Martin Bormann

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Martin Bormann
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R14128A, Martin Bormann.jpg
Martin Bormann in 1934
Party Minister of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
In office
30 April – 2 May 1945
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Position abolished
Chief of the Parteikanzlei
In office
12 May 1941 – 2 May 1945
Preceded by Rudolf Hess (as Deputy Führer)
Succeeded by Position abolished
Personal Secretary to the Führer
In office
12 April 1943 – 30 April 1945
Personal Secretary to the Deputy Führer
In office
July 1933 – 12 May 1941
Reichsleiter
In office
October 1933 – 2 May 1945
Personal details
Born Martin Bormann
(1900-06-17)17 June 1900
Wegeleben, Prussia, Germany
Died 2 May 1945(1945-05-02) (aged 44) (Contested)
Nationality German
Political party National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)
Spouse(s) Gerda Buch
(married on 2 September 1929)
Children 10

Martin Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a prominent Nazi official. He became head of the Party Chancellery (Parteikanzlei) and private secretary to Adolf Hitler. He was almost always at his Führer's side. Hitler typically did not issue written orders, but gave them verbally at meetings or in phone conversations; he also had Bormann convey orders.[1] He gained Hitler's trust and derived immense power within the Third Reich by using his position to control the flow of information and access to Hitler.[2] Bormann earned many enemies, including Joseph Goebbels, Hermann Göring, Heinrich Himmler, Alfred Rosenberg, Robert Ley, Hans Frank, and Albert Speer.

Early life and family[edit]

Born in Wegeleben (now in Saxony-Anhalt) in the Kingdom of Prussia in the German Empire, Bormann was born to a Lutheran family, the son of Theodor Bormann (1862–1903), a post office employee, and his second wife, Antonie Bernhardine Mennong. He had two-half-siblings (Else and Walter Bormann) from his father's earlier marriage to Louise Grobler, who died in 1898. Antonie Bormann gave birth to three sons, one of whom died in infancy. Martin (born 1900) and Albert (born 1902) survived to adulthood.

Bormann dropped out of school to work on a farm in Mecklenburg. He served in an artillery regiment in the last days of World War I, but never saw action. He then became an estate manager in Mecklenburg, which brought him into contact with the Freikorps residing on the estate. He took part in their activities, mostly in assassinations and the intimidation of trade union organisers.[3][better reference needed]

On 17 March 1924,[4] Bormann was sentenced to a year in prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss in the murder of Walther Kadow.[5] Kadow was believed to have tipped off the French occupational authorities of the Ruhr District that fellow Freikorps member, Albert Leo Schlageter, was carrying out sabotage operations against French supply lines. Schlageter was arrested and executed in May 1923 and soon afterwards Höss and several others, including Bormann, took their revenge on Kadow.[5]

On 2 September 1929, Bormann married 19-year-old Gerda Buch, whose father, Major Walter Buch, served as a chairman of the Nazi Party Court. Bormann had recently met Hitler, who agreed to serve as a witness at their wedding. Gerda Bormann would give birth to 10 children; one died shortly after birth.

The children of Martin and Gerda Bormann were:

  • Adolf Martin Bormann (born 14 April 1930; called Krönzi; named after his godfather Adolf Hitler, died March 2013)
  • Ilse Bormann (born 9 July 1931; twin sister Ehrengard died after the birth; named after her godmother Ilse Hess, later called "Eike", died 1958)
  • Irmgard Bormann (born 25 July 1933)
  • Rudolf Gerhard Bormann (born 31 August 1934; named after his godfather Rudolf Hess)
  • Heinrich Hugo Bormann (born 13 June 1936; named after his godfather Heinrich Himmler)
  • Eva Ute Bormann (born 4 August 1938)
  • Gerda Bormann (born 23 October 1940)
  • Fred Hartmut Bormann (born 4 March 1942)
  • Volker Bormann (born 18 September 1943, died 1946)

Gerda Bormann suffered from cancer in her later years, and died of mercury poisoning on 23 March 1946, in Merano, Italy. All of Bormann's children survived the war. Most were cared for anonymously in foster homes. His eldest son, Martin, was Hitler's godson. Martin abandoned the Lutheran antecedents of his family and was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1953, but left the priesthood in the late 1960s. He married an ex-nun in 1971 and became a teacher of theology.

Rise through the Nazi Party[edit]

In 1927, Bormann joined the NSDAP. His NSDAP number was 60,508 and his (honorary) SS membership number was originally 278,267.[6] By special order of Himmler in 1938, Bormann was granted SS number 555 to reflect his Alter Kämpfer (Old Fighter) status.[7] He became the party's regional press officer and business manager in 1928.

Reich Leader and Head of the Party Chancellery[edit]

On 10 October 1933, Bormann became a Reich Leader of the NSDAP, and in November, a member of the Reichstag. From 1 July 1933 until 1941, Bormann served as the personal secretary for Rudolf Hess. Bormann commissioned the building of the Kehlsteinhaus (Eagle's Nest). The Kehlsteinhaus was formally presented to Hitler on 20 April 1938, after 13 months of expensive construction, and is commemorated on a plaque just above the entrance to the tunnel to the lift up to the Eagle's Nest. During this period, Bormann had also managed Hitler's finances through various schemes such as royalties collected on Hitler's book, his image on postage stamps, as well as setting up an "Adolf Hitler Endowment Fund of German Industry", which was really a thinly veiled extortion attempt on the behalf of Hitler to collect more money from German industrialists.[8]

Martin Bormann in 1939

In May 1941, the flight of Hess to Britain cleared the way for Bormann to become Head of the Party Chancellery (Parteikanzlei) that same month. Bormann proved to be a master of intricate political infighting. Due to his mastery of such infighting, along with his access and closeness to Hitler, he was able to constantly and effectively check and thus make enemies of Joseph Goebbels, Hermann Göring, Heinrich Himmler, Alfred Rosenberg, Robert Ley, Hans Frank, Albert Speer and a plethora of other high-ranking officers and officials; both public and private. The ruthless and continuous intriguing for power, influence, and favour from Hitler within the regime came to characterise the inner workings of the Third Reich.[2][8]

Bormann took charge of all of Hitler's paperwork, appointments and personal finances. Hitler came to have complete trust in Bormann and the view of reality he presented. During one meeting, Hitler was said to have screamed, "To win this war, I need Bormann!"[9] Some historians have suggested Bormann held so much power that, in some respects by 1945, he became Germany's "secret leader" during the war.[who?] A collection of transcripts edited by Bormann during the war appeared in print in 1952 and 1953 as Hitler's Table Talk 1941–1944, mostly a re-telling of Hitler's wartime dinner conversations.

Bormann's bureaucratic power and effective reach had broadened considerably by 1942. Later, faced with the imminent demise of the Third Reich, he systematically set about organising German corporate flight capital, and established off-shore holding companies and business interests in close coordination with the same Ruhr industrialists and German bankers who, although often not Nazis, had helped to facilitate Hitler's explosive rise to power 10 years before.[10]

Bormann (directly to Hitler's left) in Paris – June 1940

In February 1943, the German defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad produced a crisis in the regime. Bormann exploited the disaster at Stalingrad, and his daily access to Hitler, to persuade him to create a three-man junta representing the State, the Army and the Party, represented respectively by Hans Lammers, head of the Reich Chancellery, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht ("Armed Forces High Command", or OKW), and Bormann, who controlled the Party and access to the Führer. This Committee of Three would exercise dictatorial powers over the home front. Goebbels, Speer, Göring and Himmler all saw this proposal as a power grab by Bormann and a threat to their power, and combined to block it.

However, their alliance was shaky at best. This was mainly due to the fact that during this period Himmler was still cooperating with Bormann to gain more power at the expense of Göring and most of the traditional Reich administration. Göring's loss of power had resulted from an overindulgence in the trappings of power and his strained relations with Goebbels made it difficult for a unified coalition to be formed, despite the attempts of Speer and Göring's Luftwaffe deputy Field Marshal Erhard Milch, to reconcile the two Party comrades.

However, the result was that nothing was done—the Committee of Three declined into irrelevance due to the loss of power by Keitel and Lammers and the ascension of Bormann, and the situation continued to drift, with administrative chaos increasingly undermining the war effort. The ultimate responsibility for this lay with Hitler, as Goebbels well knew, referring in his diary to a "crisis of leadership," but Goebbels was too much under Hitler's spell ever to challenge his power.[11]

Bormann (behind and to Hitler's right) on the Old Bridge, Maribor – April 1941

Bormann was invariably the advocate of extremely harsh, radical measures when it came to the treatment of Jews, of the conquered eastern peoples or prisoners of war. He signed the decree of 9 October 1942 prescribing that "the permanent elimination of the Jews from the territories of Greater Germany can no longer be carried out by emigration but by the use of ruthless force in the special camps of the East." A further decree, signed by Bormann on 1 July 1943, gave Adolf Eichmann absolute powers over Jews, who now came under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Gestapo.[12]

Bormann's memos concerning the Slavs make it clear that he regarded them as a 'Sovietized mass' of sub-humans who had no claim to national independence. In a brutal memo of 19 August 1942, he wrote: "The Slavs are to work for us. In so far as we do not need them, they may die. Slav fertility is not desirable."[12]

At the Nuremberg Trials, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, the Reich Commissioner for the Netherlands, testified that he had called Bormann to confirm an order to deport the Dutch Jews to Auschwitz, and further testified that Bormann passed along Hitler's orders for the extermination of Jews during the Holocaust. A telephone conversation between Bormann and Himmler, who was his main antagonist in the struggle for power within the Nazi elite, was overheard by telephone operators during which Himmler reported to Bormann the extermination of 40,000 Jews in Poland. Himmler was sharply rebuked for using the word "exterminated" rather than the codeword "resettled," and Bormann ordered the apologetic Himmler never again to report on this by phone but through SS couriers.

Anti-Church campaign[edit]

The historian William Shirer wrote that "under the leadership of Rosenberg, Bormann and Himmler, who were backed by Hitler, the Nazi regime intended to destroy Christianity in Germany, if it could, and substitute the old paganism of the early tribal Germanic gods and the new paganism of the Nazi extremists."[13] To the new Nazi government, race policy and the 'Church Struggle' were among the most important ideological spheres.[14] Short term, and for political considerations, Hitler was prepared to restrain his anti-clericalism, seeing danger in strengthening the churches by persecution, but intended a show-down after the war.[15] Nevertheless, his inflammatory anti-church comments to colleagues gave men like Bormann the license needed to turn up the heat in the Church Struggle.[16] Bormann stated publicly in 1941, that "National Socialism and Christianity are irreconcilable".[17] He was the sharpest anti-cleric in the Nazi leadership and collected all the files of cases against the clergy that he could lay his hands on.[12]

When the Catholic Bishop of Munster, August von Galen made his series of 1941 sermon against Nazi euthanasia and the regime's violations of basic human rights,[18] Bormann called for Galen to be hanged - but Hitler and Goebbels urged a delay in retribution till war's end.[19] According to Albert Speer, as Hitler's private secretary, Bormann, relished recording any harsh pronouncements made by Hitler against the church: "there was hardly anything he wrote down more eagerly than deprecating comments on the church".[20] Speer wrote that Bormann was the driving force behind the regime's campaign against the churches, and that Hitler approved of Bormann's aims, but was more pragmatic and wanted to "postpone this problem to a more favourable time":[21]

"Once I have settled my other problem," [Hitler] occasionally declared, "I'll have my reckoning with the church. I'll have it reeling on the ropes", but Bormann did not want this reckoning postponed [...] he would take out a document from his pocket and begin reading passages from a defiant sermon or pastoral letter. Frequently Hitler would become so worked up... and vowed to punish the offending clergyman eventually... That he could not immediately retaliate raised him to a white heat...

— Extract from Inside the Third Reich, the memoir of Albert Speer

In his memoirs, Speer recalled that while drafting his plans for Hitler's "new Berlin", after he told Bormann that he had consulted with Protestant and Catholic authorities over the locations for churches: "Bormann curtly informed me that churches were not to receive building sites".[22] Bormann's view of Christianity was epitomized in a confidential memo to the Gauleiters in 1942 by stating that Nazism "was completely incompatible with Christianity".[23] Contrary to Hitler's tactical judgment, Bormann pushed the Kirchenkampf at the height of World War II.[23] Bormann reopened the fight against the Christian churches, further declaring in the confidential memo to the Gauleiters in 1942 that their power 'must absolutely and finally be broken.' Bormann saw their influence as a serious obstacle to totalitarian rule.[12]

Berlin[edit]

Bormann, his adjutant, SS-Standartenführer Wilhelm Zander, and his secretary, Else Krüger, were with Hitler in the Führer's shelter (Führerbunker) during the Battle of Berlin. The Führerbunker was located under the Reich Chancellery (Reichskanzlei) garden in the government district in the centre of Berlin. On 23 April, his brother Albert Bormann left the Berlin bunker complex by aircraft for the Obersalzberg. He and several others had been ordered by Hitler to leave Berlin.[24]

On 28 April, Bormann wired the following message to Großadmiral Karl Dönitz: "Situation very serious ... Those ordered to rescue the Führer are keeping silent ... Disloyalty seems to gain the upper hand everywhere ...Reichskanzlei a heap of rubble."

At 04:00 on 29 April 1945, Wilhelm Burgdorf, Joseph Goebbels, Hans Krebs, and Bormann witnessed and signed Hitler's last will and testament. Hitler dictated this document to his personal secretary, Traudl Junge. Bormann was Head of the Party Chancellery (Parteikanzlei) and was also the private secretary to Hitler. Shortly before signing the last will and testament, Hitler married Eva Braun in a civil ceremony.[25][26]

The Soviet forces continued to fight their way into the centre of Berlin. Adolf and Eva Hitler committed suicide during the afternoon of 30 April, Eva taking cyanide and Adolf Hitler shooting himself.[27][28] As per instructions, their bodies were taken out to the Reich Chancellery garden and burned. In accordance with Hitler's last will and testament, Joseph Goebbels, the Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, became the new "Head of Government" and Chancellor of Germany (Reichskanzler). Martin Bormann was named as Party Minister, thus officially confirming his position as de facto General Secretary of the Party.

At 03:15 on 1 May, Reichskanzler Goebbels and Bormann sent a radio message to Dönitz informing him of Hitler's death. In accordance with Hitler's last wishes, Dönitz was appointed as the new "President of Germany" (Reichspräsident). Goebbels and his wife committed suicide later that same day.

On 2 May, the Battle in Berlin ended when General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling, the commander of the Berlin Defence Area, unconditionally surrendered the city to General Vasily Chuikov, the commander of the Soviet 8th Guards Army.[29] It is agreed that, by this day, Bormann had left the Führerbunker. It has been reported that he left with Ludwig Stumpfegger and Artur Axmann as part of a group attempting to break out of the Soviet encirclement of the city.[30]

Death, rumours of survival and discovery of remains[edit]

17 October 1946 newsreel of Nuremberg Trials sentencing

Axmann's account of Bormann's death[edit]

As World War II came to a close, Bormann held out with Hitler in the Führerbunker in Berlin. On 30 April 1945, just before committing suicide, Hitler signed the order to allow a breakout. On 1 May, Bormann left the Führerbunker with SS doctor Ludwig Stumpfegger, Hitler Youth leader Artur Axmann and Hitler's pilot Hans Baur as part of one of the groups attempting to break out of the Soviet encirclement. At the Weidendammer Bridge, a Tiger tank spearheaded the first attempt to storm across the bridge, but it was destroyed. Bormann and Stumpfegger were "knocked over" when the tank was hit.[30] There followed two more attempts and on the third attempt, made around 1:00, Bormann in his group from the Reich Chancellery crossed the Spree.[30] Leaving the rest of their group, Bormann, Stumpfegger and Axmann walked along railway tracks to Lehrter station, where Axmann decided to go alone in the opposite direction of his two companions. When he encountered a Red Army patrol, Axmann doubled back and later insisted he had seen the bodies of Bormann and Stumpfegger near the railway switching yard with moonlight clearly illuminating their faces.[31] He did not check the bodies, so he did not know what killed them.[32]

Axmann, Werner Naumann, and their adjutants escaped Berlin. Axmann hid in the Bavarian Alps under the alias "Erich Siewert". He was arrested in December 1945 while organising an underground Nazi movement. Naumann found asylum in Argentina, where he became an editor of the neo-Nazi magazine Der Weg.[33]

Lieutenant General Konstantin Telegin, of the Soviet 5th Shock Army, remembered his men bringing Bormann's diary to him. "It was brought-in immediately after the fighting had ended. As far as I can remember, it was found on the road when they were cleaning up the battle area." Inspired by the diary and reports from prisoners, Telegin said, "Naturally, we sent a recon group to the bridge, who searched the site of the breakthrough attempt. All they found were a few civilians. Bormann was not found."[34]

Tried at Nuremberg in absentia[edit]

During the chaotic closing days of the war, there were contradictory reports as to Bormann's whereabouts. For example, Jakob Glas, Bormann's long-time chauffeur, insisted he saw Bormann in Munich weeks after 1 May 1945. The bodies were not found, and a global search followed including extensive efforts in South America. With no evidence sufficient to confirm Bormann's death, the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg tried Bormann in absentia in October 1946 and sentenced him to death. His court-appointed defence lawyer used the unusual and unsuccessful defence that the court could not convict Bormann because he was already dead.[35]

In 1965, a retired postal worker named Albert Krumnow stated that around 8 May 1945 the Soviets had ordered him and his colleagues to bury two bodies found near the railway bridge near Lehrter station. One was "a member of the Wehrmacht" and the other was "an SS doctor".[36] Krumnow's colleague Wagenpfohl is said to have found a paybook on the SS doctor's body identifying him as Dr. Ludwig Stumpfegger. He gave the paybook to his boss, postal chief Berndt, who turned it over to the Soviets. They in turn destroyed it. The Soviets allowed Berndt to notify Stumpfegger's wife. He wrote and told her that her husband's body was "... interred with the bodies of several other dead soldiers in the grounds of the Alpendorf in Berlin NW 40, Invalidenstrasse 63."[33]

In mid-1965, Berlin police excavated the alleged burial site looking for Bormann's remains but found nothing. Krumnow stated he could no longer remember exactly where he buried the bodies. Stern magazine editor Jochen von Lang, whose investigation inspired the dig, later wrote, "Even if bones had been discovered, it would have been exceedingly difficult to identify them as those of Martin Bormann." He offered the opinion that the only way to identify Bormann would be to find "glass particles" from a cyanide capsule in the jaw, which "would border almost on the miraculous."[36]

Two decades of unconfirmed sightings[edit]

Unconfirmed sightings of Bormann were reported globally for 20 years, particularly in Europe, Paraguay and elsewhere in South America. Some rumours claimed that Bormann had plastic surgery while on the run. At a 1967 press conference, Simon Wiesenthal asserted there was strong evidence that Bormann was alive and well in South America. Writer Ladislas Farago's widely-known 1974 book Aftermath: Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich argued that Bormann had survived the war and lived in Argentina. Farago's evidence, which drew heavily on official governmental documents, was compelling enough to persuade Dr. Robert M. W. Kempner (a lawyer at the Nuremberg Trials) to briefly re-open an active investigation in 1972, but Farago's claims were generally rejected by historians and critics. Allegations that Bormann and his organisation survived the war figure prominently in the work of David Emory. More recently, researchers Simon Dunstan and Gerrard Williams have also stated in their recent work that Bormann escaped to South America and spent the years prior to 1945 preparing the escape plan.

Allegations of being a Soviet spy[edit]

Reinhard Gehlen states in his memoirs his conviction that Bormann was a Soviet agent, and that at the time of his 'disappearance' in Berlin he in reality went over to his Soviet masters, who spirited him away to Moscow.[37] Gehlen bases his conclusion on a conversation with Admiral Canaris, and on his conviction that there was an enemy agent at work inside the German supreme command. He deduced the latter from the fact that the Soviets appeared to be able to obtain "rapid and detailed information on incidents and top-level decision-making on the German side". Of course, at the time he was writing up his memoirs (late 1960s to early 1970s), Gehlen was not aware of the breaking of the Enigma codes. Gehlen goes on to say that he discovered that Bormann was engaged in a Funkspiel with Moscow with Hitler's express approval. He claims that in the 1950s, when he headed first the Gehlen Organization and later the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), the West German Intelligence Service, he "was passed two separate reports from behind the Iron Curtain to the effect that Bormann had been a Soviet agent and had lived after the war in the Soviet Union under perfect cover as an adviser to the Moscow government. He has died in the meantime." (quotes from the 1971 ed.) After the collapse of the Soviet Union, based on KGB archival material from this period, it was claimed that the Soviets may indeed have had a spy in the bunker, code named Sasha; but Sasha was said to have been a Soviet, not Bormann.[38]

Discovery of remains and controversy surrounding identification[edit]

The hunt for Bormann lasted 26 years without success. International investigators and journalists searched for Bormann from Paraguay to Moscow, and from Norway to Egypt. Digs for his body in Paraguay in March 1964 and Berlin in July 1964 were unsuccessful. The German government offered a 100,000-mark reward in November 1964, but no one claimed it. The final straw came in July 1965, when the search of Albert Krumnow's Berlin location turned up nothing. The German government determined that Berlin was simply "too full of cemeteries and mass graves dating from the last days of the war."[33]

At its political end, the hunt for Bormann became a recurring memory of the Nazi regime and also an embarrassment that would not go away. On 13 December 1971, the West German government officially called an end to the search for Bormann. This pronouncement was met with protest from Jewish human rights groups and Nazi-hunters like Simon Wiesenthal, who insisted the search must continue until Bormann was found, alive or dead.[36]

Almost a year later, on 7 December 1972, Axmann's and Krumnow's accounts were bolstered when construction workers uncovered human remains near the Lehrter Bahnhof in West Berlin just 12 m (39 ft) from the spot where Krumnow claimed he had buried them. Dental records – reconstructed from memory in 1945 by Dr. Hugo Blaschke — identified the skeleton as Bormann's, and damage to the collarbone was consistent with injuries Bormann's sons reported he had sustained in a riding accident in 1939. The second skeleton was deemed to be Stumpfegger's, since it was of similar height to his last known proportions. Fragments of glass in the jawbones of both skeletons suggested that Bormann and Stumpfegger had committed suicide by biting cyanide capsules to avoid capture.[33] Soon afterward, in a press conference held by the West German government, Bormann was declared dead, a statement condemned by Britain's Daily Express as a whitewash perpetrated by the Brandt government. West German diplomatic officials were given official instruction that "if anyone is arrested on suspicion that he is Bormann, we will be dealing with an innocent man".[10]

The remains were conclusively identified as Bormann's in 1998 when German authorities ordered a genetic test on the skull. The test identified the skull as that of Bormann, using DNA from one of his relatives.[39] Bormann's remains were cremated, and the ashes scattered in the Baltic Sea by Bormann's son Martin Adolf Bormann, a Roman Catholic and retired priest.

Despite these DNA tests, there had been and continues to be controversy regarding the authenticity of the remains. For example, Hugh Thomas' 1995 book Doppelgängers claimed there were forensic inconsistencies suggesting Bormann had died after 1945. When exhumed, Bormann's skeleton was covered in flecks of red clay, whereas Berlin is a city based on yellow sand. This indicated to some that the body had been re-interred from somewhere with a clay-based soil, such as Paraguay, the Andes Mountains or even Russia (as the Gehlen theory surmised).[36]

Nazi-hunter Simon Wiesenthal refused to accept the government's declaration of Bormann's death, persisting in the belief that Bormann escaped Berlin with Axmann and headed south to the safety of the Alps. There he was rumoured to have been seen in both Bavaria and Austria. Bormann's aide Wilhelm Zander was captured in Passau, along the Austrian frontier, in December 1945. From the Alps, Wiesenthal believed, Bormann and others escaped to South America.[33]

Others, like English scholar and intelligence officer Hugh Trevor-Roper, decried the evidence upon which the German government based its searches for Bormann as the testimony of one man. He and others argued that the testimony of Artur Axmann, the only one who had said he saw Bormann dead, was falsified to protect Bormann, who was then on the run. Both men were unrepentant Nazis and shared the motivation to keep their cause alive. Axmann, they argued, probably escaped Berlin with Bormann. Russian author Lev Bezymenski wrote that Axmann's statements had "the apparent aim of convincing the world that the Reichsleiter had been killed." Bezymenski also wrote that Axmann's statements "give rise to a lot of doubt, especially when one considers that he changed his explanations at least three times in the postwar years."[34] Some also believed it implausible that the Soviets would identify the body of Stumpfegger and ignore Bormann's body, supposedly at Stumpfegger's side. Furthermore, it was said that Bormann was reinterred only to be "discovered" later by the German government.[36]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 377.
  2. ^ a b Evans 2005, p. 47.
  3. ^ "Axis History Forum". 
  4. ^ Ludwig Pflücker, Jochanan Shelliem (2006). IAls Gefängnisarzt im Nürnberger Prozess: das Tagebuch des Dr. Ludwig Pflücker. Indianopolis: Jonas. p. 135. ISBN 3-89445-374-5. 
  5. ^ a b Shira Schoenberg (1990's). "Martin Bormann". Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  6. ^ Biondi, Robert, ed., SS Officers List: SS-Standartenführer to SS-Oberstgruppenführer (As of 30 January 1942), Schiffer Military History Publishing, 2000, p. 7.
  7. ^ Miller, Michael, Leaders of the SS and German Police Vol. 1, R. James Bender Publishing, 2006, p. 146.
  8. ^ a b Speer, Albert, Inside the Third Reich, 1970, p. 87
  9. ^ "Martin Bormann-The Face of the Third Reich". Joachim C Fest. 
  10. ^ a b Manning, Paul. "Martin Bormann – Nazi in Exile". AnimalFarm. 
  11. ^ The story of the Committee of Three is given by Kershaw, Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis, New York: W. W. Norton & Co. 2000, pp. 569–577.
  12. ^ a b c d Martin Bormann – Jewish Virtual Library
  13. ^ William L. Shirer; The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich; Secker & Warburg; London; 1960; p240"
  14. ^ Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p.328
  15. ^ Alan Bullock; Hitler: A Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991 p. 219
  16. ^ Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; pp. 381-382
  17. ^ William L. Shirer; The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich; Secker & Warburg; London; 1960; p 240"
  18. ^ Theodore S. Hamerow; On the Road to the Wolf's Lair - German Resistance to Hitler; Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; 1997; ISBN 0-674-63680-5; pp. 289-290
  19. ^ Richard J. Evans; The Third Reich at War; Penguin Press; New York 2009, p. 99
  20. ^ Speer, Albert (1971). Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-684-82949-4.
  21. ^ Albert Speer; Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs; Translation by Richard & Clara Winston; McMillan Publishing Company; New York; 1970; p. 123
  22. ^ Albert Speer. (1997). Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 177.
  23. ^ a b "Martin Bormann". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 
  24. ^ Joachimsthaler, The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, the Evidence, the Truth , Brockhampton Press, 1999, p. 98.
  25. ^ Antony Beevor Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Viking-Penguin Books, 2002, p. 343. Records the marriage as taking place before Hitler had dictated the last will and testament.
  26. ^ Hitler's last days: "Hitler's will and marriage" on the website of MI5, using sources available to Trevor Roper (a World War II MI5 agent and historian/author of The Last Days of Hitler), records the marriage as taking place after Hitler had dictated the last will and testament.
  27. ^ Kershaw, Ian, Hitler: A Biography, W. W. Norton & Co. 2008, p. 955 "... Blood dripped from a bullet hole in his right temple ..."
  28. ^ Hitler's last days: "Preparations for death" website of MI5, "... 30 April ... During the afternoon Hitler shot himself ..."
  29. ^ Beevor, Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Viking-Penguin Books, 2002, p. 386.
  30. ^ a b c Beevor, Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Viking-Penguin Books, 2002, pp. 382–383.
  31. ^ Trevor-Roper, H.: "Last Days of Hitler.", p. 245. Pan Books, 1962.
  32. ^ Beevor, Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Viking-Penguin Books, 2002, p. 383.
  33. ^ a b c d e Charles Whiting The Hunt for Martin Bormann, Ballantine Books, 1973.
  34. ^ a b Bezymenski, Lev, In the Footsteps of Martin Bormann, Aurora Verlag, 1965.
  35. ^ Bormann case for the defence at Nurenberg trials
  36. ^ a b c d e Von Lang, Jochen, Secretary, Martin Bormann: The Man Who Manipulated Hitler, Ohio University Press, 1981.
  37. ^ Gehlen, Reinhard; trans. David Irving (1971). The Service – The Memoirs of General Reinhard Gehlen. New York: World Publishing. pp. 87–88. 
  38. ^ Petrova, Ada; Peter Watson (1995). The Death of Hitler. New York: W. W. Norton, Inc. p. 180.  Still, the Gehlen thesis was attributed some credibility by an anonymous reviewer for Time Magazine: Time 98 (12). 20 September 1971. pp. 54–55.  .
  39. ^ Karacs, Imre (4 May 1998). "DNA test closes book on mystery of Martin Bormann, ''Independent'', Bonn, 4 May 1998". London: Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 

References[edit]

  • Beevor, Antony (2002). Berlin: The Downfall 1945. Viking-Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-03041-4. 
  • Bormann, Martin Ludwig (1979). The Bormann Letters: The Private Correspondence between Martin Bormann and his wife from January 1943 to April 1945. University Microfilms International. ASIN: B00073D200. 
  • de Villemarest, Pierre (2005). Untouchable: Who Protected Bormann and Gestapo Muller After 1945 ... Aquilion limited. ISBN 1-904997-02-3. 
  • Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3. 
  • Farago, Ladislas (1974). Aftermath: Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21676-7. 
  • Joachimsthaler, Anton (1999) [1995]. The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, the Evidence, the Truth. Trans. Helmut Bögler. London: Brockhampton Press. ISBN 978-1-86019-902-8. 
  • Kershaw, Ian (2000). Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis. New York; London: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-32252-1. 
  • Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-06757-2. 
  • Kilzer, Louis (2000). Hitler's Traitor: Martin Bormann and the Defeat of the Reich. Presido Press. ISBN 0-89141-710-9. 
  • Manning, Paul (1981). Martin Bormann, Nazi in Exile. Lyle Stuart. ISBN 0-8184-0309-8. 
  • Stevenson, William (1975). The Bormann Brotherhood. Corgi. ISBN 0-552-09734-9. 
  • Thomas, Hugh (1996). Doppelgangers. Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-1-85702-377-0. 
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh (1962). The Last Days of Hitler. Pan Books, London. 
  • Wiesenthal Center Information Page
  • Yeadon, Glen (2007). The Nazi Hydra in America: Wall Street and the Rise of the Fourth Reich. Progressive Press. ISBN 978-0-930852-43-6. 

External links[edit]