Martin B-26 Marauder

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Not to be confused with Douglas A-26 Invader.
B-26 Marauder
B 26.jpg
A US Army Air Forces Martin B-26B Marauder "Dee-Feater" (X2-A) of the 596th BS 397th BG 9th AF with D-Day invasion stripes.
Role Medium bomber
National origin United States
Manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company
First flight 25 November 1940
Introduction 1941
Status Retired
Primary users United States Army Air Forces
Free French Air Force
Royal Air Force
South African Air Force
Produced 1941–1945
Number built 5,288[1] [N 1]
Unit cost
$102,659.33/B-26A[2]
Developed into XB-33 Super Marauder (Unbuilt)
Army Air Forces recruiting poster featuring B-26 Marauder

The Martin B-26 Marauder was a World War II twin-engined medium bomber built by the Glenn L. Martin Company. First used in the Pacific Theater in early 1942, it was also used in the Mediterranean Theater and in Western Europe.

After entering service with the U.S. Army, the aircraft received the reputation of a "Widowmaker" due to the early models' high rate of accidents during takeoff and landings. The Marauder had to be flown at exact airspeeds, particularly on final runway approach and when one engine was out. The 150 mph (241 km/h) speed on short final runway approach was intimidating to pilots who were used to much slower speeds, and whenever they slowed down below what the manual stated, the aircraft would stall and crash.[3]

The B-26 became a safer aircraft once crews were re-trained, and after aerodynamics modifications (an increase of wingspan and wing angle-of-incidence to give better takeoff performance, and a larger vertical stabilizer and rudder).[4] After aerodynamic and design changes, the aircraft distinguished itself as "the chief bombardment weapon on the Western Front" according to a United States Army Air Forces dispatch from 1946.[citation needed] The Marauder ended World War II with the lowest loss rate of any USAAF bomber.[5]

A total of 5,288 were produced between February 1941 and March 1945; 522 of these were flown by the Royal Air Force and the South African Air Force. By the time the United States Air Force was created as an independent service separate from the Army in 1947, all Martin B-26s had been retired from US service. The Douglas A-26 Invader then assumed the B-26 designation — before officially returning to the earlier "A for Attack" designation in May 1966.

Design and development[edit]

In March 1939, the United States Army Air Corps issued Circular Proposal 39-640, a specification for a twin-engined medium bomber, demanding a maximum speed of 350 mph (560 km/h), a range of 3,000 mi (4,800 km) and a bomb load of 2,000 lb (910 kg). On 5 July 1939, the Glenn L. Martin Company submitted its design, produced by a team led by Peyton M. Magruder, to meet the requirement, the Martin Model 179. Martin's design was evaluated as superior to the other proposals and was awarded a contract for 201 aircraft, to be designated B-26.[6] The B-26 went from paper concept to an operational bomber in approximately two years.[7] Additional orders for a further 930 B-26s followed in September 1940, still prior to the first flight of the type.[8]

Closeup view of a Martin B-26B Marauder in flight.

The B-26 was a shoulder-winged monoplane of all-metal construction, fitted with a tricycle landing gear. It had a streamlined, circular section fuselage housing the crew, consisting of a bombardier in the nose, armed with a .30 in (7.62 mm) machine gun, a pilot and co-pilot sitting side by side, with positions for the radio operator and navigator behind the pilots. A gunner manned a dorsal turret armed with two .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns (the first powered dorsal turret to be fitted to a U.S. bomber), while an additional .30 in (7.62 mm) machine gun was fitted in the tail.[N 2]

Two bomb bays were fitted mid-fuselage, capable of carrying 5,800 lb (2,600 kg) of bombs, although in practice such a bomb load reduced range too much, and the aft bomb bay was usually fitted with additional fuel tanks instead of bombs. It was powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp radial engines in nacelles slung under the wing, driving four-bladed propellers. The engines were manufactured at the Ford Dearborn Engine plant in Dearborn, Michigan, USA. The wings were of low aspect ratio and relatively small area for an aircraft of its weight, giving the required high performance, but also resulting in a wing loading of 53 lb/sq ft (259 kg/m²) for the initial versions, which at the time was the highest of any aircraft accepted for service by the Army Air Corps.[10]

The first B-26, with Martin test pilot William K. "Ken" Ebel at the controls, flew on 25 November 1940 and was effectively the prototype. Deliveries to the U.S. Army Air Corps began in February 1941 with the second aircraft, 40-1362.[8] In March 1941, the Army Air Corps started Accelerated Service Testing of the B-26 at Patterson Field, Ohio.

Accidents[edit]

While the B-26 was a fast aircraft with better performance than the contemporary North American B-25 Mitchell, its relatively small wing area and resulting high wing loading (the highest of any aircraft used at that time) required an unprecedented landing speed of 120 to 135 mph (193 to 217 km/h) indicated airspeed depending on load. At least two of the earliest B-26s suffered hard landings and damage to the main landing gear, engine mounts, propellers and fuselage. The type was grounded briefly in April 1941[11] to investigate the landing difficulties. Two causes were found: insufficient landing speed (producing a stall) and improper weight distribution. The latter was due to the lack of a dorsal turret; the Martin power turret was not ready yet.

Some of the very earliest B-26s suffered collapses of the nose landing gear. It is said that they were caused by improper weight distribution, but that is not likely to have been the only reason. They occurred during low-speed taxiing, takeoffs and landings, and occasionally the strut unlocked. Later the Martin electric dorsal turret was retrofitted to some of the first B-26s. Martin also began testing a taller vertical stabilizer and revised tail gunner's position in 1941. The Pratt & Whitney R-2800-5 engines were reliable but the Curtiss electric pitch change mechanism in the propellers required impeccable maintenance, not always attainable in the field. Human error and some failures of the mechanism occasionally placed the propeller blades in flat pitch, resulting in an overspeeding propeller, sometimes known as a "runaway prop". Due to its sound and the possibility that the propeller blades could disintegrate, this situation was particularly frightening for aircrews. More challenging was a loss of power in one engine during takeoff. These and other malfunctions, as well as human error, claimed a number of aircraft and the commanding officer of the 22nd Bombardment Group, Col. Mark Lewis.

The Martin B-26 suffered only two fatal accidents during its first year of flights, November 1940 – November 1941: a crash shortly after takeoff near Martin's Middle River plant (cause unknown but engine malfunction strongly suggested) and the loss of a 38th Bombardment Group B-26 when its vertical stabilizer and rudder separated from the aircraft at altitude (cause unknown, but accident report discussed the possibility that a canopy hatch broke off and struck the vertical stabilizer).

The B-26 was not an aircraft for novices. Unfortunately, due to the need for training many pilots quickly for the war, a number of relatively inexperienced pilots got into the cockpit and the accident rate increased accordingly. This occurred at the same time as more experienced B-26 pilots of the 22nd, 38th and 42d Bombardment Groups were proving the merits of the bomber.

For a time in 1942, pilots in training believed that the B-26 could not be flown on one engine. This was disproved by a number of experienced pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle.

In 1942, Glenn Martin was called before the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program, or Truman Committee, which was investigating defense contracting abuses. Senator Harry Truman, the committee chairman, asked Martin why the B-26 had troubles. Martin responded that the wings were too short. Truman asked why the wings weren't changed. When Martin said the plans were too far along and besides, his company already had the contract, Truman's response was quick and to the point: In that case, the contract would be canceled. Martin said corrections to the wings would be made.[12] (By February 1943, the newest model, the B-26B-10, had an additional 6 feet (1.8 m) of wingspan, plus uprated engines, more armor and larger guns.)[13]

Indeed, the regularity of crashes by pilots training at MacDill Field—up to 15 in one 30-day period—led to the exaggerated catchphrase, "One a day in Tampa Bay."[14] Apart from accidents occurring over land, 13 Marauders ditched in Tampa Bay in the 14 months between the first one on 5 August 1942 to the final one on 8 October 1943.[14]

B-26 crews gave the aircraft the nickname "Widowmaker".[7] Other colorful nicknames included "Martin Murderer", "Flying Coffin", "B-Dash-Crash", "Flying Prostitute" (so-named because it was so fast and had "no visible means of support," referring to its small wings) and "Baltimore Whore" (a reference to the city where Martin was based).[15]

According to an article in the April 2009 edition of AOPA Pilot on Kermit Weeks' "Fantasy of Flight", the Marauder had a tendency to "hunt" in yaw. This instability is similar to "Dutch roll". This would make for a very uncomfortable ride, especially for the tail gunner.

The B-26 is stated by the 9th Air Force to have had the lowest combat loss rate of any U.S. aircraft used during the war. Nevertheless, it remained a challenging aircraft to fly and continued to be unpopular with some pilots throughout its military career. In 1944, in answer to many pilots complaining to the press and their relatives back home, the USAAF and Martin took the unusual step during war, of commissioning large articles to be placed in various popular publications, "educating" and defending the so-called flying/accident record of the B-26 against "slanders". One of the largest of these articles was in the May 1944 issue of Popular Mechanics.[9]

Operational history[edit]

Royal Air Force B-26 flying over Banja Luka during World War II.

The B-26 Marauder was used mostly in Europe but also saw action in the Mediterranean and the Pacific. In early combat the aircraft took heavy losses but was still one of the most successful medium-range bombers used by the U.S. Army Air Forces.[16] The B-26 was initially deployed on combat missions in the South West Pacific in the spring of 1942, but most of the B-26s subsequently assigned to operational theaters were sent to England and the Mediterranean area.

By the end of World War II, it had flown more than 110,000 sorties and had dropped 150,000 tons (136,078 tonnes) of bombs, and had been used in combat by British, Free French and South African forces in addition to U.S. units. In 1945, when B-26 production was halted, 5,266 had been built.[17]

Pacific Theatre[edit]

The B-26 began to equip the 22nd Bombardment Group at Langley Field, Virginia in February 1941, replacing the B-18 Bolo, with a further two groups, the 38th and 28th, beginning to equip with the B-26 by December 1941.[8][18] Immediately following the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor, the 22nd BG was deployed to the South West Pacific,[19][20] first by ship to Hawaii, then its air echelon flew the planes to Australia. The 22nd BG flew its first combat mission, an attack on Rabaul which required an intermediate stop at Port Moresby, New Guinea, on 5 April 1942.[18]

A second group, the 38th Bombardment Group, began receiving B-26s in November 1941 and began transition into them at Patterson Field, Ohio. There, the 38th continued the testing of the B-26, including its range and fuel efficiency. Immediately after the entry of the United States into World War II, plans were tentatively developed to send the 38th BG to the South West Pacific and to equip it with B-26Bs fitted with more auxiliary fuel tanks and provisions for carrying aerial torpedos.[18] Three 38th BG B-26Bs [21] were detached to Midway Island in the build-up to the Battle of Midway, and two of them, along with two B-26s detached from the 22nd BG, carried out torpedo attacks against the Japanese Fleet on 4 June 1942. Two were shot down and the other two were so badly damaged that they were written off after the mission. Their torpedoes failed to hit any Japanese ships, although they did shoot down one Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter, and killed two seamen aboard the aircraft carrier Akagi with machine gun fire.[18][22]

From approximately June 1942 the B-26 squadrons of the 38th BG were based in New Caledonia and Fiji. From New Caledonia, missions were flown against Japanese bases in the Solomon Islands. On one occasion, a B-26 was credited with shooting down a Kawanishi H6K flying boat. In 1943 it was decided that the B-26 would be phased out of operations in the South West Pacific Theatre in favor of the North American B-25 Mitchell. Nevertheless, the 19th Bombardment Squadron of the 22nd BG continued to fly missions in the B-26, and the B-26 flew its last combat mission in the theatre on 9 January 1944.[18]

Two more squadrons of torpedo armed B-26s equipped the 28th Composite Group and were used for anti-shipping operations in the Aleutian Islands Campaign, but there are no records of any successful torpedo attack by a USAAF B-26.[18]

Mediterranean Theatre[edit]

Three Bombardment Groups were allocated to support the Allied invasion of French North Africa in November 1942. They were initially used to carry out low-level attacks against heavily defended targets, receiving heavy losses with poor results, before switching to medium level attacks. By the end of the North Africa campaign, the three B-26 groups had flown 1,587 sorties, losing 80 aircraft. This was double the loss rate of the B-25, which also flew 70% more sorties with fewer aircraft.[23] Despite this, the B-26 continued in service with the Twelfth Air Force, supporting the Allied advance through Sicily, Italy and Southern France.[24][25] Air Marshall Slessor considered the 42nd Bombardment Group (Marauders) to be the "best day-bomber unit in the world."[26]

Northwest Europe[edit]

Martin B-26B-1-MA Marauder 41-17747 "Earthquake McGoon" of the 37th BS 17th BG with extensive flak damage over Europe, September 1943.

The B-26 entered service with the Eighth Air Force in England in early 1943, with the 322d Bombardment Group flying its first missions in May 1943. Missions were similar to those flown in North Africa with B-26s flying at low level and were unsuccessful. The second mission, an unescorted attack on a power station at IJmuiden, Netherlands resulted in the loss of the entire attacking force of 11 B-26s to anti-aircraft fire and Luftwaffe Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighters.[27] Following this disaster, the UK-based B-26 force was switched to medium altitude operations, and transferred to the Ninth Air Force, set up to support the planned Invasion of France.[27]

Bombing from medium altitudes of 10,000 to 15,000 feet (3,000 to 4,600 m) and with appropriate fighter escort, the Marauder proved far more successful, striking against a variety of targets, including bridges and V-1 launching sites in the build-up to D-Day, and moving to bases in France as they became available. The Marauder operating from medium altitude proved to be a highly accurate bomber, with the 9th Air Force rating it the most accurate bomber available in the final month of the war in Europe.[28] Loss rates were far lower than in the early, low-level days, with the B-26 stated by the 9th Air Force as having the lowest loss rate in the European Theatre of Operations at less than 0.5%.[8]

The B-26 flew its last combat missions against the German garrison at the Île d'Oléron on 1 May 1945, with the last units disbanding in early 1946.[29]

British Commonwealth[edit]

In 1942, a batch of 52 B-26A Marauders (designated Marauder I by the RAF) were offered to the United Kingdom under Lend-Lease. Like the earlier Martin Maryland and Baltimore bombers, these were sent to the Mediterranean, replacing the Bristol Blenheims of No. 14 Squadron in Egypt. No. 14 Squadron flew its first operational mission on 6 November 1942, being used for long range reconnaissance, mine-laying and anti-shipping strikes.[30] Unlike the USAAF, 14 Squadron made productive use of the equipment for carrying torpedoes, sinking several merchant ships with this weapon. The Marauder also proved useful in disrupting enemy air transport, shooting down considerable numbers of German and Italian transport aircraft flying between Italy and North Africa.[31]

In 1943, deliveries of 100 long-wingspan B-26C-30s (Marauder II), allowed two squadrons of the South African Air Force, 12 and 24 Squadron to be equipped, these being used for bombing missions over the Aegean, Crete and Italy. A further 350 B-26F and Gs were supplied in 1944, with two more South African Squadrons (24 and 30) joining No 12 and 24 in Italy to form an all-Marauder equipped wing, while one further SAAF squadron (25) and a new RAF Squadron (39 Squadron) re-equipped with Marauders as part of the Balkan Air Force supporting Tito's Partisans in Yugoslavia. A Marauder of 25 Squadron SAAF, lost on the unit's last mission of the Second World War on 4 May 1945, was the last Marauder to be lost in combat by any user.[32] The British and South African aircraft were quickly scrapped following the end of the war, the United States not wanting the return of the Lend-Lease aircraft.[30]

France[edit]

Following Operation Torch, the Free French Air Force re-equipped three bomber squadrons with Marauders for medium-bombing operations in Italy and the Allied invasion of southern France.[33] These B-26s replaced Lioré et Olivier LeO 451s and Douglas DB-7s.[34] Toward the end of the war, seven of the nine French Groupes de Bombardement used the Marauder, taking part in 270 missions with 4,884 aircraft sorties in combat.[34] Free French B-26 groups were disbanded in June 1945.[35] Replaced in squadron service by 1947, two lingered on as testbeds for the SNECMA Atar jet engine, one of these remaining in use until 1958.[33]

Variants[edit]

U.S. Army Air Forces B-26B bomber in flight.
The lone XB-26H, used for testing "bicycle" landing gear.
  • B-26—The first 201 planes were ordered based upon design alone. Prototypes were not distinguished with the usual "X" or "Y" designations. Two Pratt & Whitney R-2800-5 engines. The armament consisted of two .30 caliber and two .50 caliber machine guns.[36] (The last model was armed with nearly three times that number.) Approximate cost then: $80,226.80/aircraft. (201-built)
  • B-26A—Incorporated changes made on the production line to the B-26, including upgrading the two .30 caliber machine guns in the nose and tail to .50 caliber. A total of 52 B-26As were delivered to the Royal Air Force, which were used as the Marauder Mk I.[2] Approximate cost then: $102,659.33/aircraft (139-built)
  • B-26B—Model with further improvements on the B-26A, including revised tail gunner's glazing. Nineteen were delivered to the Royal Air Forces as the Marauder Mk.IA. Production blocks of the 1,883 aircraft built:[37]
    • AT-23A or TB-26B—208 B-26Bs converted into target tugs and gunnery trainers designated JM-1 by the Navy.
    • B-26B—Single tail gun replaced with twin gun; belly-mounted "tunnel gun" added. (81-built)[37]
    • B-26B-1—Improved B-26B. (225-built)[37]
    • B-26B-2—Pratt & Whitney R-2800-41 radials. (96-built)[37]
    • B-26B-3—Larger carburetor intakes; upgrade to R-2800-43 radials. (28-built)[37]
    • B-26B-4—Improved B-26B-3. (211-built)[37]
    • B-26B-10 through B-26B-55—Beginning with block 10, the wingspan was increased from 65 feet (20 m) to 71 feet (22 m), to improve handling problems during landing caused by a high wing load; flaps were added outboard of the engine nacelles for this purpose also. The vertical stabilizer height was increased from 19 feet 10 inches (6.05 m) to 21 feet 6 inches (6.55 m). The armament was increased from six to twelve .50 caliber machine guns; this was done in the forward section so that the B-26 could perform strafing missions. The tail gun was upgraded from manual to power operated. Armor was added to protect the pilot and copilot. (1,242-built)[38]
    • CB-26B—12 B-26Bs were converted into transport aircraft (all were delivered to the US Marine Corps for use in the Philippines).[39]
  • B-26C—Designation assigned to those B-26Bs built in Omaha, Nebraska instead of Baltimore, Maryland. Although nominally the B-26B-10 was the first variant to receive the longer wing, it was actually installed on B-26Cs before the B-26B-10, both being in production simultaneously. A total of 123 B-26Cs were used by the RAF and SAAF as the Marauder Mk II. Approximate cost then: $138,551.27/aircraft (1,210-built)
    • TB-26C—Originally designated AT-23B. Trainer modification of B-26C. (Approximately 300 modified)
  • XB-26D—Modified B-26 used to test hot air de-icing equipment, in which heat exchangers transferred heat from engine exhaust to air circulated to the leading and trailing edges of the wing and empennage surfaces.[40] This system, while promising, was not incorporated into any production aircraft made during World War II. (One converted)
  • B-26E—Modified B-26B constructed to test the effectiveness of moving the dorsal gun turret from the aft fuselage to just behind the cockpit.[41] The offensive and defensive abilities of the B-26E was tested against in combat simulations against normal aircraft. Although test showed that gains were made with the new arrangement, the gain was insignificant. After a cost analysis, it was concluded that the effort needed to convert production lines to the B-26E arrangement was not worth the effort. (one converted)
  • B-26F—Angle-of-incidence of wings increased by 3.5º; fixed .50 caliber machine gun in nose removed; tail turret and associated armour improved.[42] The first B-26F was produced in February 1944. One hundred of these were B-26F-1-MAs. Starting with 42-96231, a revised oil cooler was added, along with wing bottom panels redesigned for easier removal. A total of 200 of the 300 aircraft were B-26F-2s and F-6s, all of which were used by the RAF and SAAF as the Marauder Mk III. The F-2 had the Bell M-6 power turret replaced by an M-6A with a flexible canvas cover over the guns. The T-1 bombsight was installed instead of the M-series sight. British bomb fusing and radio equipment were provided. (300-built)
  • B-26G—B-26F with standardized interior equipment.[43] A total of 150 bombers were used by the RAF as the Marauder Mk III. (893-built)
    • TB-26G—B-26G converted for crew training. Most, possibly all, were delivered to the United States Navy as the JM-2. (57 converted)
  • XB-26H—Test aircraft for tandem landing gear, and nicknamed the "Middle River Stump Jumper" from its "bicycle" gear configuration, to see if it could be used on the Martin XB-48.[44] (One converted)
  • JM-1P—A small number of JM-1s were converted into photo-reconnaissance aircraft for the US Navy.[39]
Marauder I
British designation for 52 B-26As for the Royal Air Force.
Marauder IA
British designation for 19 B-26Bs for the Royal Air Force.
Maurader II
British designation for 123 B-26Cs for the Royal Air Force and South African Air Force.
Maurader III
British designation for 350 B-26F and B-26Gs for the Royal Air Force and South African Air Force.

With the exception of the B-26C, all models and variants of the B-26 were produced at Martin's Middle River, Maryland manufacturing plant. The B-26C was built at the Martin plant in Omaha, Nebraska[45]

Operators[edit]

WASPs on flightline at Laredo Army Air Field, Texas, 22 January 1944.
 France
 South Africa
 United Kingdom
 United States

Survivors[edit]

Martin B-26 Marauder on display at Le Bourget
Dinah Might at the Utah Beach Museum

France[edit]

B-26G

United States[edit]

Airworthy
B-26
  • 40-1464 - part of the Fantasy of Flight collection in Polk City, Florida.[49][50] This aircraft is reported to be maintained in flying condition, though it has not flown in several years. A B-26B that originally saw service as an aircrew training aircraft awaiting deployment in WWII after being delivered to the USAAF sometime in 1940. The aircraft made a forced landing in the Smith River, BC on January 15, 1942 while on a training mission, it remained at this location for nearly the next three decades. The Military Aircraft Restoration Corp. located the wreck in 1971, and after an extensive recovery effort between September and November of that year, the intact sections of the aircraft were transported to Chino, CA for possible restoration. From then on it went under a long term restoration at the MARC at Chino Airport. It was finally restored to airworthiness in 1991 and was registered by the FAA as N4297J in April 1991. It appeared at several local air shows and aviation events throughout California and the Midwestern U.S during the 1990s as one of just two airworthy B-26 Marauders worldwide. Sometime in 1998 the aircraft was purchased by aircraft collector Kermit Weeks and flew from Chino to Polk City, FL with several stops. That year its ownership was transferred to Fantasy of Flight, a local air museum owned by Kermit Weeks. In the late 1990s and early 2000s it made frequent public appearances throughout Florida and surrounding states. After Weeks acquired other important restorations, B-26 flights decreased. Its last confirmed flight was in 2004 during the MacDill Air Force Base air show. Since then it has remained in the display hangars of Fantasy of Flight available for public viewing regularly and occasionally being towed outside during special events at the museum. Although it is still a very popular attraction and one of the most iconic aircraft among Kermit Week's vast collection, plans to fly the aircraft have been obscure, on the Fantasy of Flight official website the aircraft is still reported to be in airworthy condition but if it will ever fly again is undetermined.
On display
B-26G
Under restoration
B-26
B-26B

Specifications (B-26G)[edit]

B-26 Marauder
Martin B-26G-11-MA Marauder, 43-34581, at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, marked as B-26B-50-MA, 42-95857, written off in accident on 19 April 1945.

Data from Quest for Performance[58] and Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II[59]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 7: (2 pilots, bombardier, navigator/radio operator, 3 gunners)
  • Length: 58 ft 3 in (17.8 m)
  • Wingspan: 71 ft 0 in (21.65 m)
  • Height: 21 ft 6 in (6.55 m)
  • Wing area: 658 ft2 (61.1 m2)
  • Empty weight: 24,000 lb (11,000 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 37,000 lb (17,000 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-2800-43 radial engines, 2,000-2,200 hp (1,491 kW) each

Performance

Armament

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Note: The 5,288 serial numbers published in Mendenhall's Deadly Duo effectively refutes the lesser count of the National Air and Space Museum.
  2. ^ Rare photos on pp. 61–62 show the original tail gun position for the B-26 Marauder 1A with the single .30 caliber replaced with a single .50 caliber, and tail gun position of the B-26B which was upgraded from one .50 caliber to two .50 caliber machine guns.[9]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Mendenhall, Charles. Deadly Duo. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press Publishers & Wholesalers, 1981. ISBN 0-933424-22-1.
  2. ^ a b "Fact sheet: Martin B-26A" National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 5 August 2010.
  3. ^ Ethell 1995, p. 242.
  4. ^ Ethell 1995, pp. 242–243.
  5. ^ Ethell 1995, p. 243.
  6. ^ Air International January 1988, p. 23.
  7. ^ a b Trent 2008, p. 647.
  8. ^ a b c d Air International January 1988, p. 25.
  9. ^ a b "They Said It Was Too 'Hot' To Fly." Popular Mechanics, May 1944.
  10. ^ Air International January 1988, pp. 23–25.
  11. ^ Mendenhall; lack of entries on Forms 5A
  12. ^ McCullough 2003, p. 319.
  13. ^ "Martin Aircraft Specifications: B-26 Marauder Types." The Glenn L. Martin Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 2 April 2011
  14. ^ a b Scutts 1997, p. 9.
  15. ^ Higham, Roy and Carol Williams, eds. Flying Combat Aircraft of USAAF–USAF (Vol. 1). Andrews AFB, MD: Air Force Historical Foundation, 1975. ISBN 0-8138-0325-X.
  16. ^ "Army Air Forces Aircraft: A Definitive Moment." Air Force Historical Studies Office. Retrieved: 5 October 2009.
  17. ^ "Martin B-26G Marauder." airforcehistory.hq.af.mil. Retrieved: 5 October 2009.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Air International February 1988, p. 75.
  19. ^ Donald 1995, p. 76.
  20. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1963, p. 335.
  21. ^ Letters from Maj. James F. Collins 1984-86
  22. ^ Parshall and Tulley 2005, pp. 151–153.
  23. ^ Air International February 1988, pp. 76–77.
  24. ^ Donald 1995, p. 177.
  25. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1963, p. 338.
  26. ^ Slessor 1957, p. 572.
  27. ^ a b Air International February 1988, p. 77.
  28. ^ Air International February 1988, pp. 78–79.
  29. ^ Air International February 1988, p. 79.
  30. ^ a b March 1998, p. 174.
  31. ^ Air International February 1988, p. 81.
  32. ^ Air International February 1988, p. 82.
  33. ^ a b Air International February 1988, pp. 82, 94.
  34. ^ a b Rickard, J. "Martin B-26 Marauder with Free French Air Force". historyofwar.org, 4 May 2009. Retrieved: 9 October 2009.
  35. ^ Johnson 2008, p. 84.
  36. ^ "Fact sheet: Martin B-26." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 7 January 2009.
  37. ^ a b c d e f "Fact sheet: Martin B-26B to B-26-B4". National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 5 August 2010.
  38. ^ "Fact sheet: Martin B-26B-10 to B-26B-55." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 5 August 2010.
  39. ^ a b Trent 2008, p. 648.
  40. ^ "Factsheets: Martin XB-26D." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 2 August 2011.
  41. ^ "B-26 cockpit." wpafb.af.mil. Retrieved: 5 October 2009.
  42. ^ "B-26F." wpafb.af.mil. Retrieved: 5 October 2009.
  43. ^ "B-26G." wpafb.af.mil. Retrieved: 5 October 2009.
  44. ^ "XB-26H." wpafb.af.mil. Retrieved: 5 October 2009.
  45. ^ Dean, Francis H. America's Hundred Thousand: U.S. Production Fighters of World War II. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer, 2000. ISBN 0-7643-0072-5.
  46. ^ "B-26 Marauder/44-68219." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 23 August 2010.
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External links[edit]