Martin 2-0-2

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Martin 2-0-2
JAL Aircraft Mokusei-go.JPG
Japan Airlines Martin 2-0-2 "Mokusei" (1951)
Role Airliner
Manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company
First flight 22 November 1946
Introduction August, 1947
Retired about 1975
Primary users Northwest Orient Airlines
LAN Chile
Trans World Airlines
Produced 1947-1948
Number built 47
Variants Martin 4-0-4

The Martin 2-0-2 was an airliner introduced in 1947. The twin-engined piston aircraft was designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company.

Design and development[edit]

Glenn L. Martin, president of the company, intended that the Model 202 would be a replacement for the DC-3. It was also known as the "Martin Executive".

The first flight of the Model 2-0-2 was in November 1946. Full civilian certification was gained in August 1947. This was several months before competing aircraft types. The total production of 2-0-2 and 2-0-2A was 47 aircraft.[1]

The aircraft was non-pressurized but was considered a long range airliner. The fatal crash in 1948 of Northwest Airlines Flight 421 revealed a serious structural problem in the wings. Structural metal fatigue was the problem in a major wing spar. Alloy 7075-T6 was used, which is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking and low toughness. The airliner was grounded and modifications were made. The wing components were redesigned and the engines replaced. The changed type was designated the Martin 2-0-2A.

Operational history[edit]

Ex Northwest Airlines Martin 2-0-2 of Aeroproveedora (Colombia) at Fort Lauderdale Florida in 1973
Ex TWA Martin 2-0-2A of Southeast Airlines (Florida) at Miami in 1970

On November 13, 1945 Pennsylvania Central Airlines purchased a fleet of 35 Martin 202's from the Glenn Martin Company for a price of $7,000,000.[2] Two weeks later, Colonial Airlines announced that they would purchase 20 airplanes at the price of $4,000,000, scheduled for delivery in 1947.[3] Early in the next year, Martin announced that Pennsylvania-Central Airlines had ordered 15 more 202's bringing the total aircraft on order in early January 1947 to 137 aircraft, with a sales value of $27,000,000.[4] Despite the announcement of these large orders, the contract terms allowed the airlines to cancel them without any penalty.[5] The 2-0-2 was unpressurised, unlike the competing Convair 240. Therefore, as delays in production built up, all airlines except Northwest, TWA, LAN and LAV cancelled their orders and only 31 2-0-2s and 12 2-0-2As were actually delivered to the airlines.[5] The first scheduled flight was on Northwest between Minneapolis and Chicago on 13 October 1947.

The 2-0-2 was the first airplane subjected to the CAA's then new 'Accelerated Service Test', introduced May 15, 1947. In this test an airliner was to undergo a rigorous 150-hour test, attempting to squeeze one year's service into a week to ten day's flying. The 202 made such a test visiting about 50 cities in 7 days. At each city comprehensive inspections were made of the aircraft systems to assess how wear or malfunction would occur.[6]

TWA and Northwest, initial customers of the 2-0-2, eventually sold their Martin 2-0-2s to California Central and Pioneer Airlines. Later, Allegheny Airlines acquired many of the 2-0-2's as part of the company's expansion plans, beginning June 1, 1955. Eventually they acquired a total of 18 aircraft.

Only one of this type of aircraft is known to survive[citation needed], at the Aviation Hall of Fame and Museum of New Jersey.

This airliner was eventually developed into the Martin 4-0-4, which was more successful.

Variants[edit]

The Martin Company designated the following quantities for the airlines (though not all were built), listed by Martin Model number:[citation needed]

  • 2-0-2 - twin engine prototype: 3, in 1946
  • 2-0-2FL - twin engine commercial transport, Chile: 4, in 1947
  • 2-0-2NW - twin engine commercial transport, Northwest Airlines: 25, in 1947
  • 2-0-2LAV - twin engine commercial transport, Venezuela: 2, in 1947
  • 2-0-2A - twin engine commercial transport, Trans World Airlines: 21, in 1947
  • 2-0-2E - twin engine commercial transport, Eastern Airlines: 25, in 1947

Operators[edit]

♠ original operators

 Chile
 Colombia
  • Aeroproveedora
 Japan
 Mexico
 Panama
  • RAPSA Panama
 United States
 Venezuela

Accidents and incidents[edit]

The Martin 2-0-2 had 13 hull-loss accidents and incidents of which nine were fatal accidents.[11]

  • 29 August 1948 - Northwest Airlines Flight 421 crashed after losing a wing near Winona, Minnesota, United States, 37 fatalities.[1][12]
  • 7 March 1950 - Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 307 crashed after hitting a flag pole near Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, United States. 15 fatalities including two on the ground.[1][13]
  • 13 October 1950 - A Northwest Orient 2-0-2 crashed on a training flight at Almelund, Minnesota, United States, 6 fatalities.[1][14]
  • 7 November 1950 - Northwest Orient Flight 115 crashed into a mountain near Butte, Montana, United States, 21 fatalities.[1][15]
  • 16 January 1951 - Northwest Orient Flight 115 crashed near Reardon, Washington, United States, after sudden unexplained loss of control during cruise.[16] 10 fatalities.[1][17]
  • 5 November 1951 - Transocean Air Flight 5763 crashed on approach to Tucumcari, New Mexico, United States, one fatality.[1][18]
  • 9 April 1952 - Japan Airlines Mokusei (operating as Flight 301) crashed into Mihara volcano, O'Shuma Island, Japan, 37 fatalities.[1][19]
  • 12 January 1955 - Trans World Airlines Flight 694 was destroyed in a mid-air collision with a Douglas DC-3 near Covington, Kentucky, United States, 13 fatalities plus 2 on the DC-3.[1][20]
  • 14 November 1955 - A Allegheny Airlines 2-0-2 had a collapsed undercarriage during a training flight landing at Willimington-Newcastle Airport and was damaged beyond repair.[21]
  • 30 December 1955 - A Southwest Airlines 2-0-2 was destroyed in a hangar fire at San Francisco, California, United States.[1]
  • 21 August 1959 - A Pacific Air Lines 2-0-2A was damaged beyond repair after a ground incident with a C-46 Commando at Burbank, California, United States.[1]
  • 1 December 1959 - Allegheny Airlines Flight 371 crashed into a mountain on approach Williamsport, Pennsylvania, United States, 25 fatalities.[1][22]
  • 2 November 1963 - An Allegheny Airlines 2-0-2 was damaged beyond repair at Newark, New Jersey, United States.[1]

Specifications (Martin 2-0-2)[edit]

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–52[23]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity:
    • 40 passengers or
    • 9,270 lb (4,200 kg) payload
  • Length: 71 ft 4 in (21.74 m)
  • Wingspan: 93 ft 3 in (28.42 m)
  • Height: 28 ft 5 in (8.66 m)
  • Wing area: 864 sq ft (80.3 m2)
  • Empty weight: 25,086 lb (11,379 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 39,900 lb (18,098 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-2800 CA-18 Double Wasp 18-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, 1,800 hp (1,300 kW) each (Normal power), 2,400 hp (1,800 kW) (take-off with water injection)
  • Propellers: 3-bladed Hamilton Standard 2H17K3-48R, 13 ft 1 in (3.99 m) diameter

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 193 mph; 168 kn (311 km/h) at 14,000 ft (4,300 m)
  • Cruising speed: 178 mph; 154 kn (286 km/h) at 12,000 ft (3,700 m)
  • Stall speed: 76 mph (66 kn; 122 km/h)
  • Range: 635 mi (552 nmi; 1,022 km) 36 passengers, baggage and 1,000 lb (450 kg) cargo, reserves for 200 mi (170 nmi; 320 km) plus 45 minutes
  • Service ceiling: 33,000 ft (10,058 m)
  • Rate of climb: 2,200 ft/min (11 m/s)
  • Take-off run to 50 ft (15 m): 1,565 ft (477 m)
  • Landing run from 50 ft (15 m): 1,720 ft (520 m)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Eastwood/Roach 1991, pages 267-269
  2. ^ The Chester Times (Pennsylvania), November 13, 1945, page 3
  3. ^ Frederick News-Post (Maryland), November 29, 1945, page 1
  4. ^ Syracuse Herald Journal, January 8, 1946, page 35
  5. ^ a b Killion 1997, pp. 19–20
  6. ^ Big Spring Daily Herald (Texas), August 12, 1947, page 3
  7. ^ Killion 1997, pp. 128–129
  8. ^ Killion 1997, p. 142
  9. ^ Killion 1997, p. 144
  10. ^ Killion 1997, p. 149
  11. ^ Martin 2-0-2
  12. ^ Northwest Orient Flight 421
  13. ^ Northwest Orient Flight 307
  14. ^ Northwest Orient NC93037
  15. ^ Northwest Orient 115 (1950)
  16. ^ Killion 1997, p. 168
  17. ^ Northwest Orient 115 (1951)
  18. ^ Transocean Air Flight 5763
  19. ^ N93043
  20. ^ Trans World Airways Flight 694
  21. ^ N172A
  22. ^ Allegheny Airlines Flight 371
  23. ^ Bridgman 1951, pp. 265c–266c.

References[edit]

  • Bridgman, Leonard (1951). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–52. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd. 
  • Eastwood, Tony; Roach, John (1991). Piston Engine Airliner Production List. West Drayton, England: The Aviation Hobby Shop. ISBN 0-907178-37-5. 
  • Killion, Gary L (1997). The Martinliners. Airways International Inc. ISBN 0-9653993-2-X. 

External links[edit]