Mangoikkal Kuruppu. Ramayyan proposes for strict actions against the conspirators; however, prince vouched against it and during the discussion Marthanda Varma realizes that Kalakkutty, on whom the prince entrusted to deliver a message to Thirumakhathu Pilla seeking help, is indeed the maternal uncle-in-law of Sundarayyan. Parameswaran Pilla leaves to locate Mangoikkal Kuruppu and returns soon to state the non-arrival of Kuruppu. The prince says that Ettu Veettil Pillas might have endangered Kuruppu, hearing the same Parameswaran Pilla rushes to Pathan camp. At late evening, Padmanabhan Thambi suggests Sundarayyan to inquire about the Parukutty’s illness; however, Sundarayyan who gets frightened with the thoughts of fight happened last night hides in the house. At night, Subadra reaches there to ask Thambi about his actions at Chembakassery. Thambi mentions that he was confronted by the ghost of Ananthapadmanabhan before he could touch Parukutty and he doesnot know anything about the ornaments; during the conversation Thambi realizes that Subadra knows about the murder of Ananthapadmanabhan by Velu Kuruppu, which he and Sundarayyan were trying to implicate on the prince Marthanada Varma. Thambi tries to stab her with his dagger to which Subadra stands unmoved and seeing her stance, he moves back. When Subadra leaves, Thambi and Sundarayyan decide to kill her, as she knows their secret.

The next day, Sundarayyan reaches at Pathan camp to buy the poison, but Ananthapadmanabhan disguised as Shamsudeen gives only a harmless colored powder. Meanwhile, Subadra persuades Shanku Assan to confirm whether the Kasivasi who entered Chambakassery the other night is still at Pathan camp. On his return from Pathan camp Assan informs her that Sundarayyan was there to buy some poison. At Pathan camp, Hakkim warns Shamsudeen not to get into any danger in search of Mangoikkal Kuruppu. Later Shamsudeen reveals to Zulaikha about his love for Parukutty; realizing the issue, Zulaikha, who also loves him, gives the consent to do, as he wants. Subadra who realizes the poison brought by Sundarayyan is for her, heads back to her house. Sundarayyan who plans to poison Subadra leaves Thambi’s house; meanwhile, prince Marthanda Varma, Parameswaran Pilla disguised as civilians together with Ramayyan venture out to lookout for Mangoikkal Kuruppu. At night, the prince and his aide take shelter behind a tree while Ramayyan goes to Sree Pandarathu house of Kazhakkoottathu Pilla to check the whereabouts of Mangoikkal Krurppu. The prince and his aide notice a person headed to western direction but cannot identify him, after then, prince witnesses Sundarayyan heading to his wife’s house. Meanwhile, Subadra is with Ramanamadathil Pilla, who leaves later after assuring her that he will be back. Ramanamadathil Pilla passes by speaking to himself about the greatness of Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, who captured Mangoikkal Kuruppu, which the prince overhears. Ramayyan returns to the prince informing that he could not check at Sree Panadarathu house due to additional security forces deployed there. Prince sends Rammayyan to the house of Sundarayyan’s wife to know the details of Sundarayyan’s plans; however Ramayyan returns soon as Sundarayyan was talking to his wife behind the doors and the house parameter is been checked by Kodanki. Meanwhile, at Thambi’s house the unidentified man who passed by the prince and his aide earlier, reaches there; seeing him, who happens to be Velu Kuruppu, Thambi becomes happy and keeps him hidden in his house. The prince and his aides realize the abduction of Mangoikkal Kuruppu and decide to look out for him at Chembakassery and Sree Panadarathu house; by then, Sundarayyan and his wife pass by, among which husband goes to Thambi’s house and wife heads to Subadra’s house with some food items that are poisoned by Sundarayyan. The prince and the aides take leave to know the health of the ailing king, when they are moving ahead, the archer Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla chases and shoots arrows towards them, but his arrows aimed at the prince are struck down by mad Channan and then Channan beats down the archer. Sundarayyan’s wife Anantham visits Subadra, who realizes that the stolen ornaments from Chembakassery are at the former’s house and Anantham is unaware about the plans of her husband. Mad Channan, who hides nearby overhears their conversation. Meanwhile, Raman Madathil Pilla reaches at Thambi’s house and later joined by Sundarayyan and discuss about assassinating the prince Marthanda Varma, soon then Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla also arrives there. On the return of Ramanamadathil Pilla, Subadra realizes the plan to assassinate the prince by Velu Kuruppu. She prepares a note and entrusts the note to Shankarachar to deliver the same to the prince. She assembles her other servants and orders eight of them to steal the particulars from the house of Anantham. She orders her another servant Pappu to inform at Thambi’s house that she is dead, by tomorrow, she sends her another servant to Pathan camp. Meanwhile, at king’s palace, prince Marthanda Varma gets relief that the king is feeling a little better after taking the medicine from Hakkim. While returning from there to his palace with Parameswaran Pilla, the prince is about to be stabbed by Velu Kuruppu but only to be stopped by Shankarachar followed by a fight from which Velu Kuruppu runs away after stabbing Shankarachar. Prince and his aide reaches to the dying Shankarachar, who manages to convey about the message note before his final breath. Velu Kuruppu reaches back to Thambi, who summons Ramamanam Madathil Pilla, Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla, Sundarayyan and Kodanki and they decide to move Mangoikkal Kuruppu from Sree Pandarathu house to Chembakassery. Meanwhile, mad Channan leaves from Subadra’s house to Sree Pandarathu house, where he drugs the guards there and gets keys and subsequently finds Mangoikkal Kurupu in the dungeon; but, before they could escape from there, Ramanamadathil Pilla and team reaches there. Velu Kuruppu gets angry by seeing Channan and paces towards him with his sword but gets killed by a gunshot from the latter’s pistol. Kondanki advances towards Channan after the fall of Velu Kurppu, but he too gets shot by pistol and falls to death. An angry Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla draws his bow while Channan takes another pistol from his waist. Ramamanam Madathil Pilla intervenes and informs that they are to be moved to Chembakassery and only to be prosecuted by Thirumikhathu Pilla, to which Channan agrees on condition that he will keep his weapons with himself. Meanwhile, Subadra’s servants return with the items from the house of Anantham. Subadra sends two of her servants to know the whereabouts of Shankarachar, and after a few hours the servants return with the news of deaths happened during that night. Mangoikkal Kuruppu and Channan are moved to Chembakassery and guards from palace who favors Thambi are kept as security force after getting the keys from Shanku Assan. Sundarayyan and others spread the false news that prince Marthanda Varma is behind the murders happened that night and he also tried to assassinate Ramanamadathil Pilla.

Next day early morning, Anantham arrives at Subadra’s house to inform about the theft happened at her house. After Anantham left, a sad Subabra gets some relief when her servant went to Pathan camp came back with the medicine for Parukutty. He also informs that one of the men at the camp resembled her ex-spouse. Meanwhile, Subadra’s servant Pappu cries out at Thambi’s house that Subadra had died. Soon then, one of the servants at Thambi’s house informs that a theft happened at Sundarayyan’s house and Sundarayyan realizes from his wife that Subadra is not dead. Meanwhile, at palace an angry mob of civilians rushed to the palace, but only to be confronted by the ailing king who signals them to leave. Ramanamadathil Pilla reaches to Thambi’s house to share about the revolt at palace and praises the actions of Sundarayyan. Later, Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla and a servant arrive there to convey about the demise of the king Rama Varma. After the funeral rituals of Rama Varma, Marthanda Varma manages to send payment required for the forces from Madurai. On that day, Subadra reaches at Chembakassery by evening with the medicine for Parukutty, who starts recovering from the illness from the next day onwards. Subadra stays at Chembakassery for the next five days.

On the fifith day, prince realizes that the men sent from Kilimanoor under the leadership of Narayanayyan were defeated by Kazhakkoottathu Pilla and his men. Prince orders the employment termination of palace guards who are working for Thambi. Meanwhile, at Chembakassery, Subadra conveys that one of the men in detention is a mad man and at least he could have been released. Parakutty insists on releasing both men from detention, however, Shanku Assan reveals that he doesnot have the keys which are entrusted to the guards. Later Chembakassery Mootha Pilla restores the keys to Shanku Assan as the guards are summoned to palace urgently. Parukutty, who could not sleep with the thoughts of releasing the mad man, conveys her worries to Karthyayani Amma. Meanwhile, Subadra leaves to her house after realizing about the council at her house by Thambi and team. Parukutty compels Shanku Assan to release the two men from detention; when latter provides the keys, she and her mother head themselves to the dungeon. In the dungeon Karthyayayani Amma asks Mangoikkal Kuruppu to move out as per the wishes of her daughter. Mad Channan conveys that he cannot reveal about himself and runs ahead followed by Kuruppu. Parukutty realizes that mad Channan is the one who entered her chamber during the night in which Thambi tried to attain her and he resembled her lover. Meanwhile, Ettuveettil Pillas, Thambi brothers and Sundarayyan decide to execute the assassination of the prince at palace that night. Meanwhile, nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu arrive at palace to support prince, who tells them to come in the morning and coordinate with Ramayyan. Later, the prince, who was asleep is soon awakened with the arrival of Subadra to his room. She conveys that his life is in danger and he shall leave at once from the palace and also to move his nephew and aunt to a safe place. Prince, who was reluctant at first, follows her realizing that she helped him other night. Kudamon Pilla, Padmanabhan Thambi and their team enter the palace to assassinate the prince but find no one. Meanwhile, after sending her servant to another direction Subadra heads to her house together with Marthanada Varma, Parameswaran Pilla and Ramayyan disguised as menials and get spotted by Raman Thambi and his team on the way, but she and the trio evade him easily by Subadra’s prompt response in favor of his actions and due to his aversion towards her. When Subadra and the trio are away from Raman Tambi and his men, she heads to her house alone and comes back with five men, who look like porters to the banyan tree, near where the trio are waiting. She instructs them to cross Venganoor by night and when they are about to leave Thirumukhathu Pilla arrives there and identifies the prince. When Thirumukhathu Pilla asks Subadra why she is helping the one who killed her brother, Ananthapadmanabhan, she assures that Ananthapadmanabhan is not dead and to her persuasion Thirumukhathu Pilla reveals that he is her father. Subadra conveys that Ananthapadmanabhan will be at Pathan camp. Subadra leaves to her house while others head east as Thirumukhathu Pilla knows that Aruveettukar are waiting near the west banks of the river, Karamana. Meanwhile, when the team of attackers led by Thambi and Ettuveettil Pillas cannot find the prince at palace, they decide to lead the forces to Manakkadu, where fighters of Magaoikkal are camped. However, the fighters of Mangoikkal are ready to face the attackers as they were tipped off by Subadra in time. When the attackers led by the Thambi brothers reach Manakkadu, Mangoikkal fighters put up a stiff resistance even though they are less in numbers and before they have been overpowered, Pathan fighters led by Shamsudeen and Beeram Khan arrive there against the Thambi’s forces. While Shamsudeen fights the Padamananabhan Thambi, Beeram Khan, who has a long standing grudge against Sundarayyan for forging the plans that separated him from his then-spouse Subadra, takes up the fight with him. Sundarayyan brings down the horse of Beeram Khan and the latter is locked under the dead horse, while Sundarayyan advanced towards him; but before he could do anything, Beeram Khan springs up from under the body of horse and manages to kill Sundarayyan and leaves the battlefield at once. Padmanabhan Thambi is shot in the hand by Shamsudeen when the former is about to kill Nuradeen and before Ramanamadathil Pilla and Raman Thambi advance towards Shamsudden the whole battlefield is surrounded by the forces led by Thirumukhathu Pilla and the prince Marthanda Varma and subsequently the Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas are arrested.

The next day, prince conducts the post funeral rituals of the king and brings back his nephew, the little prince and aunt who, were safeguarded by Keralavarma Koithampuran at Chembakassery, where a joyful Parakutty awaits her lover Ananathapadnanabhan from the Pathan camp. Soon then, Anananthapadmanabhan reaches Chembakassery and re-unites with Parukutty. A few days later Marthanda Varma arrives at Pathan camp after ascending to the throne. It is revelead that Anathapadmanabhan was attacked at Panchavan forest two years ago by Velu Kuruppu, when the former was heading to aid the prince. He was rescued by the Pathan people, who took him along with him. When the discussion came about Subadra, the king orders Anananthapadmanabhan to move her from the house to safeguard from Kudamon Pilla, who is just released by the king. Subadra is at her house and sad due to the revelation about her ex-spouse. Kudamon Pilla reaches there and catches her by her hair and is about to plunge his sword while Beeram Khan rushes inside crying not to kill her; on hearing the voice of her ex-spouse and seeing him longing for her, she thanks god that she can even die, by that instant sword of Kudamon Pilla falls on her neck and before Kudamon Pilla could slay Beeram Khan, the former is cut into two by Ananthapadmanabhan who just reached there. Marthandavarma on hearing the news about Subadra, swears under his breath that he would seek vengeance on those responsible for the un-warranted deed of blood and heads to her house.

Three years pass by, Mangoikkal house has been rebuilt, Ananthapadmanabhan headed Marthanda Varma’s forces in the battles with Desinganadu and other kingdoms during the period. He stays at Chembakassery with his family including his daughter named Subadra. Marthanda Varma earns the impeccable fame as a protector to the people of kingdom as well as a servant to Sreepadmanabha deity and so, the public rejoice as in a festive mood.

Characters[edit]

Main Characters[edit]

  • Marthanda Varma / Yuvarajavu (Prince) – Marthanda Varma is described as a young man between 20 and 25 years of age with a heroic attire. He is the rightful heir to the throne after the period of king Rama Varma. He is generous towards the conspirators and shows unwillingness to take strict action against them as suggested by Ramayyan. He often disguises himself to evade the attackers. He shows great respect to Subadra's words, pertains to which he releases Kudamon Pilla from detention, once he becomes the king.
  • Ananthapadmanabhan / Mad Channan / The Beggar / The Diglot / Dweller of Kasi / Shamsudeen – Ananthapadmanabhan is described as a young man of 22 years of age and an expert in disguise with superior fighting skills. He is the son of Thurumukhathu Pilla from his father’s relationship with another spouse following the relationship with Kudaman Pilla’s maternal niece. He is the half-brother (younger) of Subadra. He is in love with Parukutty of Chembakassery. He has been attacked and left for dead at Panchavan forest, however after being rescued by Pathan merchants, he disguises himself as Shamsudeen as well as a mad Channan and rescues Marthanda Varma from Mangoikkal and facilitates Hakkim to help the prince. He also introduces Mangoikkal Kuruppu to the Pathan people, and helps latter to learn Hindustani language.
  • Subhadra / Chembakam Akka – Subadra is the daughter of Thirumukhathu Pilla and Kundamon Pilla’s maternal niece. She is the half-sister of Ananthapadmanabhan. Subadra is described as a woman of 25 years of age, who is as beautiful as a fairy. She was married to a relative of Kudamon Pilla, however they got separated after living together for six months as a relationship was forged between her and Padmanabhan Thambi. She is bold and determined to take revenge on those who spoiled her marital life. She helps Marthanda Varma to escape from the plans of conspirators. She is killed by Kudamon Pilla.
  • Shri Rayi Padmanabhan Thampi / Pappu Thampi – Elder son of the king Rama Varma. Thambi is described as a man with well built body and fair complexion, he has an affinity to wear ornaments. He yearns for beautiful woman and has relationships with Sivakami and a parmaour of Ezhamkudi (Seventh house). He wants to become the next king, after the period of his father, Rama Varma. He desires to have Subadra and Parukutty in relationships.
  • Sundrayyan / Pulamadan – Sunadaryyan a man of 40 years, is the son of a Brahmin from Madurai and a Marava lady. He married the niece of Kalakkutty. He is described as main conspirator who contrives to make Thambi as the next king. He arranges the marriage proposal of Thambi to Parukutty. He is killed by Beram Khan at Manakkadu.
  • Parvathi Amma / Parvathi Pilla / Parukutty / Thankam – Daughter of Karthyayani Amma and Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla. She is described as a beauty of 16 years of age with a considerable height. She is slim and fair as Magnolia champaca. She has studied Mathematics, Amarakosha and Sidharoopa. She is exceptionally fluent in reciting Ramayana in her sweet voice. She is in love with Ananthapadmanabhan. Padmanabhan Thambi wanted to have a relationship with her.
  • Velu Kuruppu – An ace fighter, swordsman, lancer, who is an utmost loyalist of Padmanabhan Thambi. He attacked Ananthapadmanabhan at Panchavan forest. He tries to kill Marthanda Varma at Charottu Palace, Mangoikkal house, and on the way to the palace of prince. One of his ears is sliced down by Ananthapadmanabhan, also gets killed by him at dungeon at Sree Pandarathu house.
  • Mangoyikkal Kuruppu / Iraviperuman Kandan Kumaran Kuruppu – Head of Mangoikkal family. He offers shelter for Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla while evading Velu Kuruppu. He arranges for additional forces under his nephews to support Marthanda Varma.
  • Parameswaran Pilla – Attendant and constant companion of the prince Marthanda Varma. When Marthanda Varma becomes the king he is promoted as the personal manager of the king.
  • Shri Raman Thampi – Younger son of the king Rama Varma.
  • Thirumukhathu Pilla – The minister of the Kingdom. He is the father of Subadra and Ananthapadmanabhan.
  • Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla – An ace archer, who serves Thirumukhathu Pilla, but take sides of Ettuveetil Pillas.
  • Anantham – Maternal niece of Kalakkutty and wife of Sundarayyan.
  • Kodanki / Palavesam – Elder brother of Sundarayyan. He is killed by Ananthapadmanabhan.
  • Kaalakutty Pilla – Uncle of Anantham and messenger of prince Marthanda Varma.
  • Ettuveettil Pillas
    • Kudaman Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas. He is the nephew of Subdra's grandmother. He kills Subadra and he is killed by Ananthapadmanabhan.
    • Ramanamadathil Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas. He is described as the one who desires the company of Subadra. He has a wife and a son, whom he visits only on the day of Thiruvonam.
    • Kazhakkoottathu Pilla / Thevan Vikraman – One of Ettuveettil Pillas. Intended to propose marriage with Parukutty, daughter of Ugran Kazhakkoottahtu Pilla, who was his maternal uncle. He led a force to defeat the fighters from Kilimanoor under the leadership of Narayanayyan.
    • Chembazhanthi Pilla / Thevan Nandi – One of Ettuveettil Pillas.
    • Marthandan Thirumadathil Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas.
    • Venganoor Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas. He and his men defeat the men from Mangoikkal supportive to prince Marthanda Varma.
    • Pallichal Pilla – One of Ettuveettil Pillas.
    • Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla (Deceased) – Late husband of Karthyayani Amma and father of Parukutty. He is the maternal uncle of Thevan Vikraman Kazhakkoottathu Pilla.
  • Karthyayani Amma / Karthyayani Pilla – Widowed wife of Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, she is the mother of Parukutty and younger sister of Chembakassery Mootha Pilla.
  • Chembakasserry Mootha Pilla – Elder brother of Karthyayani Amma.
  • Shanku Ashan – Caretaker of armory at Chembakassery. He is born to the previous armory care taker and a lady servant at Chembakassery.
  • Beeram Khan – Maternal nephew of householder, who is a relative of Kudamon Pilla. He married Subadra, with whom he breaks up after believing the false news about her relationships with other men, especially Padmanabhan Thambi. He later gets converted into Islam as Beeram Khan and marries Fathima. When Ananthapadmanabhan is found at Panchavan forest, he persuades to nurse after seeing the former's resemblance to his first wife. He kills Sundarayyan for the deeds, latter did to separate him from Subadra.
  • Fathima – Elder daughter of Hakkim’s younger brother and Ayisha. Sister of Zulaikha and Nuradeen. She married Beeram Khan.
  • Zulaikha – Younger daughter of Hakkim’s younger brother and Ayisha. Sister of Fathima and Nuradeen. She cares for Ananthapadmanabhan as she loves him as Shamsudeen.
  • Nuradeen – Son of Hakkim’s younger brother and Ayisha. Brother of Fathima and Zulaikha. He marries a beautiful lady.
  • Azim Ud-Dowla Khan / Hakkim – A traditional medicine specialist, who is the paternal uncle of Fathima, Nuradeen and Zulaikha. His treatment cures Anathapadmanabhan and also provides medication for king Rama Varma and Parukutty.
  • Usman Khan – Brought up as a son by Hakkim from Childhood.
  • Nephews of Mangoikkal Kruppu
    • The maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu at Mangoikkal house. Some of them are follows:
      • Kochu Velu – Youngest of maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
      • Krishna Kuruppu / Kittan – Eldest of maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
      • Narayanan – One of the maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
      • Kumaran / Komaran – One of the maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
      • Kochu Kuruppu / Kochannan / Cheriya Kuruppu – One of the maternal nephews of Mangoikkal Kuruppu, who was sent to Padmanabhapuram, on return from there he gets frantic by the seems-to-be-following men of Velu Kurruppu.
    • Two of them are instructed by Mangoikkal Kuruppu to make arrangements for the stay of Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla.
    • Six of them including Krishna Kuruppu and Narayanan resist Velu Kuruppu and attackers at Mangoikkal.
    • Four of them including Krishna Kuruppu head to Thiruvananthapuram to lead the forces from Mangoikkal as a support to Marthanada Varma.
  • Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma – Little prince. He is moved along with his mother to Chembakassery for protection.
  • Unnamed Royal Mother – Mother of the little prince, Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma.
  • Raja Rama Varma – The ailing king, who is the father of Padmanabhan Thambi and Raman Thambi. Prince Marthanda Varma refers him as maternal uncle.
  • Arumukham Pilla (Dalawa) – The prime minister of the kingdom. He goes to Boothapandi to make the payment for the forces from Madurai, unfortunately he had to stay there as an assurance for balance payment.
  • Ramayyan (Rayasakkaran) – The ministrial official, who helps the prince during the search for Mangoikkal Kuruppu. He also manages to pacify the angry civilians, who entered the palace ground, by presenting the ailing king infront of the crowd.
  • Narayanayyan – Royal servant who leads the men sent from Kilimanoor in support of Marthanda Varma.
  • Kilimanoor Koithampuran (Deceased) – The one who gets killed by men of Ramanamadathil Pilla while defending the conspiracy to kill the little prince, Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma.
  • Kerala Varma Koithampuran – The one who arranges additional forces for Marthanda Varma under the leadership of Narayanayyan. He guards the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and his mother at Chembakassery.
  • Aruveettukar – A powerful and rich family and their men, who are supportive to Thirumukhathu Pilla.
  • Servants of Subadra
    • Shankarachar – Servant of Subadra. He gets killed while trying to save Marthand Varma from Velu Kuruppu.
    • Pappu – A servant of Subadra. He is sent to Padmanabhan Thambi's house to convey the false news about her death.
    • Eight Servants – Servants who steal the particulars from the house of Anantham. Two among them go in search of Shankarachar in the night he is killed.
    • Unnamed Servant – The one who brings the medicine for Parukutty from Pathan camp and reveals about Beeram Khan.
    • Five Servants – Five servants looked like porters brought by Subadra to accompany Marthanda Varma, Parameswaran Pilla and Ramayyan disguised as menials.
  • Group of Civilians – The group of people who rush into the fort and are confronted by the king Rama Varma to disperse.

Other Characters[edit]

  • Kochakkachi – Maternal niece of Mangoikkal Kuruppu, who instructs Kochu Velu to arrange for the morning ablutions of Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla at Mangoikkal house.
  • Unnamed Female-Deposer – A prostitute who gives false statement against prince Marthanda Varma on the murder of Ananthapadmanabhan as conspired by Sundarayyan and Padmanabhan Thambi, for whom she is a soubrette.
  • Sivakami – Paramour of Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Woman of Ezhamkudi – Mistress of Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Kamalam – Paramour of Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Unnamed (House-holder) – A Nair relative of Kudamon Pilla and maternal uncle of Beeram Khan.
  • Unnamed (Kottaram Vicharippukaran) – The palace manager of Charottu Palace, he works from his home.
  • Ayisha (Deceased) – Mother of Fathima, Nuradeen and Zulaikha.
  • Unnamed Brother (Deceased) – Hakkim’s younger brother and father of Fathima, Nuradeen and Zulaikha.
  • Unnamed Lady – The beautiful lady who marries Nuradeen.
  • Unnamed Mother (Deceased) – Mother of Subadra from the relationship with Thirumukhathu Pilla. She is the maternal niece of Kudamon Pilla.
  • Unnamed Mother / Thirumukhathe Akkan – Mother of Ananthapadmanabhan and spouse of Thirumukhathu Pilla.
  • Unnamed (Anjanakkaran) – A clairvoyant who affirms to Thirumukhathu Pilla about the murder of Ananthapadmanabhan by the prince Marthanda Varma through paranormal retrocognition.
  • Madura Forces – The mercenaries from Madurai camped at Boothapandi, where they detain Dalawa Arumukham Pilla, due to incomplete payment of their arrears.
  • Channars
    • Channars of Palm-plant – The Channar people at the palm-tree plant, where prince Marthanda Varma enquires about any nearby house of Nairs, while escaping from Charottu palace.
    • Channars (50 men) – The Channar people of 50 numbers who got killed by men of Thambi as per his order to nab the mad Channan.
    • Channars – People of Channar clan who assembles after the slaughter of 50 Channars by the men of Thambi. Mad Channan persuades them to aid him in providing defense at Mangoikkal house.
      • Ozhukkan – One of the Channars.
      • Koppilan – One of the Channars.
      • Podiyan – One of the Channars.
      • Nandan – One of the Channars.
      • Rakithan – One of the Channars.
      • Suppiramaniyan – One of the Channars.
      • Ponnan – One of the Channars.
      • Poothathan – One of the Channars.
  • Aiders of Padmanabhan Thambi
    • Lancers of Velu Kuruppu – The 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace. Two of them are killed by the arrows shot by Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla.
      • Kutti Pilla – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
      • Pappanachar – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
      • Chatayan Pilla – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
      • Ooli Nayar – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
      • Parappan Nayar – One of the 14 lancers led by Velu Kuruppu to Charottu palace.
    • Unnamed (Vicharippukaran) – The manager of Padmanabahan Thambi at Padmanabhapuram palace.
    • Unnamed Servants – Servants of Padmanabahan Thambi at Padmanabhapuram palace.
    • Unnamed Servant – The one who informs about the theft happened at the house of Sundarayyan's wife, Anantham.
    • Unnamed Fighters – The lancers who disguised as Mangoikkal men and tried to attack Thirumukhathu Pilla.
    • Unnamed Guards – Royal lancers who support Padmanabhan Thambi and are deployed at Chembakassery under Chembakassery Mootha Pilla, who takes them back to Padmanabhan Tahmbi following the order of Valiya Sarwadhikaryakkar to report back to palace after which, Thambi relieve them from duty.
    • Unnamed (Pattakkar) – The messengers in Pathan outfits who accompany Padamanabhan Thambi at Thiruvananthapuram.
    • Unnamed Accomplices – The accomplices in domestic outfits who accompany Padamanabhan Thambi at Thiruvananthapuram.
    • Lancers and Nairs (200 men) – A group of lancers and Nairs led by Velu Kuruppu in search of Marthanda Varma and finally attacks Mangoikkal house. The remaining 12 lancers of Velu Kuruppu are included.
      • A group of 150 men are deployed at nearby locations of Mangoikkal house by Velu Kuruppu, later led to Mangoikkal
      • A group of 20 men are led on the main path to Mangoikkal.
    • Lancers and Nairs (150 men) – A group of lancers and Nairs send by Padmanabhan Thambi to aid Velu Kruppu for the attack at Mangoikkal
      • One of the lancers reaches back to Thambi to inform about defeat at Mangoikkal.
    • Nanjinadu Fighters – The fighters of 500 numbers including Marava people from Nanchinadu led by Raman Thambi.
  • Fighters from Kilimanoor – The fighters led by Naranayyan and later defeated by Kazhakkoottathu Pilla and his men.
  • Aiders of Ettuveettil Pillas
    • Servants of Ettuveettil Pillas – The servants of Ettuveettil Pillas; who are creating mutiny at palace gate.
    • Unnamed Servant of Kudamon Pilla – The one who arranges the particulars for the oath at council by Ettuveettil Pillas.
    • Guards of Kazhakkoottathu Pilla – Guards at Sree Pandarathu house. Ananthapadmanabhan disguised as mad Channan drugs them to get the keys to dungeon inorder to rescue Mangoikkal Kuruppu.
  • Men of Mangoikkal
    • Unnamed Parayan – A Parayan lad who gets caught by Velu Kuruppu, who realizes about Marthanda Varma at Mangoikkal from him.
    • Servant of Mangoikkal Kuruppu – The one who rushes out to Mangoikkal martial arts school on the news about the march of attackers led by Velu Kruppu.
    • Servants of Mangoikkal – Four servants of Mangoikkal summoned on the arrival of disguised prince Marthanda Varma and Parameswaran Pilla.
    • Nairs of Mangoikkal – Eight Nairs of Mangoikkal who aid in providing defence against the attack by Velu Kuruppu and his men at Mangoikkal.
    • Parayar Guards – The guards of Parayar clan at Mangoikkal house.
    • Men from Mangoikkal Kalari – The fighters of 200 numbers from the martial arts school of Mangoikkal. They defeat the men of Velu Kuruppu.
    • Fighters of Mangoikkal – Fighters of 300 numbers led by nephews of Mangoikkal, but are defeated by Venganoor Pilla and his men.
      • More than 100 fighters from the above are escaped with nephews and re-enter the capital and camp at Manakkadu.
  • Pathans – The Pathan servants and fighters who serve under Hakkim
    • Two Servants – Two servants who carry away the wounded Ananthapadmanabhan from Panchavan forest as directed by Hakkim.
    • Pathan Fighters – The fighters who are deployed as guards to the stall of merchandise.
      • Twenty of them led to defend Raman Tahmbi's men by Shansudeen and Beeram Khan.
  • Servants at Chembakassery
    • Unnamed Servant of Parukutty – The lady attendant who provides the book and other particulars to Parukutty.
    • Unnamed (Pattakkar) – Messengers to whom Chembakassery Moothapilla entrusts duties on the day before the arrival of Padmanabhan Thambi.
    • Unnamed (Adichuthelikkari) – The lady cleaner on whom Karthyayani Amma prevails persistently to make the surroundings clean.
    • Unnamed Lady Servant – The one who is entrusted to clean the lamps.
    • Tailors / Weavers – The skilled workers who arrange necessary bed sheets and curtains
    • Kitchen Staff – The cooks and assistants to whom Karthyayani Amma insists to cut more vegetables for the preparation of dishes.
  • Subadra – The daughter of Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty, named after her paternal aunt.
  • Members of Palace at Thiruvananthapuram
    • Unnamed (Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar) – The chief minister of the kingdom who orders the recall of palace guards at Chembakassery.
    • Unnamed Sarwadhi (Sawadhikaryakkar) – A district officer under Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar. He suspects about the actions of prince Marthanda Varma at the night in which Shankarachar and Velu Kuruppu are dead.
    • Unnamed (Vaidyanmar) – Traditional medicine practitioners who provide medication for king Rama Varma's illness.
    • Unnamed Scholars – The qualified people including priests, clergies, magicians who do their respective occult practices for extending the lifetime of king Rama Varma.
    • Unnamed Cowards – The people who became courageous to talk about the pros and cons of rule of king Rama Varma
    • Unnamed Special Servants – The special servants of king Rama Varma; they are honest in disclosing the pros and cons of rule of king Rama Varma.
    • Unnamed Servants – King Rama Varma's servants, whose faces are languid due to the increasing illness of the king.
    • Unnamed Disciples – The happy disciples of prince Marthanda Varma as the accession of their master is nearing.
    • Unnamed Ministers – The ministers, who request monetary aid from the aristocratic residents.
    • Unnamed Emissary – The emissary deputed by prince Marthanda Varma to Kilimanoor palace.
    • Unnamed (Thirumulpadanmar) – The Thirumulpad Nair assistants who lead prince Marthanda Varma, while moving inside the palace.
    • Unnamed Messengers – The messengers who are entrusted to inform the middle lords about the illness of king.
    • Unnamed Chamberlains – The chamberlains at palace, where they are found by Kudamon Pilla, Thambi duo and their men, while searching for Marthanda Varma.
  • General People
    • Unnamed Civilians – The people who secure their money and valuables in hidden places.
    • Unnamed Residents – The residents who wish to see the end of fights and mutiny with the accession of Marthanda Varma to the throne.
    • Unnamed People – The people who refrain from paying the taxes, as they believe that a change in the heir lineage is going to happen.
    • Unnamed Residents – The aristocratic residents who are reluctant to provide monetary assistance to the ministers, due to the fear about the wrath of enemies of prince Marthanda Varma.
    • People of Northern Provinces – The people, who aligns on the side of Ettuveettil Pillas at Chiriyankeezhu, Thiruvananthapuram, Neyyattinkara.
    • People of Central Provinces – The people who are reluctant to support royal houses by providing in counter offence at Iraniyal, Kalkulam, Vilavancode.
    • Unnamed Brahmins – Aged Brahmin people who are expecting favors from royal palace.
    • Unnamed Nairs – Nair people who collect and store sandalwood pieces and clarified butter in stalls near to the palace.
    • Unnamed Women – Matresfamilias who store enough vegetables.
    • Unnamed Children – Children who are worried about losing Vishu and Onam for the next year.
    • Unnamed People – The miserly people who are happy due to the probable savings going to happen with non-celebration of Vishu and Onam.
    • Unnamed People – People who greet Padmanabhan Thambi, while passing by the Padmanabhapuram palace.
    • Unnamed Lady – The lady, who passes by the Padmanabhapuram palace, from where Padmanabhan Thambi fantasizes that she peeks at him flirtatiously.
    • Unnamed People – People who bring bunches of plantain banana to Chembakassery.
  • Unnamed Beauties – The court-mistresses that Sundarayyan suggests bringing from Thanjavur for Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Unnamed Lords – The middle lords, who are related to royal family.
  • Unnamed Wife – The wife of Ramanamadathil Pilla, who visits her on the day of Thiruvonam.
  • Unnamed Son – The son of Ramanamadathil Pilla, who visits him on the day of Thiruvonam.
  • Unnamed (Assan) – The master who taught Mathematics to Parukutty.
  • Unnamed (Pisharody) – The one who taught lyrics to Parukutty.
  • Unnamed (Shasthri) – A Brahmin from a village near Madurai who becomes the father of Sundarayyan and Kodanki from the relationship with a Marava lady.
  • Unnamed Marava Lady – Mother of Sundarayyan and Kodanki in a relation with a Brahmin from a village near Madurai.
  • Unnamed Wife – The wife of Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar, she is in bed rest post the parturition.
  • Unnamed Niece – The niece of Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar, she is in a state of ill health.
  • Unnamed Daughter – The daughter of Valiya Sawadhikaryakkar, she is pregnant.
  • People of Nanjinadu
    • Unnamed People of Nanjinadu – The residents of Nanjinadu; who follow the Mudaliyar lords.
    • Mudaliyar Lords
      • Cherakonar – A Mudaliyar lord in Nanjinadu who sides with Padmanabhan Thambi.
      • Mailavanar – A Mudaliyar lord in Nanjinadu who sides with Padmanabhan Thambi.
      • Vanikaraman – A Mudaliyar lord in Nanjinadu who sides with Padmanabhan Thambi.
  • Ahor Namboothirippadu – The Akavoor Namboothiri about whom Velu Kuruppu mentions as the one who evoked protection to his armor shield by chanting of seventy million Dhanwantharam.
  • Unnamed Shasthris – The Shasthri Brahmins of Kancheepuram. Hakkim with his excellence in treatment is considered as an incarnation of Vagbhata by them.
  • Arcot Nawab – The Nawab of Arcot who presents Hakkim with wealth and awards.

Character Relations[edit]

Legend
descent
adoption
spouse relation
1, 2 spouse relation order
Matrilineal Nair Family Matrilineally Kudamon Matrilineally Chembakasserry Matrilineally Kazhakkoottam
Mother
Mother Mother
Mother Daughter Daughter
Unnamed House-holder Unnamed Lady Unnamed Lady Kudamon Pilla 1 Unnamed Lady Thirumukhathu Pilla 2 Unnamed Lady Chembakassery Moothapilla Karthyayani Amma Ugran Kazhakoottathu Pilla Unnamed Lady
2 Fathima Unnamed Nair / Beeram Khan 1 Subadra Anananthapadmanabhan Parukutty Thevan Vikraman
Pathan Father Subadra
Hakkim Son
Zulaikha
Ayisha
Unnamed Lady Nuradeen
Mother
Kalakkutty Pilla Unnamed Lady Madurai Shasthri Marava Lady
Matrilineally Mangoikkal Anantham Sundarayyan Kodanki
Unnamed Ladies Mangoikkal Kuruppu
Krishna Kuruppu Narayanan Kochakkachi Kochannan Komaran Velu
Matrilineally Ramanam Madathil
Mother
Unnamed Lady Ramanamadathil Pilla
Son
Venad / Travancore Matrilineal Royal Family
Unnamed Lady Rama Varma Un-specified
Unnamed Lady Marthanda Varma Padmanabhan Thambi Raman Thambi
Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma

Publication[edit]

Release[edit]

The novel was first published by the C. V. Raman Pillai on June 11, 1891 at Trivandrum. The first edition was printed in Messrs. Addison & Co.[A] post the editing by Mr. N. Raman Pillai, the exiled (from Travancore) son of ex-Diwan of Travancore, Nanoo Pillai.[10]

Second Edition[edit]

The second edition, revised by C. V. Raman Pillai, who replaced the edits of N. Raman Pillai in the first edition with his own, was published by B. V Book Depot in 1911. All the reprints of the novel thereafter were only of the 1911 second edition till date. The copyright of the novel was reserved for 60 years from then, during the period there had been nearly 100 prints.[11]

Re-prints[edit]

Sahithya Pravarthaka Cooperative Society (SPCS) of Kottayam released their first edition in 1973 through National Book Stall (NBS) and remained as one of the major publishers of the novel over the years. The Little Prince Publications of Kottayam released their 1983 edition with study and graphical representation of character relations by Prof. N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakkuttan Nair. Poorna Publications of Kozhikode brought out their first edition in the same year and subsequent reprints are brought over the years. D. C. Books of Kottayam released centenary edition of the novel as definitive variorum edition with studies by Dr. P. Venugopalan and subsequent reprints were released until 2007. The revised definitive variorum edition including studies by K. Raghavan Pillai and previously published studies by Prof. N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakkuttan Nair was released in 2007 from then all re-prints from D. C Books are of this 2007 version, which was also included in the Si. Vi. Rāmanpiḷḷayuṭe Carithṟakhyāyikakḷ Sampūṟṇaṁ in 2010.[12][13][14]

Translations[edit]

The Marthandavarma novel has been translated into three languages, Tamil, English and Hindi as five different versions, among which two were in Tamil another two, were in English and one incomplete translation was in Hindi.

  • மார்த்தாண்ட வர்மா (Mārttāṇḍa Varmā, Tamil, 1934) - The first translation of the novel in Tamil was by O. Krishna Pillai. It was published by Kamalalaya Book Depot at Trivandrum in 1934.[15]
  • Marthanda Varma (English, 1936) - The first English translation was by B. K. Menon[B]. It was published by Kamalalaya Book Depot at Trivandrum in 1936.[1]
In this translation, the translator B. K. Menon restructured twenty-six chapters of the Malayalam version into a Prologue, Volume One, Volume Two, and a Conclusion among which the chapter one of original is presented as the Prologue, chapters from two to twelve of the original are presented as chapters from 1 to 11 in Volume One, chapters from thirteen to twenty-five of the original are presented as chapters from 12 to 24 in Volume Two and chapter twenty-six is presented as the Conclusion. B. K. Menon states that ever since he read the Marthandavarma novel he felt that the literary work is virtually crying for wider publicity as being the brilliant masterpiece of Malayalam literature. He attempted the translation with the support of his friend P. Narayanan Nair, the then Manager of Kamalalaya Printing Works and with the objective of introducing the historical romance of Travancore to reading public outside of Kerala and Malayalam speaking people. The first edition of the translation includes two illustrations of which one depicts the events in the prologue and other depicts the meeting of Subadra with Ramananamadathil Pilla. The book was dedicated to His Most Gracious Highness Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchi Pala Sir Rama Varama Kulasekhara Kiritapati Mannay Sultan Maharajah Ramamraja Bahadur Shamsher Jung G. C. I. E.[17]
Prema Jayakumar, daughter of B. K. Menon got the rights of the translation through K .N. V. G. Menon, the son of P. Narayanan Nair took the efforts to re-publish the translation and subsequently it was published through Sahitya Akademi at New Delhi in 1998. The new edition with an introduction by K. Ayyappa Paniker excluded the illustrations, the division as per Volume and the dedication included in the first edition.[16][18][19]
  • Marthanda Varma (English, 1979) - The second English translation by R. Leela Devi was published by Sterling Publishers at New Delhi in 1979.
In this translation, R. Leela Devi keeps the exact same structure of chapters of the original Malayalam version, but follows almost the same words as that of B. K. Menon’s translation with some alterations in the text. A reprint by the same publisher was released in 1984.[4]
  • मार्ताण्ड वर्मा (Mārtāṇḍa Varma, Hindi, 1990) - Kunnukuzhy Krishnankutty has done the Hindi translation, which was serialized and left incomplete in the editions of journal Kēraḷ Jyōti from Kerala Hindi Prachar Sabha, Thiruvananthapuram during June 1990 to December 1990.[20]
  • மார்த்தாண்ட வர்ம்மா (Mārttāṇḍa Varmmā, Tamil, 2007) - The second Tamil translation of the novel by P. Padmanabhan Thambi was published by Sahitya Akademi in 2007.[21]

Allusion to legends, history, politics, geography and real life[edit]

Characters based on legends, history and real life[edit]

  • Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
Further information: Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma, who is distinctively known as Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma, ascend to the throne of Venad in 1729, and thereafter expanded the kingdom to form the state of Travancore. At the age of one, he lost his parents among whom, his father was a Kilimanoor Koithampuran who, died of severe fever and his mother was adapted to Venad royal family during the period of Umayamma Rani from Kolathunadu. The novel does not give any explicit references to the hereditary roots of Marthanda Varma. In the novel, he refers king Rama Varma as his maternal uncle and refers Kilimanoor Koithampuran, who sacrificed his life for saving the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma from the plans of Ramanamadathil Pilla, as elder brother.[22][23][24][25][26][27]
  • Thambi Duo
Thambi duo or Thambimar or Thambi brothers refers to the two sons of king Rama Varma. In the royal edicts, Mathilakam Records[C], the sons of king Rama Varma are mentioned as Kunchu Thambi and Ilaya Thambi[D] for elder and younger brothers respectively. In royal edicts it is also mentioned that, they had a paterfamilias named Kumara Pilla. P. Shangoony Menon[E] stated their names as Papu Thamby and Ramen Thamby in the History of Travancore from the Earliest Times, whereas in The Sketch of Progress of Travancore, Dewan Nanoo Pillay stated that they were commonly known as Coonju Thambimar and their names are Pulpu Thumby and Raman Thumby. In the folk songs and ballads the elder one is mentioned as Valiya Thambi and younger one is Kunju Thambi, and also mentions that their mother’s name as Abhirami or Kittanathalamma[F] and they have a younger sister named Kochumani Thanka or Kochu Madamma. In the novel the elder brother is Pappu Thambi alias Padmanabhan Thambi, whereas the younger brother is Raman Thambi. In the biography of author, C. V. Raman Pillai, it is mentioned that the caretaker of the author in his childhood, Kesavan Thambi Karyakkar had two sons named Padmanabhan Thambi and Raman Thambi, with whom author had grown up.[30][31][32][33][34][35]
  • Ananthapadmanabhan
Ananthapadmanabhan
Ananthapadmanabhan was a warrior and expert in martial arts who played a pivotal role in defending the plans of conspirators against Marthanda Varma. According to Prof. N. Krishna Pilla and Prof. Anandakkuttan Nair, Ananthapadmanabhan served in the Travancore forces somewhere after Kollavarsham 904 (Gregorian Calendar: 1729) and he was awarded with royal properties in Kollavarsham 920 (1745). According to Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju[G] the award of royal properties was happened in 1748. Ananthapadmanabhan was born as Ananthan Perumal to Thanumalaya Perumal and Lakshmi Devi in Sanror clan, he was affectionately addressed as Padmanabhan by his maternal uncle.[37][38][39][40][41] In the novel, the author did not affirm the caste of Ananthapadmanabhan, by not providing any details of his mother and he is not been referred as a Pillai or Nair throughout the novel, even though he is described as the son of Thirumukhathu Pilla. The name of character’s love interest in the novel, Parukkutty alias Parvathi Amma is in reminiscence of the name of real life of spouse of Ananthan, Parvathi Ammal. Ananthapadmanabhan is been referred as Ananthapadmanabha Pilla in the ballads[H] about Thambi brothers and referred as Ananthan in other ballads such as Aṉantan Pāṭṭŭ and Ōṭṭan Katai. In the novel, alter ego of the character named Shamsudeen dwells with the Pathans at Manacaud. The author of the novel, C. V. Raman Pillai happened to go for an expedition to Hyderabad following an unfulfilled love and a failed marriage relation. In Hyderabad, the author was staying with some Muslim people and was suggested to get married to a Muslim lady after getting converted to Islam. The characterization of Shamsudeen is in resemblance with the experiences of the author.[42][43][44][45][46][47]
  • Rama Varma
Further information: Rama Varma
Rama Varma was the ruler of Venad during Kollavarsham 899-903. He is a descendant of Kolathunadu kingdom, from where he was adopted to Travancore royal family during the period of Umayamma Rani. He was adopted along with Unni Kerala Varma and other two ladies, among whom one became the mother of Marthanda Varma. P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya state that the four members were provided from Kolathunadu to Travancore family on the request of Umayamma Rani. T. K. Velu Pillai states that they were adopted by Ravi Varma in Kollavarsham 863. Rama Varma is the father of Thambimar and he succeeded his brother and ascend to the throne of Venad in Kollavarsham 899. According to T. K. Velu Pillai[I], Rama Varma was a weak ruler and his reign led to the disorganization of political life in Travancore. He passed away due to short illness in 1729. In the novel he is presented as bedridden due to illness and passes away during course of action of story.[49][50][51][52]
  • Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma
Dharmaraja
Further information: Dharma Raja
Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma also known as Dharmaraja ascend to the throne of Travancore in Kollavarsham 933 succeeding Marthanda Varma. He was born in Kollavarsham 899 as the son of a Kilimanoor Thampuran and Attingal Queen, who was adopted as a princess to Travancore royal family from Kolathunadu during the period of Ravi Varma. The novel presents only in his childhood age.[53][54]
  • Queen of Attingal
Senior Queen of Attingal, who was the mother of Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma. She was adopted to Travancore royal family from Kolathunadu kingdom in Kollavarsham 893 during the period of king Ravi Varma. She gave birth to Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma from the alliance with a lord of Kilmanoor in Kollavarsham 899. In the novel, she is been referred as an unnamed royal mother only along with her son, Rama Varma.[51][52][53]
  • Kilimanoor Thampurans
Kilimanoor Thampurans are the lords of Kilimanoor house, which is situated north to the Thriruvananthapuram. According to V. Nagam Aiya, the house of Kilimanoor has been loyally and honorably connected with Travancore royal family, as the male members of family are chosen for alliance with the queens of Travancore. In the novel two lords of Kilimanoor are mentioned; one referred as Kilimanoor Kerala Varma and another as Kilimanoor Koithampuran among whom, former is the one who sacrifices his life in defending against the plans to endanger the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and the mother, whereas the latter one guards the little prince and mother during the attempt to coup d'état by Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas at Thiruvananthapuram.[22]
  • Ettuveettil Pillas
Further information: Ettuveetil Pillamar
Ettuveetil Pillas
Ettuveettil Pillas or Ettuveettil Pillamar refers to the chiefs of eight noble Nair families in the yesteryear Venad (Travancore). They were one of the main groups who conspired against the accession of Marthanda Varma. In the royal edicts, one of the Ettuveetiil Pillas mentioned in the novel, Kudamon Pilla is referred among one of the groups[J] of conspirators prevailed against Marthanda Varma. According to Dr. P. Venugopalan[K], Ettuveettil Pillas mentioned in the novel are based on the verses from Śrīvīramāṟttāṇḍavaṟmmacaritaṁ Aattakatha, which was published during 1883-1884 by P. Govinda Pillai[L]. In the novel except for Thirumadathil Pilla, all other titles of Ettuveettil Pillas are in reminiscence of the references made in the verses, an extract from which is also given as an epigraph to the eleventh chapter of the novel.[22][52][56][57][58][59][60][61] P. Shangoony Menon stated the eight titles[M] of Ettuveettil Pillas. V. Nagam Aiya states that their titles are the names of the villages[N] they headed and not their family names. According to P. Shangoony Menon, Madambies or Madampimar, the petty chiefs who were confederates of Ettuveettil Pillas, by whom the former group were influenced to become a powerful combination with the latter group. In the Malayalam translation of History of Travancore from the Earliest Times, C. K. Kareem[O] claims that Ettuveettil Pillas were gradually grown as Madambies, even though it conflicts with the source material. Dewan Nanoo Pillay refers that Madampimars and Ettuveettil Pillas were the hereditary enemies of Marthanda Varma. T. K. Velu Pillai calims that Ettuveettil Pillas are mistaken for the Madathil Pillas, who were entrusted to manage the properties of six madams or areas; and that the chiefs or leaders were Ettuveettil Madambimar and not Ettuveettil Pillamar. He also claims that Kulathur Pilla and Kazhakkoottathu Pilla were mentioned as Pillas of six houses including the name of a Tamilian in the royal edicts, even though there are no such explicit informations in the referred royal edicts, Mathilakam Records - M. Doc. CXXX. Dr. Ibrahim Kunju cites the references of conspiracy by Pillas in the British records, Letters to Tellicherry[P]. In the novel, Ettuveettil Pillas play as main supporters of Padmanabhan Thambi by framing and executing lethal plans against Marthanda Varma, and one of the Pillas, Kudamon Pilla is killed by Ananthapadmanabhan.[30][32][64][65][66][67][68][69][70]
  • Arukkoottathil Pillas
Arukkoottathil Pillas or Arukoottathil Pillamar refer to members of wealthy noble families prevailed in the yesteryear Travancore. In the royal edicts, it is mentioned that, a set of six members of them are found among the conspirators during the period of Marthanda Varma. In the novel, they are presented as a Thambi clan, Aruveettukar, who stood along with Thirumukhathu Pilla.[69][71]
  • Ramayyan
Ramayyan
Further information: Ramayyan Dalawa
Ramayyan or Rama Iyen, better known as Ramayyan Dalawa was the prime minister of Travancore during Kollavarsham 912-931, the period in which the most successful conquests under Marthanda Varma were accomplished. He joined the Travancore ministerial service as a Kuṭṭi Paṭṭar (minor Brahmin assistant), later got promoted as under secretary (Rayasom) and then state secretary following the accession of Marthanda Varma, who made him Dalawa after the demise of Thanu Pillai. In the novel, he is presented as a supporter and adviser to Marthanda Varma, whom he accompanies during the final coup by Thambi brothers. It is also mentioned in the novel that Ramayyan was promoted for Rayasom work by king Rama Varma.[57][72][73][74]
  • Narayanayyan
Narayanayyan or Naraayana Iyen was the assistant of Ramayyan, while the latter was state secretary. He assisted Ramanyyan in the deputation to explain and convince Azhagappa Mudaliyar regarding the accession tradition and respective stratum prevailed in Travancore. In the novel he is presented as a royal servant under whom, the forces from Kilimanooor are arranged in support to Marthanda Varma.[31][75]
  • Arumukham Pilla
Arumukham Pilla was the acting Dalawa of Venad during Kollavarsham 901-903, and became Dalawa after the accession of Marthanda Varma, to continue in his post till 909. He was once detained by mercenary forces from Madurai due to incomplete payment of their arrears against their service as additional forces to Travancore. The novel presents only his detention by Madurai forces at Boothapandi.[57][58][76]
  • Others
Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar and Sarwadhi Karyakkar – Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar is the title for administrative head of Travancore and Sarwadhi Karyakkar is the title for a district officer under Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar. During the period of king Rama Varma, Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar was under the direct orders of king. In the novel, Valiya Sarwadhi Karyakkar is mentioned to have a wife who is on rest, post the delivery of a newborn, a daughter who is pregnant for ten months, and a niece who is ill. Sarwadhi Karyakkar in the novel is one of those people, who suspects about the actions of Marthanda Varma during the night in which, Shankarachar is killed.[22]
Madurai Forces – Madurai forces are the mercenaries sent to Travancore as per the agreement of king Rama Varma and Madurai Nayaks of Thiruchirapalli in Kollavarsham 901. T. K. Velu Pillai argues that, there could not be any such agreement, but agrees with detention of Arumukham Pilla by the mercenaries. In the novel they are presented as camped at Boothapandi, where Dalawa Arumukham Pilla is kept under detention.[22][57][58][76][77]
Mangottu Assan – Mangottu Assan is the head of a family at Mancode[Q] and one of the masters of 108 Kalaries (martial arts schools) prevailed in Travancore. In the ballad Ōṭṭan Katai, it is mentioned that his house was burned down by Kunchukkoottam (men of Kunchu Thambi). In the novel, he is presented as Mangoikkal Kuruppu whose house is burned down by the men of Padmanabhan Thambi, as Marthanda Varma took shelter there.[46][78]
Chadachi Marthandan – According to Dr. P. Venugopalan, Chadachi Marthandan is mentioned in the legends as the one who becomes the supporter of Marthanda Varma, even though earlier he was with the conspirators. In the novel he is presented as Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla, who is a servant of Thirumukhathu Pilla and later take sides with the Ettuveettil Pillas.[79]
Subardra, one of the pivotal characters of the novel is based on the character of author’s wife, Bhageerithi Amma. The character of Thirumukhathu Pilla is based on the caretaker and patron of the author, Nangoikkal Kesavan Thambi, who was a Karyakkar (Administrative head of a Taluk) in Travancore. In the novel, there is reference to an Arcot Nawab, who gifted Hakkim for the latter’s medical excellence. There is also reference to a Namboothirippadu of Akavoor Mana, and presented as famous for sorcery meant for protective measures against bad luck and danger. There is also a reference to an unnamed Sultan of Turkey, with whom the character of Ugran Kazhakkoottathu Pilla is been compared with. There is a reference to the look of members of Tiruvallā Pōṯimār (Brahmins of ten houses at Thiruvalla); with which the attire of prince Marthanda Varma at Charottu palace is been compared with.[80][81]

Events based on legends, history and politics[edit]

Treaty with Madura Nayaks[edit]

According to V. Nagam Aiya, during the reign of king Rama Varma besides the troubles caused by confederate chiefs and nobles such as Ettuveetiil Pillas and Madambies, the other petty chieftains were also refracted from contributing to the revenue of the state; and sovereign was unable to defend the atrocities of armed dacoits, as there were not enough money and manpower with the state. In Kollavarsham 901 king Rama Varma, headed to Tiruchirappalli and made a pact with the Madurai Nayaks to supply additional forces to Travancore for a fixed annual payment. T. K. Velu Pillai cites the references of payment to Madurai from Travancore. In the novel, it is presented that king Rama Varma and Thirumukhathu Pilla proceed to Tiruchirappalli in Kollavarsham 901 to arrange additional forces, which later camps at Boothapandi.[22][56][77]

Lethal attempts on the life of Marthanda Varma[edit]

Attempt at a Temple – In the novel, while Rama Varma and Thirumukhathu Pilla headed to Tiruchirappalli, prince Marthanda Varma and Ananthapadmanabhan were staying at Nagercoil, from where latter among the duo at Nagercoil heads to his mother’s house following the news of her illness. While Ananthapadmanabhan was away, the prince was chased away by the men of Padmanabhan Thambi and an attempt on his life was made at Kalliyankattu temple[R]. The incident is further referred as the escape of Marthanda Varma as a Brahmin. Dr. P. Venugopalan cites the references of the incident in the history of Travancore and Māṟttāṇḍaṟmmamāhātmyaṁ Kilippattu. The incident took place at a temple of Shiva near to Kumarakovil (2 miles north to Thakkala), where Marthanda Varma took shelter while evading the attackers. At the temple Marthanda Varma was aided by the temple priest to escape in the outfit of the latter, and the priest was killed by the attackers as he was in the outfit of the former.[82][83]

There are references in the novel about attempts on the life of Marthanda Varma by his enemies as his successful escapes through the groove at Panathara[S], the Ezhava house at Perunkadavila[T], and the Nedumangad fort.

Escape at an Ezhava house – According to the legends, after evading the Ettuveettil Pillas and their men at Dhanuvachapuram[U], Eithukondamkani[V], and Marayamuttom[W], when Marthanda Varma was refreshing himself at a river near to Malakulangara[X] he was spotted by the men of Thambi brothers and in urgency to escape from them, he headed into a nearby Ezhava house, Alayil Puthur Veedu at Perumkadavila, where he was aided by the Kalipanikkathi (Lady Kali) to hide under the rattan enclosures. The men of Thambi brothers were unsuccessful in finding the prince.[84]

Aid by a Channan and Hiding inside a tree – In the novel, it is described that while running away from Velu Kuruppu and his men, Marthanda Varma is helped by a mad Channan to hide inside a tree and the aider misdirects the chasers. According to Dr. P. Venugopalan, the above account of actions is a collaboration of two situations where Marthanda Varma escaped from the enemies. Once, when Marthanda Varma was returning after some confidential visits to Kanyakumari and Suchindram, he was tracked by the men of Ettuveettil Pillas and Thambi brothers. While running away from the chasers, he was suggested by a Channan plougher of the nearby field to hide inside the hollow statue of the elephant at the adjacent temple of Shasthavu. When the chasers reached the cultivation field and questioned the plougher, he misdirected them to the southern provinces. In another occasion, when Marthanda Varma was chased by the enemies, he evaded them by hiding inside the big hole within a jack tree at the Neyyattinkara Sree Krishna Swami Temple. The tree is still preserved at the temple compound and known as Ammacciplāvŭ (Mother jack tree).[82][83]

Lethal attempt on the life of Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma[edit]

The incident is referred as the attempt to murder the little prince, Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and his mother by Ramanamadathil Pilla along with his men in Kollavarsham 903, while the mother-son duo were heading from Trivandrum to Attingal, but only to evade the attempt with the help of Kilimanoor Koithampuran (Lord of Kilimanoor), who led the duo to a nearby safe village and took their place in the palanquin en route, confronted the attackers and eventually got killed, as described in the History of Travancore from the Earliest Times by P. Shangoony Menon. The above account of incident is in conflict with the version described by Pachumuthathu in the Tiruvitāṁkūṟ Caritraṁ[Y], which recounts the same at Budhanoor[Z] in the then district of Chengannur, where ruffians from Kayamkulam did the attack and states that lord of Kilimanoor who defended the attackers was the husband of the Queen. V. Nagam Aiya states the incident inline with the version by P. Shangoony Menon and mentions that lord of Kilimanoor, Kerala Varma Koithampuran as the consort of the Queen. T. K. Velu Pillai supports the version of Pachumuthathu and condemns the version by P. Shangoony Menon; which is cited by Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju, who points out the deliberation of T. K. Velu Pillai in supporting the version of Pachumuthathu by purposefully avoiding the references of incident in the British records, Letters to Tellicherry.[22][50][51][70][77]

Heirship claim by Thambi brothers[edit]

Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju refers to the legend that Thambi brothers made a claim to the throne of Venad during the final period of king Rama Varma as they are the linear descendants, which was against the tradition of collateral descent through maternal nephew followed by the Venad kingdom in selecting the heir to the throne. P. K. Parameswaran Nair[AA] claims that there is a legend in which Rama Varma promises to his spouse, Abhirama to let the children she will bear, to ascend to the throne of Venad; however Dr. P. Venugopalan states that the above account of legend is not valid as Rama Varma was neither the king nor the next heir to the throne during the early days of his relationship with his spouse and he ruled the kingdom only in the last five years of his life. P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya state that Thambi brothers were persuaded by feudatory chiefs and nobles, Ettuveettil Pillas and Madambies to make the claim to the throne. Dewan Nanoo Pillay states that Thambi duo manifested the claim, as they felt degraded from the royal rank after the accession of Marthanda Varma, so Madambies and Ettuveettil Pillas fomented their disaffection. T. K. Velu Pillai states that Thambi brothers attempted to seize the throne for themselves against the custom of Marumakkattāyaṁ (collateral descent through maternal nephews). Even though the above claim and dispute happened after the demise of Rama Varma, in the novel, it is presented that the conspiracy by Thambi brothers were started long before the king was ill and also shows that Padmanabhan Thambi and Sundarayyan lay the plans against Marthanda Varma, to get him deprived from the line of succession. In the novel it is mentioned that Ettuveettil Pillas gave assurance to Padmanabhan Thambi that they will make him king after the period of king Rama Varma. In the novel, it is also referred that Padmanabhan Thambi did not want to emphasize on Makkattāyaṁ (lineal descent through sons) by raising the concern to Sundarayyan that such a succession may bring his younger brother Raman Thambi against him.[31][32][58][75][86][87][88][89]

Treaty of Thambi brothers with foreign forces[edit]

The heirship claim of Thambi brothers against the then existing custom in Venad led them to seek the aid of foreign forces to confront Marthanda Varma. According to P. Shangoony Menon the elder Thambi brother, Papu Thamby headed to Tiruchirapalli in Kollavarsham 905 (1730) to seek aid from Pandyan governor. V. Nagam Aiya states that Thambi brothers together headed to Tiruchirapalli in 1729 to seek the help from Pandyan governor. According Dewan Nanoo Pillai, only one of the Thambi brothers proceeded to Tiruchirapalli in Kollavarsham 905 (1729-1730). T. K. Velu Pillai mentions that Thambi brothers secured the mercenary services of a foreign contingent in Kollavarsham 905. In the novel, it is presented that the younger brother, Raman Thambi heads to Nanjinadu[AB] to arrange additional forces in Kollavarsham 903.[31][32][58][75][89]

Council of Ettuveettil Pillas[edit]

Ettuveettil Pillas formed a council at the convention area of an inn at Venganoor, where they held consultation about the plans against the king Marthanda Varma and, the members resolved to assassinate the king on the Aaraattu festival day during his procession. The decision was scripted as palm leaf notes and hidden in the footwears of messengers. According to P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya, the conference happened sometime after Kollavarsham 906. Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju states that above event as happened in Kollavarsham 912. The messengers with the council notes were later detained by the king’s men following the lead by a Paṇṭāraṁ (the keeper of the inn), who spied on the council members and eventually the plan was foiled. In the novel, the council of Ettuveettil Pillas is convened at the maternal house of Kudamon Pilla near to Andiyirakkam[AC]. The council passes the resolution to assassinate the prince Marthanda Varma after the demise of king Rama Varma, when the prince will be heading back after the last rites of Rama Varma. A council note of the same is prepared for Padmanabhan Thambi and entrusts the same to Sundarayyan, who on the way back puts up a fight with Ananthapadmanabhan disguised as a beggar as the beggar tried to snatch the council note and, eventually the note is lost in the Killiyar. In the novel the above events are shown as happened in Kollavarsham 903 before the accession of Marthanda Varma.[64][90][91]

Coup attempt by Thambi brothers[edit]

When the foreign contingent arrived under Azhagappa Mudaliyar as an aid to Thambi brothers from Pandyan governor, the Thambi duo joins them at the Nanjinadu camp to mobilize the forces; meanwhile Marthanda Varma tried to arrange necessary counter forces at Kalkulam, however as there were not enough forces to confront the contingent and men of Thambi duo, Marthanda Varma negotiated with the officers of Azhagappa Mudaliyar, lieutenant Kanimiyavu and captain Kapalipara Sokkalingam Pillai, thus secured a safe passage out of Kalkulam fort with an escort to Neyyattinkara, in order to go to Perakathavazhi at Kollam; en route, on realizing that the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and his royal mother at Puthenkotta[AD] were about to be attacked by a team led by Kudamon Pilla, Karakulathu Pilla and Vanchikoottathu Pilla, Marthanda Varma rushed there and moved the mother-son duo to Attingal and headed to Kollam. Meanwhile, the team led by Azhagappa Mudaliyar and Thambi brothers started from Kalkulam to Thiruvananthapuram, where they tried to take the possession of treasure at Sree Padmanabha Swamy temple, but only to foil the plans by the local inhabitants, to whom the charge was entrusted by Vanchikoottathu Pilla before he moved from there. The protests by local people made the team of Thambi brothers to retract, so Azhagappa Mudaliyar and forces headed to eastern provinces. Mathilakam Records mentions the above account of events as happened in Kollavarsham 905, one year after the demise of king Rama Varma. In the novel, it is presented that the foreign forces, the forces from Nanjinadu are led by Raman Thambi. The men of Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas together plan to siege the palace to slay the prince, however prince Marthanda Varma evade the coup as he is timely tipped by Subadra, who also insists to move the little prince and the mother to a safe place. When the team led by Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas are unsuccessful in locating Marthanda Varma and little prince, they head to Manacaud. The above course of events is shown in the novel as happened five days after the demise of king Rama Varma.[30][64][89]

Accession of Marthanda Varma[edit]

P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya state that Marthanda Varma ascended to the throne in Kollavarsham 904 (1729). Mathilakam Records refers the accession of Marthanda Varma as happened on or before the month of Ani (June–July) in Kollavarsham 904 (1729). T. K. Velu Pillai mentions the commencement of Marthanda Varma’s reign in Kollavarsham 905. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju mentions that the accession was happened in Kollavarsham 905. In the novel, the accession of Marthanda Varma is shown as happened two weeks after the demise of king Rama Varma in Kollavarsham 904.[30][57][58][86][92][93][94]

  • Other events
Illness and demise of king Rama Varma – According to P. Shangoony Menon, king Rama Varma died of short illness in Kollavarsham 903 (1728). V. Nagam Aiya also states that king Rama Varma died in the year 1728. Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju mentions that king Rama Varma passed away in Kollavarsham 904 (January 1729) referring to the Mathilakam Records. In the novel, king Rama Varma is bed ridden due to illness during Kollavarsham 903 and passes away in the course of story. According to Prof. N. Krishna Pillai and Prof. V. Anandakuttan Nair, the demise of king Rama Varma mentioned in the novel falls in the timeline of Kollavarsham 904.[49][51][70][92]
Detention of Arumukham Pilla – Dalawa Arumukham Pilla was once detained by foreign forces camped at Thrikkanamkudi[AE], because the payment for them as per the agreement with the king Rama Varma was in arrears. The required payment was almost done through the merchants at Kottar, however Dalawa was not released and the release was accomplished by the then commander-in-chief, Kumarswami Pillai. According to P. Shangoony Menon and T. K. Velu Pillai, the detention and release was happened post the accession of Marthanda Varma. In the novel, Arumukham Pilla is detained by Madura forces at Boothapandi and possible payments are arranged through loans from Kottar; the events are presented as happened before the accession of Marthanda Varma and the remaining amount required is provided by Subadra to Marthanda Varma to facilitate the release.[57][76]
Conquest of Desiganadu – Marthanda Varma marched to Desinganadu in Kollavarsham 906 because the king of Desinganadu invaded and conquered the eastern portions of Kallada, which was under Venad. In the novel, the conquest of Desinganadu is referred as happened in Kollavarsham 906 with the direct involvement of king Marthanda Varma, to whom Ananthapadmanabhan was the main protector in the conquest.[32][90][95][96][97]
The novel refers the Kalipankulam incident, which according to P. Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya was that the five princes who were the offspring of Umayamma Rani were murdered by men of confederates (Madampimar). T. K. Velu Pillai points that Umayamma Rani never had any children. In the novel, the tragedy at Kalipankulam is mentioned only as the massacre of five princes without giving any reference to Umayamma Rani, but refers the involvement of Ramanamadathil Pilla in the incident. There is a reference to the tragedy of Iravikutti Pilla, who was the commander-in-chief during the period of Unni Kerala Varma (Kollavarsham 806–823). Iravikutti Pilla was killed by the forces of Thirumalai Nayak in the battle, to which he headed by ignoring the bad omens. In the novel, Kazhakoottathu Pilla refers to the establishment of twenty-four Śāstākkanmāṟ (deities with the divine aspects of Shasthavu) at the downhills in Kerala for protection, which implies the legend about Parashurama, who did the enshrinements of Shasthavu deity at various places in Kerala.[66][98][99][100]

Allusions to other literary works[edit]

Chapter 1, Epigraph: Mahabharatham (Kilippattu), Sthreeparvam [101]

Adaptations[edit]

Comics[edit]

Cover page of 1985  edition of comics
The Legend of Maarthaanda Varma
Cover page of 2007 Balarama Amar Chithra Katha
Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma (2007)
Cover of 2010 edition of comics
Maarthaanda Varma (2010)

In 1985, Amar Chitra Katha comics of IBH Publishers Pvt. Ltd released an English comic book adaptation of novel. The thirty-two pages of comic book adaptation have art consultancy by Ram Waeerkar and editing by Anant Pai.[102]

  • The Legend of Maarthaanda Varma
Script : Radha Nair
Illustration : M. Mohandas
Cover Art : Ramesh Umrotkar

The comic book starts with the council of Ettuveettil Pillamars discussing the plans to oust the prince Marthanda Varma and to make Padmanabhan Thambi as the next king. The adaptation features almost all the major characters with the exclusion of Chulliyil Chadachi Marthandan Pilla, Zulaikha, Fathima. The adaptation also excludes the fight sequence of Sundarayyan with Ananthapadmanabhan disguised as beggar and other events described in the last three years of timeline of the novel.

In 2007, the comic book adaptation was released in Malayalam by Balarama Amar Chithra Katha of Malayala Manorama group as Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma. The title The Legend of Maathaanda Varma was later altered to Maarthaanda Varma and released in 2010 by Amar Chitra Katha Pvt. Ltd, and it was included in the comics-collection The Great Indian Classics.[103][104]

Films[edit]

  • 1933: Marthanda Varma – a silent black & white film directed by P. V Rao
For more details on this topic, see Marthanda Varma (film).
Marthanda Varma (1933)
In 1931, R. Sunder Raj of Nagercoil started a film production company named Rajeshwari Films and chose the novel Marthandavarma to adapt for the inaugural production. The film was helmed by director P. V Rao, who also did the script, which includes subtitles in Malayalam as well as English. The film stars Jaidev[AF] as Marthanda Varma, A. V. P. Menon as Ananthapadmanabhan, Miss. Padmini[AG] as Parukutty, Miss. Devaki[AH] as Subadra, V. Naick as Padmanabhan Thambi, V. C. Kutty as Velu Kruppu, and S. V. Nath as Sundarayyan. The film was released and screened at Capitol Theatre, Trivandrum on May 12, 1933 only to face litigation from the publishers of the novel during the period through a court order as the producer of the movie did not have the required rights, which are acquired by Kulakkunnathu S. Raman Menon for B.V. Book Depot and Kamalalaya Book Depot, and subsequently the film was retained by court authorities and imposed a stay on further screening of the film till the closure of legal proceedings which later went against the film producer. Thus, the film marked the first of its kind copyright case involving a literary work and a feature film in India by being a second feature film of Malayalam film industry and the novel being the first Malayalam literary work to adapt to a film from the same industry.[105][106][107][108][109]
Kulam (1997)
In 1996, V. S. Ganagadharan who started Ushapriya Movie Makers came forward to produce the new venture by Lenin Rajendran, who chose to make a film based on Marthandavarma novel with his own script and the filming was started in the first half of 1996. The movie focuses only on the story of Subadra, the pivotal character of the novel by exploring her marital and non-marital relationships finally to her murder by Kudamon Pilla. The film stars Bhanupriya as Subadra, Nassar as Padmanabhan Thambi, Gopakumar as Sundarayyan, Vijayaraghavan as Beeram Khan, Suresh Gopi as mad Channan, Thilakan as Kudamon Pilla, Jagathy Sreekumar as Ramanamadathil Pilla, Narendra Prasad as Kazhakkoottathu Pilla, Elias Babu as Kulathoor Pilla, Jose Pellissery as Pallichal Pilla, Narayanan Nair as Thirumadathil Pilla, Paravoor Ramachandran as Venganoor Pilla, and Vijayan Peringode as Chembazhanthy Pilla. The film represents mad Channan in a different light to that of the novel by avoiding alter ego roles and actions of original character, and the film also avoids all other major characters of the novel except Fathima. The film won Kerala State Film Awards for Best Popular Film with Aesthetic Value, and Best Art Direction. The film was released on Feb 21, 1997 through Ambadi Pictures and went on to become a commercial failure.[110][111][112][113][114]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Messrs. Addison & Co., named after the prolific essayist and critic, Joseph Addison, are described as being letterpress and lithographic printers, bookbinders, manufacturing stationers, engravers, fancy goods merchants, cycle and motor agents, and repairers and engineers in Madras during the period 1873 to 1943.[7][8] Addison & Co. were later acquired by Anantharamakrishnan of Amalgamations in 1943.[9]
  2. ^ B. K. Menon (1907–1950) was a writer in Malayalam and English who wrote poetry in Malayalam, articles and short stories in English.[16]
  3. ^ Matilakaṁ Grantavari or Mathilakam Records are palm leaf scrolls (churunas or curuṇakaḷ) with information about Sree Padmanabha Swamy temple and the kingdom of erstwhile Travancore, written in ancient scripts of Kerala such as Vattezhuthu, Kolezhuthu, besidesTamil and Malayalam as royal orders (neettu or nīṭṭŭ), land records (ozhuku or oḻukŭ), treasury notices, taxation records, court proceedings, boundary disputes etc.[28]
  4. ^ Kuñcu Taṁpi and Iḷaya Taṁpi. They are also been referred as Kanakku Thambi Raman Raman and Kanakku Thambi Raman Athichan (Kaṇakku Taṁpi Rāman Rāman and Kaṇakku Taṁpi Rāman Āticcan) respectively.
  5. ^ P. Shangoony Menon (1815–1880), was a clerk, then Assistant Record Keeper at the Travancore royal palace, he was Dewan Peishkar, served at Padmanabhapuram and Kollam, authored History of Travancore from the Earliest Times.[29]
  6. ^ Avirāmi or Kiṭṭaṇattāḷamma.
  7. ^ Dr. A. P. Ibrahim Kunju (1921–2000), got his PhD from University of Kerala for the research thesis Mārtāṇḍa Varma and his Times; was a reader and professor in University of Calicut.[36]
  8. ^ Valiyattampikkuñcuttampikkataippāṭal, Tampimar Katai, and Valiyataṁpi Kuñcutaṁpi Katha.
  9. ^ T. K. Velu Pillai (1882–1950), was a schoolteacher, later an advocate and civil servant, then a legislator, a writer in Malayalam and English who revised the Travancore State Manual in 1940.[48]
  10. ^
    • Group I (1. Kanakku Thambi Raman Raman, 2. Kanakku Thambi Raman Athichan) as Thambimar, of which both were killed.
    • Group II (1. Koduman Pilla, 2. Vanchikkuttathu Pilla, 3. Karakkulathu Pilla) of which, Karakkulathu Pilla was killed.
    • Group III (1. Ettuveettil Madambi Panayara Shankaran Pandarathu Kuruppu, 2. Kochu Mahadevan Pandarathu Kuruppu, 3. Thekkeveettil Eachambi Kuruppu, 4. Vadakkeveettil Eachambi Kuruppu, 5. Chiriyankeezhu Mundakkal Kamachotti Pilla, 6. Makizhanchery Ravikutty Pilla, 7. Thekkeveettil Cherupulli Nambukali Pilla, 8. Valiya Pilla Kunchu Irayimman Pilla) as Ettuveettil Madambimar, of which all were punished.
    • Group IV (1. Idathara Thrivikraman, 2. Ilambeal Marthandan Ravi), of which all were punished.
    • Group V (1. Kulathur Kanakku Kali Kali, 2. Kazhakkoottam Kanakku Raman Ichuvaran, 3. Chiriyankeezhu Vadakkeveettil Kanakku Cherupulli Marthandan Ananthan, 4. Parakkottu Kanakku Ayyappan Vikraman, 5. Kanakku Thambi Raman Raman, 6. Pandikkuttathil Kanakku Shankaranarayanan Ayyappan) as Arukoottathil Pillamar, of which all were punished.
    • Group VI (1. Kochu Kunjan Pandarathu Kuruppu, 2. Valiya Pilla Kunchu Irayimman Pilla) as Ettuveettil Madambimar who, were set free.
    • Group VII (1. Parakkottu Thikkakutti Pilla, 2. Pandikkuttathil Ayyappan Pilla) as Arukoottam Pillamar who, were set free.
  11. ^ Dr. P. Venugopalan is the dean of Faculty of Fine Arts at University of Kerala, served as the chief editor of Malayalam Lexicon, he edited the centenary edition of Marhtandavarma novel with a comparative study of first and second editions of the novel.
  12. ^ P. Govinda Pillai (1829–1907), a school teacher, later a lawyer at royal court and a prose writer in Malayalam who wrote the history of Malayalam language entitled Malayāḷabhāṣācaritraṁ.[55]
  13. ^ Ramanamadathil Pillay, Mathanamadathil Pillay, Kolathoo Pillay, Kalacoottathu Pillay, Chembalathil Pillay, Pallichel Pillay, Kudamun Pillay and Venganoor Pillay.
  14. ^ Ramanamatam, Martandam, Kulattur, Kazhakuttam, Chembazhanthi, Pallichal, Koduman and Venganur.
  15. ^ Dr. C. K. Kareem (1929–2000), was a scholar and secured his Ph.D from Aligarh Muslim University with a research thesis on Administration of Kerala under Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, he served as state editor of Kerala Gazetteers, the registrar of Cochin University and, the secretary of Kerala History Association.[62][63]
  16. ^ Letters to Tellicherry are records of Madras Presidency published as one of the series among Records of Fort St. George in 12 Volumes by the Superintendent of Government Press, Madras in 1934.
  17. ^ Mancode is a village in Vilavancode taluk of Kanniyakumari district.
  18. ^ Kalliancaud Sivan Kovil, geographically located at latitude 8 ° 11′0'' and longitude 8 ° 11′0''.
  19. ^ Panathura or Panathara is a costal area between Vazhamuttom and Pachaloor in Thiruvananthapuram district.
  20. ^ Perumkadavila is a locality in Perumkadavila taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  21. ^ Dhanuvachapuram is a village in Perumkadavila taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  22. ^ Eithukondamkani is a locality in Perumkadavila taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  23. ^ Marayamuttom is a village in Neyyattinkara taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  24. ^ Malakulangara is a locality in Perumkadavila taluk of Thiruvananthapuram district.
  25. ^ First published history of Travancore (in Malayalam) written by Pachu Moothathu in 1867.
  26. ^ Budhanoor is a village in Chengannur taluk of Alappuzha district.
  27. ^ P. K. Parameswaran Nair (1903–1988), was a clerk in Travancore Devaswom then supervisor in Lexicon Department at University of Kerala, was a writer in Malayalam who wrote the brographies of C. V. Raman Pillai, Chattampi Swamikal, also authored history of Malayalam literature as Ādhunikamalayāḷasāhityaṁ, Malayāḷasahityacaritraṁ.[85]
  28. ^ Nanjinadu is the southern area of Kanyakumari district comprising the taluks of Agastheeswaram and Thovalai.
  29. ^ Andiyirakkam is a locality near Karamana in Thiruvananthapuram city.
  30. ^ Puthenkotta is a locality between Attakulangara and Karamana in Thiruvananthapuram city.
  31. ^ Thirukannangudi is a locality in Tirunelveli district.
  32. ^ Aandi as Jaidev.
  33. ^ Pattammal as Miss. Padmini.
  34. ^ Devaki Bhai as Miss. Devaki.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Menon, B.K (1936). MARTHANDA VARMA (First ed.). Trivandrum: Kamalalaya Book Depot. A Historical Romance 
  2. ^ a b Nair, S.Guptan (1992). "Foreword". C.V.Raman Pillai (First ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. 
  3. ^ a b "Novel and Short Story to the Present Day". History of Malayalam Literature. 
  4. ^ a b c Devi, R. Leela (1984) [1979]. MARTHANDA VARMA (Second ed.). New Delhi: Sterling Paperbacks. A Historical Novel 
  5. ^ "Malayalam Literature". Indianetzone.com. 2009. 
  6. ^ a b Pillai, C.V. Raman (1991) [1891]. Marthandavarma (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 2. 
  7. ^ Wright, Arnold; Bond, J.W; Playne, Somerset, eds. (2004) [1914–1915]. "The City of Madras and Environs". Sothern India its history, people, commerce, and industrial resources (AES Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 133–135. 
  8. ^ "Some Business Houses in Madras". The Madras Tercentenary commemoration volume. Madras Tercentenary Celebration Committee (AES Reprint ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 1994 [1939]. pp. 274–275. ISBN 81-206-0537-3. 
  9. ^ Muthiah, S (Aug 13, 2003), Printers' ink on Mount Road, Metro Plus, Chennai: The Hindu 
  10. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D.C.Books. pp. 57–59. 
  11. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D.C.Books. pp. 59–64. 
  12. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (1983) [1891]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Little Prince Publications. 
  13. ^ Pilla, Dr. K. Raghavan (2009) [1983]. "സി വി യുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾക്ക് ഒരാമുഖം" [An Introduction to CV's Hostorical Narratives]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 28. ISBN 8171301304. 
  14. ^ Pillai, C. V. Raman (2010) [1891–1919]. സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ളയുടെ ചരിത്രാഖ്യായികകൾ സമ്പൂർണ്ണം [CV's Complete Historical Narratives] (in Malayalam) (first ed.). Kottayam: D.C.Books. ISBN 9788126427970. 
  15. ^ Pillai, O. Krishna (1954) [1934]. மார்த்தாண்ட வர்மா [Marthanda Varma] (in Tamil). Trivandrum: Kamalalaya Book Depot. 
  16. ^ a b Jayakumar, Prema (1998). "Foreward". MARTHANDA VARMA. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. 
  17. ^ Menon, B.K (1936). "DEDICATED TO BY KIND PERMISSION". MARTHANDA VARMA (First ed.). Trivandrum: Kamalalaya Book Depot. i-vii, 1–12(b), 254–255, 304–330. End of Volume One 
  18. ^ Menon, B.K (1998) [1936]. MARTHANDA VARMA. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. A Historical Romance 
  19. ^ Paniker, Ayyappa (1998). "Introduction". MARTHANDA VARMA. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. C.V.'s Marthanda Varma : A Centenary Revaluation 
  20. ^ Krishnankutty, Kunnukuzhy (1990). "मार्ताण्ड वर्मा" [Marthanda Varma]. Keral Jyoti (in Hindi) (Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Hindi Prachar Sabha) XXV (3). 
  21. ^ Thambi, P. Padmanabhan (2007). மார்த்தாண்ட வர்ம்மா [Marthanda Varma] (in Tamil). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1658-2. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 328–330. 
  23. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 232. Last Phase of Mediaeval History 
  24. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 288. 
  25. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ ആദ്യകാല ജീവിതം" [Early life of Marthanda Varma]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 24. 
  26. ^ Pillai, C.V. Raman (1991) [1891]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 28. 
  27. ^ Pillai, C.V. Raman (1991) [1891]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 175. 
  28. ^ "Our archival heritage". METRO PLUS (Thiruvananthapuram: The Hindu). 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012. 
  29. ^ Pilla, V. R. Parameswaran (2012) [1973]. "ഗ്രന്ഥകാരനെ പറ്റി" [About the author]. തിരുവിതാംകൂർ ചരിത്രം [Travancore History] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. pp. xi–xiii. ISBN 9788176380744. 
  30. ^ a b c d Pillai, T.K. Velu, ed. (1996) [1940]. "M. Doc. CXXX". The Travancore State Manual (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 115–117 (Historical Documents). 
  31. ^ a b c d Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 116–117. 
  32. ^ a b c d e Pillay, Nanoo (1974). "The Sketch of Progress of Travancore". In Elenkath, K. R. Dewan Nanoo Pillay. Neyyoor-West: Dewan Nanoo Pillay Memorial Reading Room. pp. 126–129. 
  33. ^ Padmakumari, Prof. J.; Hussain, K.B.M, eds. (2003). വലിയതമ്പി കുഞ്ചുതമ്പി കഥ [Big Brother Small Brother Story] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. pp. 4–22. 
  34. ^ Natarajan, T.; Sarveswaran, P., eds. (2001). தம்பிமார் கதை [Brothers Story] (in Tamil). Madurai: Madurai Kamaraj University. pp. 42–58. 
  35. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "പ്രവാസം" [Expatriation]. സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pilla] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 59. 
  36. ^ B, Kumari Vanaja N., ed. (2005) [1990]. "ഡോ. എ. പി. ഇബ്രാഹിംകുഞ്ഞ്" [Dr. A.P. Ibrahim Kunju]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. Inside front cover. 
  37. ^ Shobhanan, Dr. B. (2011). "A Note on Ananthapadmanabhan". In Immanuel, Dr. M.; Sarveswaran, Dr. P. மாவீரன் தளபதி அனந்தபத்மநாபன் [Great Commander Ananthapadmanabhan]. Nagercoil: Cultural Historical Linguistic Indegenous Research Organisation, India. p. 105. 
  38. ^ Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ചരിത്രവും കല്പനയും" [Marthandavarma: History and Figment]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 109. ISBN 8171301304. 
  39. ^ Kunju, Dr. A. P. Ibrahim (1976). Rise of Travancore: A Study of life and times of Marthanda Varma. Trivandrum: Kerala Historical Society. pp. 20–22. 
  40. ^ Immanuel, Dr. M. (2007). "A Forgotten Hero". Kanniyakumari: Aspects and Architects. Nagercoil: Historical Research and Publications Trust. pp. 92–93. 
  41. ^ Varatharajan, K. P. (2000). "அத்தியாயம் 4" [Chapter 4]. திருவடி தேசம் திருப்பாப்பூர் பரம்பரை மாவீரன் ஶ்ரீமத் அனந்தபத்மநாபன் நாடார் வரலாறு [History of great hero Mr. Ananthapadmanabhan Nadar in Thripappur lineage of Thiruvati nation] (in Tamil). Kattathurai: Ananthapadmanabhan Trust. pp. 39–40. 
  42. ^ Thampi, Dr. G. Thrivikraman (2008). "തെക്കൻപാട്ടുകളിലെ സാസ്കാരിക പ്രതിഫലനം" [Cultural reflection in southern ballads]. തെക്കൻപാട്ടുകളും വാമൊഴിപ്പാട്ടുകളും: ഉള്ളൊരുക്കങ്ങൾ ഉൾപ്പൊരുളുകൾ [Southern Ballads and Vernacular Songs: Inner equipments and inner meanings] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Raja Raja Varma Basha Padana Kendram. p. 27. 
  43. ^ Radhakrishnan, R. (2011). "திருவடி பரம்பரையில் உதித்த மாவீரன்" [Hero emerged in the Thiruvati Lineage]. In Immanuel, Dr. M.; Sarveswaran, Dr. P. மாவீரன் தளபதி அனந்தபத்மநாபன் [Great Commander Ananthapadmanabhan] (in Tamil). Nagercoil: Cultural Historical Linguistic Indegenous Research Organisation, India. p. 42. 
  44. ^ Padmakumari, Prof. J.; Hussain, K.B.M, eds. (2003). വലിയതമ്പി കുഞ്ചുതമ്പി കഥ [Big Brother Small Brother Story] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. p. 78. 
  45. ^ Natarajan, T.; Sarveswaran, P., eds. (2001). தம்பிமார் கதை [Brothers Story] (in Tamil). Madurai: Madurai Kamaraj University. p. 109. 
  46. ^ a b Sarveswaran, Dr. P., ed. (1982). ஓட்டன் கதை [Runner Tale] (in Tamil). Madurai: Mano Publishers. 12-16, 22-24, 31. 
  47. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "പ്രവാസം" [Expatriation]. സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pilla] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 60. 
  48. ^ Raimon, S. (1996). "T.K.Velu Pillai, A biographical note". THE TRAVANCORE STATE MANUAL VOL -I. KCHR Publications. 
  49. ^ a b Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 314–315. 
  50. ^ a b Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. 232, 260-261. Last Phase of Mediaeval History 
  51. ^ a b c d Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 106, 108, 110. 
  52. ^ a b c Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 107. 
  53. ^ a b Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 324. 
  54. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 241. Last Phase of Mediaeval History 
  55. ^ Mukherjee, Sujit (1999). "G". A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. A Dictionary of Indian Literature I. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan. p. 119. ISBN 8125014535. 
  56. ^ a b Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I, Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 96, 109. 
  57. ^ a b c d e f Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I, Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 114–115. 
  58. ^ a b c d e f Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. 327, 333-334. 
  59. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "എട്ടരയോഗവും എട്ടുവീട്ടിൽ പിള്ളമാരും" [Ettarayogam and Ettuveettil Pillas]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 169–170. 
  60. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും, സൂചിതസാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ - ഒരു പഠനം" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation, Referred Literary works – A study]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. 84, 114. ISBN 8171301304. 
  61. ^ Pillai, C.V. Raman (1891) [1991]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. p. 96. 
  62. ^ Warrier, N. V. Krishna; P. Devadas, K. (2012) [1973]. "ഒന്നാം പതിപ്പിന്റെ ആമുഖം" [Preface of first edition]. തിരുവിതാംകൂർ ചരിത്രം [Travancore History] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. p. vii. ISBN 9788176380744. 
  63. ^ Abrar, Dr. Rahat. "Directory of Journalist from AMU". Alumni of Aligarh Muslim University (India). Saudi Arabia: amualumni.8m.com. p. 3. 
  64. ^ a b c Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 120–121. 
  65. ^ Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 311–312. 
  66. ^ a b Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 97–100. 
  67. ^ Kareem, C. K. (2012) [1973]. തിരുവിതാംകൂർ ചരിത്രം [Travancore History] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages. pp. 84–85. ISBN 9788176380744. 
  68. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 211–212. The Temple and the State 
  69. ^ a b Pillai, T.K. Velu, ed. (1996) [1940]. "M. Doc. CXXX". The Travancore State Manual (in Malayalam) II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 121–122 (Historical Documents). 
  70. ^ a b c Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "പതിനേഴാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടിലെ വേണാടു രാഷ്ട്രീയം" [Venadu politics in seventeenth century]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 20–22. 
  71. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 92. ISBN 8171301304. 
  72. ^ Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter I, Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 122-123, 127, 173. 
  73. ^ Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 363–364. 
  74. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. 281, 349-350. 
  75. ^ a b c Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 335. 
  76. ^ a b c Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 268–269. 
  77. ^ a b c Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 256–259. 
  78. ^ Varatharajan, K. P. (2000). "அத்தியாயம் 3" [Chapter 3]. திருவடி தேசம் திருப்பாப்பூர் பரம்பரை மாவீரன் ஶ்ரீமத் அனந்தபத்மநாபன் நாடார் வரலாறு [History of great hero Mr. Ananthapadmanabhan Nadar in Thripappur lineage of Thiruvati nation] (in Tamil). Kattathurai: Ananthapadmanabhan Trust. p. 26. 
  79. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 99. ISBN 8171301304. 
  80. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "വിവാഹം" [Wedding]. സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pilla] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 96. 
  81. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (2014) [1948]. "ചന്ദ്രമുഖീവിലാസം" [Candramukhīvilāsaṁ]. സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pilla] (in Malayalam). Thrissur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi. p. 80. 
  82. ^ a b Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "വ്യാഖ്യാനക്കുറിപ്പുകൾ" [Explanatory notes]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 402. ISBN 8171301304. 
  83. ^ a b Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ ആദ്യകാല ജീവിതം" [Early life of Marthanda Varma]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 26–27. 
  84. ^ Gopalakrishnan, Dr. Naduvattom (2008). "പെരുങ്കടവിള ഈഴക്കുടി" [Ezhava house at Perunkadavila]. നാടോടി ചരിത്രക്കഥകൾ [Folk historical stories] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Malu Ben Publications. pp. 61–62. 
  85. ^ Varma, Ezhumattoor Rajaraja (2011). പി. കെ. പരമേശ്വരൻനായർ [P. K. Parameswaran Nair]. Thiruvananthapuram: P. K. Parameswaran Nair Memorial Trust. pp. 58–310. ISBN 9788124019139. 
  86. ^ a b Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ ആദ്യകാല ജീവിതം" [Early life of Marthanda Varma]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 28–29. 
  87. ^ Nair, P. K. Parameswaran (1959) [1948]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയിലൂടെ" [Through Marthandavarma]. സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള [C. V. Raman Pilla] (in Malayalam). Thriuvananthapuram: Kerala Sahithya Sahakarana Sangham. p. 131. 
  88. ^ Venugopalan, Dr. P. (2009) [1992]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: സൃഷ്ടിയും സ്വരൂപവും" [Marthandavarma: Creation and Formation]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive Variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. p. 87. ISBN 8171301304. 
  89. ^ a b c Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 271–273. 
  90. ^ a b Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 336–339. 
  91. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മയുടെ ആദ്യകാല ജീവിതം" [Early life of Marthanda Varma]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 31–32. 
  92. ^ a b Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "കഥാകാലം; സംഭവസ്ഥലങ്ങൾ" [Timeline of story; Incident locations]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 126–127. ISBN 8171301304. 
  93. ^ Pilla, Prof. N. Krishna; Nair, Prof. V. Anandakkuttan (2009) [1983]. "മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ചരിത്രവും കല്പനയും" [Marthandavarma: History and Figment]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam) (Definitive variorum ed.). Kottayam: D. C. Books. pp. 102–103. ISBN 8171301304. 
  94. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 262. 
  95. ^ Menon, P. Shangoony (1998) [1879]. "Chapter II". History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 125–126. 
  96. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mordern History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 274–278. 
  97. ^ Kunju, Dr. A.P. Ibrahim (2005) [1990]. "പതിനെട്ടാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടിൽ തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ വികാസം" [Expansion of Travancore in Eighteenth Century]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ: ആധുനിക തിരുവിതാംകൂറിന്റെ ഉദയം [Marthanda Varma : Rise of Modern Travancore] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publications Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 34–35. 
  98. ^ Aiya, V. Nagam (1999) [1906]. "Chapter VI". The Travancore State Manual I. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. p. 310. 
  99. ^ Pillai, T.K. Velu (1996) [1940]. "Mediaeval History". The Travancore State Manual II. Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala Gazetteers Department, Govt. of Kerala. pp. 220–225. The Temple and the State 
  100. ^ Pillai, C.V. Raman (1891) [1991]. മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [Marthandavarma] (in Malayalam). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. 52, 99-100, 103. 
  101. ^ Ezhuthachan, Thunchathu Ramanujan (1999) [1500–1699]. Sree Mahabharatham – Sthree Parvam (in Malayalam) (Fourth ed.). Kottayam: Sahitya Pravartaka Co-operative Society Ltd. pp. 44–45. 
  102. ^ Radha Nair (w), M. Mohandas, Ramesh Umrotkar (a), Anant Pai (ed). "A Historical Romance from Kerala" The Legend of Maarthaanda Varma 346: Inside front cover (December 1985), Bombay: IBH Publishers Pvt. Ltd
  103. ^ Radha Nair (w), M. Mohandas, Ramesh Umrotkar (a), Anant Pai (ed). "A Romantic Legend from Kerala" Maarthaanda Varma v813,: Inside front cover (December 2010), Mumbai: Amar Chitra Katha Pvt. Ltd
  104. ^ Radha Nair (w), M. Mohandas, Ramesh Umrotkar (a), N. M. Mohanan (ed). മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ [māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma] vXVII, 6: 50 (September 2007), Kottayam: Balarama Amar Chithra Katha
  105. ^ Chabria, Suresh, ed. (2013) [1994]. "The Indian Silent Cinema Retrospective". Light of Asia : INDIA SILENT CINEMA 1912-1934 (Expanded ed.). New Delhi: Niyogi Books. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-93-83098-02-6. 
  106. ^ "Introduction". Malayalam Cinema. Thiruvananthapuram: Public Relations Development – Government of Kerala. 
  107. ^ M, Bindu Menon (June 2009). "Romancing history and historicizing romance". Circuits of Cinema: a symposium on Indian cinema in the 1940s and '50s. New Delhi: Seminar: Web Edition. 
  108. ^ "ചലച്ചിത്ര ചരിത്രം" [Movie History]. About City - ചലച്ചിത്ര രംഗം [About City – Movie Scene] (in Malayalam). Thiruvananthapuram: Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation. p. 16. 
  109. ^ Vijayakumar, B. (March 7, 2013). "Marthanda Varma 1931". Metro Plus. Thiruvananthapuram: THE HINDU. 
  110. ^ Kodampuzha, T. H. (1996). "രാമനാമഠത്തെ ഭയപ്പെടുത്തിയ യക്ഷി" [The Fairy who scared Ramana Madam]. Chithrabhumi (in Malayalam) (Kozhikode: Mathrubhumi Publishing & Printing Company Ltd). 
  111. ^ Kodampuzha, T. H. (1996). "സുഭദ്രയുടെ കുമാരൻ" [Subadra's Kumaran]. Chithrabhumi (in Malayalam) (Kozhikode: Mathrubhumi Publishing & Printing Company Ltd). 
  112. ^ Jayakumar, G. (2006). "The politics of a relationship". THE HINDU, Jan 27, 2006. 
  113. ^ Malayilkada, Vinil (1998). "ശുഷ്കമായ ഭാവിയും സെലക്ടീവായ കാണികളും" [Dry future and selective viewers]. Chithrabhumi (in Malayalam) (Kozhikode: Mathrubhumi Publishing & Printing Company Ltd) XLII (16): 7–9. 
  114. ^ Mathew, Joshi (1998). "പരിചയസമ്പന്നർ വിജയം കൊയ്യുന്നു" [Veterans harvest success]. Rashtra Deepika Cinema (in Malayalam) (Kottayam: Messrs. Rashtra Deepika Ltd.) III (17): 8–9.