Martin I (Archbishop of Gniezno)
|Archbishop of Gniezno|
|Church||Roman Catholic Church|
|See||Archdiocese of Gniezno|
|In office||1092/99–c. 1112/27|
|Predecessor||Heinrich von Wülzburg|
|Successor||James of Żnin|
|Died||unknown, after 1112|
Martin or Martin of Gniezno (died after 1112) was a medieval prelate based in Principality of Poland. He was Archbishop of Gniezno, head of the Polish church, from ca. 1092/99 until 1112/27. The preface of the Gesta principum Polonorum, the anonymous historical narrative whose author is usually referred to as Gallus Anonymous, begins with an address to Archbishop Martin.
Martin, as the chief churchman of the principality, was heavily involved in Polish politics in the era. He is thought to have mediated between Zbigniew and Bolesław III Wrymouth, and between these two princes and their father Władysław I Herman, in their disputes. Archbishop Martin probably favoured Zbigniew, this alliance leading to Martin's incarceration by Bolesław when the latter marched on his residence at Spycimierz c. 1106.
Heinrich von Wülzburg
|Archbishop of Gniezno
Jacob of Żnin
- It is not known how long Martin was archbishop of Gniezno and when he died; certainly he was already in the office in 1099 and was still alive ca. 1112. Jan Długosz, writing in 15th century gives the dates 1092 to 1118, but, since he did not provide any source, both dates are contested. Knoll & Schaer (eds.), Gesta Principum Polonorum, p. 2, n.3, indicates that he was archbishop from 1092 until ca. 1115. Kazimierz Śmigiel: Słownik biograficzny arcybiskupów gnieźnieńskich i prymasów Polski, Wydawn. WBP, 2002, p. 362 gives the dates from 1092 until as late as ca. 1124/27, because his successor James of Żnin in 1124 was still provost in Gniezno. Jan Powierski: Data konsekracji katedry gnieźnieńskiej (1 maja 1099) na tle sytuacji politycznej Polski, Rusi i krajów sąsiednich, Roczniki historyczne 1994, p. 96, suggests the date ca. 1097/99 as the beginning of his pontificate. Neither his direct predecessor nor direct successor is established with certainty. Archbishop Bogumił died in 1092, but probably he was succeeded at first by Heinrich von Wülzburg, mentioned only in Vitae of Otto of Bamberg without any exact date, see Jan Powierski: Data konsekracji katedry gnieźnieńskiej (1 maja 1099) na tle sytuacji politycznej Polski, Rusi i krajów sąsiednich, Roczniki historyczne 1994, p. 96; and Władysław Abraham, Organizacja Kościoła w Polsce do połowy wieku XII, Lwów 1890, p. 83. The next known archbishop after Martin, James of Żnin, assumed the post between 1124 and 1136, cf. Władysław Abraham, Organizacja Kościoła w Polsce do połowy wieku XII, Lwów 1890, p. 83; Wojciech Kętrzyński: Studyja nad dokumentami XII wieku, Roczniki Akademii Umiejętności, Lwów 1891, p. 311. However, it is possible that between Martin and James there was one other, unknown archbishop in the post (cf. Gerard Labuda: Szkice historyczne X-XI wieku: z dziejów organizacji Kościoła w Polsce we wczesnym średniowieczu, Wyd. Pozn. 2004, pp. 431 ff.).
- Knoll & Schaer (eds.), Gesta Principum Polonorum, pp. 2–3, n. 2
- Knoll & Schaer (eds.), Gesta Principum Polonorum, p. 148, n. 2
- Knoll & Schaer (eds.), Gesta Principum Polonorum, pp. 149, n. 2, 188–89, n. 6
- Knoll, Paul W.; Schaer, Frank, eds. (2003), Gesta Principum Polonorum / The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles, Central European Medieval Texts, General Editors János M. Bak, Urszula Borkowska, Giles Constable & Gábor Klaniczay, Volume 3, Budapest/ New York: Central European University Press, ISBN 963-9241-40-7